Simple stateful firewall
This page explains how to set up a stateful firewall using iptables. It also explains what the rules mean and why they are needed. For simplicity, it is split into two major sections. The first section deals with a firewall for a single machine, the second sets up a NAT gateway in addition to the firewall from the first section.
- 1 Prerequisites
- 2 Firewall for a single machine
- 2.1 Creating necessary chains
- 2.2 The FORWARD chain
- 2.3 The OUTPUT chain
- 2.4 The INPUT chain
- 2.5 The OPEN chains
- 2.6 Protection against spoofing attacks
- 2.7 "Hide" your computer
- 2.8 Protection against other attacks
- 2.9 Saving the rules
- 3 Setting up a NAT gateway
- 4 See Also
First, install the userland utilities:
# pacman -S iptables
This HOWTO assumes that there are currently no iptables rules set. To check this, try the command
# iptables -nvL Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes) pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes) pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 0K packets, 0 bytes) pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination
If the output looks like the above (except the packet counters), there are no rules set and you are good to go. If not, reset the tables like this:
# iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT # iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT # iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT # iptables -F # iptables -X
Firewall for a single machine
Creating necessary chains
For this basic setup, we will create two user-defined chains that we will use to open up ports in the firewall.
# iptables -N TCP # iptables -N UDP
The FORWARD chain
If you want to set up your machine as a NAT gateway, please look at the second section of this HOWTO. For a single machine, however, we simply set the policy of the FORWARD chain to DROP and move on:
# iptables -P FORWARD DROP
The OUTPUT chain
We have no intention of filtering any outgoing traffic, as this would make the setup much more complicated and would require some extra thought. In this simple case, we set the OUTPUT policy to ACCEPT.
# iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
The INPUT chain
First, we set the default policy for the INPUT chain to DROP in case something somehow slips by our rules. Dropping all traffic and specifying what is allowed is the best way to make a secure firewall.
# iptables -P INPUT DROP
Every packet that is received by any network interface will pass the INPUT chain first. In this chain we make sure that only the packets that we want are accepted.
The first rule will accept all traffic from the "loopback" (lo) interface, which is necessary for many applications and services.
# iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
The second rule will drop all traffic with an "INVALID" state match. Traffic can fall into four "state" categories: NEW, ESTABLISHED, RELATED or INVALID and this is what makes this a "stateful" firewall rather than a less secure "stateless" one. States are tracked using the "conntrack" kernel module which is loaded automatically by iptables.
# iptables -A INPUT -m state --state INVALID -j DROP
The third rule will allow traffic that belongs to established connections, or new valid traffic that is related to these connections such as ICMP errors, or echo replies (the packets a host returns when pinged). ICMP stands for Internet Control Message Protocol. Some ICMP messages are very important and help to manage congestion and MTU, and are accepted by this rule.
# iptables -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
The next rule will accept all new incoming ICMP echo requests, also known as pings. Only the first packet will count as NEW, the rest will be handled by the RELATED,ESTABLISHED rule. Since the computer is not a router, no other ICMP traffic with state NEW should needs to be allowed.
# iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type 8 -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT
Now we append the OPEN chains to INPUT chain to handle all new incoming connections. Once a connection is accepted by the OPEN chains, it is handled by the RELATED/ESTABLISHED traffic rule. The OPEN chains will either accept new incoming connections, or politely reject them. New TCP connections must be started with SYN packets.
# iptables -A INPUT -p udp -m state --state NEW -j UDP # iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --syn -m state --state NEW -j TCP
We reject TCP connections with TCP RST packets and UDP streams with ICMP port unreachable messages if the ports are not opened. This imitates default linux behavior (RFC compliant) and it allows the sender to quickly close the connection and clean up.
# iptables -A INPUT -p udp -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-port-unreach # iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -j REJECT --reject-with tcp-rst
For other protocols, we add a final rule to the INPUT chain to reject all remaining incoming traffic with icmp protocol unreachable messages. This imitates Linux's default behavior.
# iptables -A INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-proto-unreach
The OPEN chains
The OPEN chains contain rules for accepting new incoming TCP connections and UDP streams to specific ports.
Opening ports to incoming connections
To accept incoming TCP connections on port 80:
# iptables -A TCP -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
To accept incoming UDP streams on port 53:
# iptables -A UDP -p udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
See man iptables for more advanced rules, like matching multiple ports.
knockd is a port knocking daemon that can provide an added layer of security to your network. The knockd wiki provides three example port knocking configurations. These configs can be easily altered to intergrate properly with firewall described here. You should simply substitue the INPUT chain specification, with the custom open chain used in the firewall.
[options] logfile = /var/log/knockd.log [opencloseSSH] sequence = 2222:udp,3333:tcp,4444:udp seq_timeout = 15 tcpflags = syn,ack start_command = /usr/sbin/iptables -A TCP -s %IP% -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT cmd_timeout = 10 stop_command = /usr/sbin/iptables -D TCP -s %IP% -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
It is wise to randomly select the ports that you use for the knock sequence. Random.org can help you generate a selection of ports between 1 and 65535. To check that you haven't inadvertantly selected commonly used ports, use this port database, and/or your /etc/services file.
Protection against spoofing attacks
Blocking reserved local addresses incoming from the internet or local network:
# iptables -I INPUT -i eth0 -s 127.0.0.0/8 -j DROP
Alternatively, you can also add the following line to your /etc/sysctl.conf to enable source address verification which is built into Linux kernel itself. The verification by the kernel will handle spoofing better than individual iptables rules for each case.
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1
"Hide" your computer
If you are running a desktop machine, it might be a good idea to block some incoming requests.
Block Ping Request
A 'Ping' request is an ICMP packet sent to the destination address to ensure connectivity between the devices. If your network works well, you can safely block all ping requests. It is important to note that this doesn't actually hide your computer - any packet sent to you is rejected, so you will still show up in a simple nmap "ping scan" of an IP range. However, it will make you less easily detected.
To block echo requests, add the following line to your /etc/sysctl.conf file:
net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_all = 1
Portscans are used by attackers to identify open ports on your computer. This allows them to identify and fingerprint your running services and possibly launch exploits against them.
The INVALID state rule will take care of every type of port scan except UDP, ACK and SYN scans (-sU, -sA and -sS in nmap respectively).
ACK scans are not used to identify open ports, but to identify ports filtered by a firewall. Due to the SYN check for all TCP connections with the state NEW, every single packet sent by an ACK scan will be correctly rejected by a TCP RST packet. Some firewalls drop these packets instead, and this allows an attacker to map out the firewall rules.
The recent module can be used to trick the remaining two types of port scans. The recent module is used to add hosts to a "recent" list which can be used to fingerprint and stop certain types of attacks. Current recent lists can be viewed in /proc/net/ipt_recent/.
In a SYN scan, the port scanner sends SYN packet to every port. Closed ports return a TCP RST packet, or get dropped by a strict firewall. Open ports return a SYN ACK packet regardless of the presence of a firewall.
The recent module can be used to keep track of hosts with rejected connection attempts and return a TCP RST for any SYN packet they send to open ports as if the port was closed. If an open port is the first to be scanned, a SYN ACK will still be returned, so running applications such as ssh on non-standard ports is required for this to work consistently.
First, insert a rule at the top of the TCP chain. This rule responds with a TCP RST to any host that got onto the TCP-PORTSCAN list in the past twenty seconds. The --update switch causes the recent list to be updated, meaning the 20 second counter is reset.
# iptables -I OPEN-TCP -p tcp -m recent --update --seconds 60 --name TCP-PORTSCAN -j REJECT --reject-with tcp-rst
Next, the rule for rejecting TCP packets need to be modified to add hosts with rejected packets to the TCP-PORTSCAN list.
# iptables -D INPUT -p tcp -j REJECT --reject-with tcp-rst # iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m recent --set --name TCP-PORTSCAN -j REJECT --reject-with tcp-rst
UDP port scans are similar to TCP SYN scans except that UDP is a "connectionless" protocol. There are no handshakes or acknowledgements of a successful connection. Instead, the scanner sends UDP packets to each UDP port. Closed ports should return ICMP port unreachable messages, and open ports do not return a response. Since UDP is not a "reliable" protocol, the scanner has no way of knowing if packets were lost, and has to do multiple checks for each port that does not return a response.
The linux kernel sends out ICMP port unreachable messages very slowly, so a full UDP scan against a linux machine would take over 10 hours. However, common ports could still be identified, so applying the same countermeasures against UDP scans as SYN scans is a good idea.
First, add a rule to reject packets from hosts on the UDP-PORTSCAN list to the top of the OPEN-UDP chain.
# iptables -I OPEN-UDP -p udp -m recent --update --seconds 60 --name UDP-PORTSCAN -j REJECT --reject-with port-unreach
Next, modify the reject packets rule for UDP:
# iptables -D INPUT -p udp -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-port-unreach # iptables -A INPUT -p udp -m recent --set --name UDP-PORTSCAN -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-port-unreach
Protection against other attacks
See the TCP/IP stack hardening guide for relevant kernel parameters.
SSH bruteforce attacks
Saving the rules
The ruleset is now finished and should be saved to your hard drive so that it can be loaded on every boot.
The configuration file at /etc/conf.d/iptables points to the location where the rule configuration will be saved.
IPTABLES=/usr/sbin/iptables IP6TABLES=/usr/sbin/ip6tables IPTABLES_CONF=/etc/iptables/iptables.rules IP6TABLES_CONF=/etc/iptables/ip6tables.rules IPTABLES_FORWARD=0 # enable IP forwarding?
Save the rules with the command:
# /etc/rc.d/iptables save
and make sure your rules are loaded on boot by editing /etc/rc.conf, iptables should be added preferably before 'network'.
DAEMONS=(... iptables network ...)
Setting up a NAT gateway
This section of the HOWTO deals with NAT gateways. It is assumed that you already read the first part of the HOWTO and set up the INPUT, OUTPUT, OPEN and interfaces chains like described above. All rules so far have been created in the filter table. In this section, we will also have to use the nat table.
Setting up the filter table
Creating necessary chains
In our setup, we will use another two chains in the filter table, the fw-interfaces and fw-open chains. Create them with the commands
# iptables -N fw-interfaces # iptables -N fw-open
Setting up the FORWARD chain
Setting up the FORWARD chain is similar to the INPUT chain in the first section.
Some networks and servers block ICMP messages and are preventing path MTU detection. If your outgoing interface's MTU is lower than the MTU on the local network (like with PPPoE connections), this may prevent you from communicating with such servers. The first rule works around this problem, at least for TCP connections:
# iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp --syn -j TCPMSS --clamp-mss-to-pmtu
Now we set up a rule with the state match, identical to the one in the INPUT chain:
# iptables -A FORWARD -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
The next step is to enable forwarding for trusted interfaces and to make all packets pass the fw-open chain.
# iptables -A FORWARD -j fw-interfaces # iptables -A FORWARD -j fw-open
The remaining packets are denied with an ICMP message:
# iptables -A FORWARD -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-unreach # iptables -P FORWARD DROP
Setting up the fw-interfaces and fw-open chains
The meaning of the fw-interfaces and fw-open chains is explained later, when we deal with the POSTROUTING and PREROUTING chains in the nat table, respectively.
Setting up the nat table
All over this section, we assume that the outgoing interface (the one with the public internet IP) is ppp0. Keep in mind that you have to change the name in all following rules if your outgoing interface has another name.
Setting up the POSTROUTING chain
Now, we have to define who is allowed to connect to the internet. Let's assume we have the subnet 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0 (which means all addresses that are of the form 192.168.0.*) on eth0. We first need to accept the machines on this interface in the FORWARD table, that's why we created the fw-interfaces chain above:
# iptables -A fw-interfaces -i eth0 -j ACCEPT
Now, we have to alter all outgoing packets so that they have our public IP address as the source address, instead of the local LAN address. To do this, we use the MASQUERADE target:
# iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0 -o ppp0 -j MASQUERADE
Don't forget the -o ppp0 parameter above, if you omit it, your network will be screwed up.
Let's assume we have another subnet, 10.3.0.0/255.255.0.0 (which means all addresses 10.3.*.*) on interface eth1. We add the same rules as above again:
# iptables -A fw-interfaces -i eth1 -j ACCEPT # iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 10.3.0.0/255.255.0.0 -o ppp0 -j MASQUERADE
The last step is to enable IP Forwarding (if it isn't already enabled):
# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
Machines from these subnets can now use your new NAT machine as their gateway. Note that you may want to set up a DNS and DHCP server like dnsmasq or a combination of bind and dhcpd to simplify network settings DNS resolution on the client machines. This is not the topic of this HOWTO.
Setting up the PREROUTING chain
Sometimes, we want to forward an incoming connection from the gateway to a LAN machine. To do this, we use the fw-open chain defined above, as well as the PREROUTING chain in the nat table
I will give two simple examples: First, we want to forward all incoming SSH connections (port 22) to the ssh server in the machine 192.168.0.5:
# iptables -A fw-open -d 192.168.0.5 -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT # iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -i ppp0 -p tcp --dport 22 -j DNAT --to 192.168.0.5
The second example will show you how to forward packets to a different port than the incoming port. We want to forward any incoming connection on port 8000 to our web server on 192.168.0.6, port 80:
# iptables -A fw-open -d 192.168.0.6 -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT # iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -i ppp0 -p tcp --dport 8000 -j DNAT --to 192.168.0.6:80
The same setup also works with udp packets.
Saving the rules
Like above, we have to save the rules. Only this time, we have to enable IP forwarding in /etc/conf.d/iptables:
# Configuration for iptables rules IPTABLES=/usr/sbin/iptables IPTABLES_CONF=/etc/iptables/iptables.rules IPTABLES_FORWARD=1 # enable IP forwarding!!!
Save the rules
# /etc/rc.d/iptables save
and make sure your rules are loaded when you boot
DAEMONS=(... iptables ...)