Difference between revisions of "Secure Shell (Português)"

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(Translation to pt_BR)
Line 14: Line 14:
 
== Instalando o OpenSSH ==
 
== Instalando o OpenSSH ==
 
  # pacman -S openssh
 
  # pacman -S openssh
 +
 +
== Configurando o SSH ==
 +
===Cliente===
 +
O arquivo de configuração do cliente SSH pode ser encontrado e editado em {{Filename|/etc/ssh/ssh_config}}.
 +
 +
Um exemplo de configuração:
 +
 +
{{File|name=/etc/ssh/ssh_config|content=
 +
#      $OpenBSD: ssh_config,v 1.25 2009/02/17 01:28:32 djm Exp $
 +
 +
# This is the ssh client system-wide configuration file.  See
 +
# ssh_config(5) for more information.  This file provides defaults for
 +
# users, and the values can be changed in per-user configuration files
 +
# or on the command line.
 +
 +
# Configuration data is parsed as follows:
 +
#  1. command line options
 +
#  2. user-specific file
 +
#  3. system-wide file
 +
# Any configuration value is only changed the first time it is set.
 +
# Thus, host-specific definitions should be at the beginning of the
 +
# configuration file, and defaults at the end.
 +
 +
# Site-wide defaults for some commonly used options.  For a comprehensive
 +
# list of available options, their meanings and defaults, please see the
 +
# ssh_config(5) man page.
 +
 +
Host *
 +
#  ForwardAgent no
 +
#  ForwardX11 no
 +
#  RhostsRSAAuthentication no
 +
#  RSAAuthentication yes
 +
#  PasswordAuthentication yes
 +
#  HostbasedAuthentication no
 +
#  GSSAPIAuthentication no
 +
#  GSSAPIDelegateCredentials no
 +
#  BatchMode no
 +
#  CheckHostIP yes
 +
#  AddressFamily any
 +
#  ConnectTimeout 0
 +
#  StrictHostKeyChecking ask
 +
#  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/identity
 +
#  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa
 +
#  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_dsa
 +
#  Port 22
 +
#  Protocol 2,1
 +
#  Cipher 3des
 +
#  Ciphers aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,arcfour256,arcfour128,aes128-cbc,3des-cbc
 +
#  MACs hmac-md5,hmac-sha1,umac-64@openssh.com,hmac-ripemd160
 +
#  EscapeChar ~
 +
#  Tunnel no
 +
#  TunnelDevice any:any
 +
#  PermitLocalCommand no
 +
#  VisualHostKey no
 +
HashKnownHosts yes
 +
StrictHostKeyChecking ask}}
 +
 +
It is recommended to change the Protocol line into this:
 +
Protocol 2
 +
 +
That means that only Protocol 2 will be used, since Protocol 1 is considered somewhat insecure.
 +
 +
===Daemon===
 +
The SSH daemon configuration file can be found and edited in {{Filename|/etc/ssh/ssh'''d'''_config}}.
 +
 +
An example configuration:
 +
 +
{{File|name=/etc/ssh/sshd_config|content=
 +
 +
# $OpenBSD: sshd_config,v 1.75 2007/03/19 01:01:29 djm Exp $
 +
 +
# This is the sshd server system-wide configuration file.  See
 +
# sshd_config(5) for more information.
 +
 +
# This sshd was compiled with PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin
 +
 +
# The strategy used for options in the default sshd_config shipped with
 +
# OpenSSH is to specify options with their default value where
 +
# possible, but leave them commented.  Uncommented options change a
 +
# default value.
 +
 +
#Port 22
 +
#Protocol 2,1
 +
ListenAddress 0.0.0.0
 +
#ListenAddress ::
 +
 +
# HostKey for protocol version 1
 +
#HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh''host''key
 +
# HostKeys for protocol version 2
 +
#HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh''host''rsa_key
 +
#HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh''host''dsa_key
 +
 +
# Lifetime and size of ephemeral version 1 server key
 +
#KeyRegenerationInterval 1h
 +
#ServerKeyBits 768
 +
 +
# Logging
 +
#obsoletes ~QuietMode and ~FascistLogging
 +
#SyslogFacility AUTH
 +
#LogLevel INFO
 +
 +
# Authentication:
 +
 +
#LoginGraceTime 2m
 +
#PermitRootLogin yes
 +
#StrictModes yes
 +
#MaxAuthTries 6
 +
 +
#RSAAuthentication yes
 +
#PubkeyAuthentication yes
 +
#AuthorizedKeysFile    .ssh/authorized_keys
 +
 +
# For this to work you will also need host keys in /etc/ssh/ssh''known''hosts
 +
#RhostsRSAAuthentication no
 +
# similar for protocol version 2
 +
#HostbasedAuthentication no
 +
# Change to yes if you don't trust ~/.ssh/known_hosts for
 +
# RhostsRSAAuthentication and HostbasedAuthentication
 +
#IgnoreUserKnownHosts no
 +
# Don't read the user's ~/.rhosts and ~/.shosts files
 +
#IgnoreRhosts yes
 +
 +
# To disable tunneled clear text passwords, change to no here!
 +
#PasswordAuthentication yes
 +
#PermitEmptyPasswords no
 +
 +
# Change to no to disable s/key passwords
 +
#ChallengeResponseAuthentication yes
 +
 +
# Kerberos options
 +
#KerberosAuthentication no
 +
#KerberosOrLocalPasswd yes
 +
#KerberosTicketCleanup yes
 +
#KerberosGetAFSToken no
 +
 +
# GSSAPI options
 +
#GSSAPIAuthentication no
 +
#GSSAPICleanupCredentials yes
 +
 +
# Set this to 'yes' to enable PAM authentication, account processing,
 +
# and session processing. If this is enabled, PAM authentication will
 +
# be allowed through the ~ChallengeResponseAuthentication mechanism.
 +
# Depending on your PAM configuration, this may bypass the setting of
 +
# PasswordAuthentication, ~PermitEmptyPasswords, and
 +
# "PermitRootLogin without-password". If you just want the PAM account and
 +
# session checks to run without PAM authentication, then enable this but set
 +
# ChallengeResponseAuthentication=no
 +
#UsePAM no
 +
 +
#AllowTcpForwarding yes
 +
#GatewayPorts no
 +
#X11Forwarding no
 +
#X11DisplayOffset 10
 +
#X11UseLocalhost yes
 +
#PrintMotd yes
 +
#PrintLastLog yes
 +
#TCPKeepAlive yes
 +
#UseLogin no
 +
#UsePrivilegeSeparation yes
 +
#PermitUserEnvironment no
 +
#Compression yes
 +
#ClientAliveInterval 0
 +
#ClientAliveCountMax 3
 +
#UseDNS yes
 +
#PidFile /var/run/sshd.pid
 +
#MaxStartups 10
 +
 +
# no default banner path
 +
#Banner /some/path
 +
 +
# override default of no subsystems
 +
Subsystem      sftp    /usr/lib/ssh/sftp-server}}
 +
 +
 +
To allow access only for some users add this line:
 +
AllowUsers    user1 user2

Revision as of 18:38, 15 March 2011

Secure Shell ou SSH é um protocolo de internet que permite a troca de informações por meio de um canal seguro entre dois computadores. A encriptação proporciona sigilo e integridade da informação. SSH usa criptografia de chave-publica para autenticar no computador remoto e permitir que o computador remoto autentique o usuário, se necessário.

SSH é tipicamente utilizado para logar em um computador remoto e executar comandos, mas ele também pode ser usado para tunneling. Tranferencia de arquivos pode ser feita usando os protocolos SFTP ou SCP.

Um servidor de SSH, por padrão, roda na porta 22. Um cliente SSH geralmente é usado para estabelecer conexões com um servidor de sshd configurado para aceitar conexões remotas. Ambos estão presentes na maior parte dos sistemas operacionais modernos, incluindo GNU/Linux, MacOS X, Solaris e OpenVMS. Existem versões pagas, grátis e de código aberto.

OpenSSH

O OpenSSH (OpenBSD Secure Shell) é um conjunto de programas de computador que provê sessões de comunicação criptografada sobre uma rede de computadores utilizando o protocolo ssh. Ele foi criado como alternativa de código aberto à suite de aplicativos proprietários de Shell Seguro ( do inglês: Secure Shell ) oferecida pela SSH Communications Security. o OpenSSH é desenvolvido como parte do projeto OpenBSD, o qual é liderado por Theo de Raadt.

O OpenSSH é ocasionalmente confundido com o OpenSSL devido aos nomes parecidos; embora os projetos tenham propósitos diferentes e sejam desenvolvidos por times diferentes, os nomes similares surgiram de objetivos similares.

Instalando o OpenSSH

# pacman -S openssh

Configurando o SSH

Cliente

O arquivo de configuração do cliente SSH pode ser encontrado e editado em Template:Filename.

Um exemplo de configuração:

Template:File

It is recommended to change the Protocol line into this:

Protocol 2

That means that only Protocol 2 will be used, since Protocol 1 is considered somewhat insecure.

Daemon

The SSH daemon configuration file can be found and edited in Template:Filename.

An example configuration:

Template:File


To allow access only for some users add this line:

AllowUsers    user1 user2