Secure Shell (简体中文)

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Secure Shell或者SSH是一个允许两台电脑之间通过安全的连接进行数据交换的网络协议。加密技术保证了数据的保密性和完整性。如果有必要的话,SSH采用公匙加密技术来验证远程主机和允许远程主机验证用户?(SSH uses public-key cryptography to authenticate the remote computer and allow the remote computer to authenticate the user, if necessary.)


SSH is typically used to log into a remote machine and execute commands, but it also supports tunneling, forwarding arbitrary TCP ports and X11 connections; it can transfer files using the associated SFTP or SCP protocols.

An SSH server, by default, listens on the standard TCP port 22. An ssh client program is typically used for establishing connections to an sshd daemon accepting remote connections. Both are commonly present on most modern operating systems, including Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris and OpenVMS. Proprietary, freeware and open source versions of various levels of complexity and completeness exist.


OpenSSH (OpenBSD Secure Shell) is a set of computer programs providing encrypted communication sessions over a computer network using the ssh protocol. It was created as an open source alternative to the proprietary Secure Shell software suite offered by SSH Communications Security. OpenSSH is developed as part of the OpenBSD project, which is led by Theo de Raadt.

OpenSSH is occasionally confused with the similarly-named OpenSSL; however, the projects have different purposes and are developed by different teams, the similar name is drawn only from similar goals.


# pacman -Sy openssh

设置Configuring the SSH服务器

To configure you must edit the configuration file:

$ su -c 'nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config'

You may want to change the default port from 22 to any higher port (see security through obscurity).

Even though the port ssh is running on, could be detected by using a port-scanner like nmap, changing it will reduce the number of log entries caused by automated authentication attempts.


The configuration file can be found at /etc/ssh/ssh_config and the basic version looks like this:

#	$OpenBSD: sshd_config,v 1.75 2007/03/19 01:01:29 djm Exp $

# This is the ssh client system-wide configuration file.  See
# ssh_config(5) for more information.  This file provides defaults for
# users, and the values can be changed in per-user configuration files
# or on the command line.

# Configuration data is parsed as follows:
#  1. command line options
#  2. user-specific file
#  3. system-wide file
# Any configuration value is only changed the first time it is set.
# Thus, host-specific definitions should be at the beginning of the
# configuration file, and defaults at the end.

# Site-wide defaults for various options

# Host *
#   ForwardAgent no
#   ForwardX11 no
#   RhostsRSAAuthentication no
#   RSAAuthentication yes
#   PasswordAuthentication yes
#   HostbasedAuthentication no
#   BatchMode no
#   CheckHostIP yes
#   AddressFamily any
#   ConnectTimeout 0
#   StrictHostKeyChecking ask
#   IdentityFile ~/.ssh/identity
#   IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa
#   IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_dsa
#   Port 22
#   Protocol 2,1
#   Cipher 3des
#   Ciphers aes128-cbc,3des-cbc,blowfish-cbc,cast128-cbc,arcfour,aes192-cbc,aes256-cbc
#   EscapeChar ~

It is recommended to change the Protocol line into this:

Protocol 2

That means that only Protocol 2 will be used, since Protocol 1 is considered somewhat insecure.

Of course there is also a configuration file for the SSH daemon. It's called /etc/ssh/sshd_config and looks like this:

#	$OpenBSD: sshd_config,v 1.75 2007/03/19 01:01:29 djm Exp $

# This is the sshd server system-wide configuration file.  See
# sshd_config(5) for more information.

# This sshd was compiled with PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin

# The strategy used for options in the default sshd_config shipped with
# OpenSSH is to specify options with their default value where
# possible, but leave them commented.  Uncommented options change a
# default value.

#Port 22
#Protocol 2,1
#ListenAddress ::

# HostKey for protocol version 1
#HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh''host''key
# HostKeys for protocol version 2
#HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh''host''rsa_key
#HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh''host''dsa_key

# Lifetime and size of ephemeral version 1 server key
#KeyRegenerationInterval 1h
#ServerKeyBits 768

# Logging
#obsoletes ~QuietMode and ~FascistLogging
#SyslogFacility AUTH
#LogLevel INFO

# Authentication:

#LoginGraceTime 2m
#PermitRootLogin yes
#StrictModes yes
#MaxAuthTries 6

#RSAAuthentication yes
#PubkeyAuthentication yes
#AuthorizedKeysFile     .ssh/authorized_keys

# For this to work you will also need host keys in /etc/ssh/ssh''known''hosts
#RhostsRSAAuthentication no
# similar for protocol version 2
#HostbasedAuthentication no
# Change to yes if you don't trust ~/.ssh/known_hosts for
# RhostsRSAAuthentication and HostbasedAuthentication
#IgnoreUserKnownHosts no
# Don't read the user's ~/.rhosts and ~/.shosts files
#IgnoreRhosts yes

# To disable tunneled clear text passwords, change to no here!
#PasswordAuthentication yes
#PermitEmptyPasswords no

# Change to no to disable s/key passwords
#ChallengeResponseAuthentication yes

# Kerberos options
#KerberosAuthentication no
#KerberosOrLocalPasswd yes
#KerberosTicketCleanup yes
#KerberosGetAFSToken no

# GSSAPI options
#GSSAPIAuthentication no
#GSSAPICleanupCredentials yes

# Set this to 'yes' to enable PAM authentication, account processing,
# and session processing. If this is enabled, PAM authentication will
# be allowed through the ~ChallengeResponseAuthentication mechanism.
# Depending on your PAM configuration, this may bypass the setting of
# PasswordAuthentication, ~PermitEmptyPasswords, and
# "PermitRootLogin without-password". If you just want the PAM account and
# session checks to run without PAM authentication, then enable this but set
# ChallengeResponseAuthentication=no
#UsePAM no

#AllowTcpForwarding yes
#GatewayPorts no
#X11Forwarding no
#X11DisplayOffset 10
#X11UseLocalhost yes
#PrintMotd yes
#PrintLastLog yes
#TCPKeepAlive yes
#UseLogin no
#UsePrivilegeSeparation yes
#PermitUserEnvironment no
#Compression yes
#ClientAliveInterval 0
#ClientAliveCountMax 3
#UseDNS yes
#PidFile /var/run/
#MaxStartups 10

# no default banner path
#Banner /some/path

# override default of no subsystems
Subsystem       sftp    /usr/lib/ssh/sftp-server

To allow access only for some users add this line:

AllowUsers    user1 user2

You might want to change some lines so that they look as following:

Protocol 2
LoginGraceTime 120
PermitRootLogin no # (put yes here if you want root login)

You could also uncomment the BANNER option and edit /etc/issue for a nice welcome message.


Template:Box Note


# 让每个人都能连接到你
sshd: ALL

# 或者限制只能特定的ip能够

# 或者限制ip段

# 或者限制为IP匹配
sshd: 192.168.1.




$ su -c '/etc/rc.d/sshd restart'


Just add sshd to the "DAEMONS" section of your /etc/rc.conf:

DAEMONS=(... ... sshd ... ...)

To start/restart/stop the daemon, use the following:

# /etc/rc.d/sshd {start|stop|restart}


To connect to a server, run:

$ ssh -p port user@server-address

Tips and Tricks

Encrypted Socks Tunnel

This is highly useful for laptop users connected to various unsafe wireless connections. The only thing you need is an SSH server running at a somewhat secure location, like your home or at work. It might be useful to use a dynamic DNS service like DynDNS so you don't have to remember your IP-address.


You only have to execute this single command in your favorite terminal to start the connection:

$ ssh -ND 4711 user@host

where "user" is your username at the SSH server running at the "host". It will ask for your password, and then you're connected! The "N" flag disables the interactive prompt, and the "D" flag specifies the local port on wich to listen on (you can choose any port number if you want).

One way to make this easier is to put an alias line in your ~/.bashrc file as following:

alias sshtunnel="ssh -ND 4711 -v user@host"

It's nice to add the verbose "-v" flag, because then you can verify that it's actually connected from that output. Now you just have to execute the "sshtunnel" command :)


The above step is completely useless if you don't configure your web browser (or other programs) to use this newly created socks tunnel.

  • For Firefox: Edit -> Preferences -> Advanced -> Network -> Connection -> Setting:
Check the "Manual proxy configuration" radio button, and enter "localhost" in the "SOCKS host" text field, and then enter your port number in the next text field (I used 4711 above).
Make sure you select SOCKS4 as the protocol to use. This procedure will not work for SOCKS5.

Enjoy your secure tunnel!

X11 Forwarding

To run graphical programs through a SSH connection you can enable X11 forwarding. An option needs to be set in the configuration files on the server and client.

Install xorg-xauth on the server:

# pacman -Sy xorg-xauth
  • Enable the X11Forwarding option in sshd_config on the server.
  • Enable the ForwardX11 option in ssh_config on the client.


Install sshfs

# pacman -Sy sshfs

Add the user that we want to give the permission to mount SSH folders to the fuse group

# gpasswd -a USER fuse

Load the fuse module (in /etc/rc.conf for example)

And then, after logging in, we can try to mount a remote folder using sshfs:

# mkdir ~/remote_folder
# sshfs USER@remote_server:/tmp ~/remote_folder

The command above will cause the folder /tmp on the remote server to be mounted as ~/remote_folder on the local machine. Copying any file to this folder will result in transparent copying over the network using SCP. Same concerns direct file editing, creating or removing.

When we’re done working with the remote filesystem, we can unmount the remote folder by issuing:

# fusermount -u ~/remote_folder

If we work on this folder on a daily basis, it is wise to add it to the /etc/fstab table. This way is can be automatically mounted upon system boot or mounted manually (if noauto option is chosen) without the need to specify the remote location each time. Here is a sample entry in the table:

sshfs#USER@remote_server:/tmp /full/path/to/directory fuse    defaults,auto    0 0