Small Business Server
In this series of articles we will present a way to configure a Linux server to work in a mixed Windows/UNIX environment in a way that will scale well.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Prerequisites
- 3 Server Configuration
- 4 Windows workstation
- 5 Linux workstation
This series of articles will show best practices to configure a Windows/UNIX mixed domain in a extensible way. What to do, how to do it and what not to do (and why).
Our server will support:
- Network firewall and NAT
- DNS and DHCP for hosts
- User authentication and management with LDAP
- File sharing with Samba, NAT and FTP
- Printing with CUPS (from UNIX) and Samba (from Windows)
- VPN service
You will need at at least 2 computers:
- An Archlinux domain controller (our Small Business Server)
- A Windows workstation or domain member server
- A Linux domain member workstation/server
While the workstations can be made up of hardware that will make the OS work, server machines need a little more thought put into early on to save a few headaches later.
It's best to use a server worthy hardware, but Linux will work well on commodity hardware too. Things good to have:
- At least two disks for RAID (for a server that's the single most important thing)
- ECC RAM (ECC only RAM, not ECC Registered, is supported by most middle- and high-end commodity main-boards and isn't much more expensive that normal RAM)
- hardware RAID isn't really necessary, Linux software raid
- usually will give you better throughput (only very high amounts of Input Output operations Per Second (IOPS) are hard to achive, but if you care for IOPS, you need to look at enterprise hardware)
- allow access to SMART data for HDDs
- doesn't tie the array to a controller
- is much more flexible that even the most expensive hardware RAID controllers
- relatively fast processor
- lots of RAM (4GB as of 2010 is absolute minimum for a new build)
- a gigabit ethernet NIC, plus a FastEthernet one if the server will work as a router too
Some features (easy backups, migration and Windows Previous Versions on Samba shares) require LVM running on the server.
When you are installing a new OS, put it on LVM, at the very least. Even if you plan to use single partition for whole system, this way, later on, you'll be able to migrate to larger HDDs or RAID without even rebooting the system.
GRUB needs a physical partition (or a RAID1 volume) to install to, so the basic configuration needs to be something like this:
sda +--------+--------+ |/boot |LVM PV | +--------+--------+
and like this for a 2+ drive setup:
sda sdb +--------+------------+ +--------+------------+ |/boot |RAID volume | |/boot |RAID volume | +--------+------------+ +--------+------------+ ^ ^ +-----------------------+ | RAID MD device | +-----------------------+ | +---------------------------+ | LVM PV | +---------------------------+
Note on overall network architecture
Network access and basic services
[[=== FreeRadius EAP-TLS == ]] Реализация 802.1x EAP-TLS с использованием FreeRADIUS.
One common application of client side PKI certificates is 802.1x network authentication using EAP/TLS to present the client's identity to the server. Unlike many other EAP types, EAP/TLS does not transmit a password from the supplicant to the server, which is better network security.
This page explains how to build the FreeRadius server (v1.0.4 was current at the time) and configure it to be used for 802.1x network authentication and EAP/TLS.
Устанавливаем OpenSSL и Freeradius: pacman -S opensll и pacman -S freeradius
Переходим в каталог /etc/raddb/certs Для prodution редактируем (меняем параметры на настоящие), иначе будет пример с паролем на сертификаты whatever. ca.cnf ... [ req ] prompt = no distinguished_name = certificate_authority default_bits = 2048 input_password = whatever output_password = whatever x509_extensions = v3_ca
[certificate_authority] countryName = FR stateOrProvinceName = Radius localityName = Somewhere organizationName = Example Inc. emailAddress = firstname.lastname@example.org commonName = "Example Certificate Authority" ... server.cnf ... [ req ] prompt = no distinguished_name = server default_bits = 2048 input_password = whatever output_password = whatever
[server] countryName = FR stateOrProvinceName = Radius localityName = Somewhere organizationName = Example Inc. emailAddress = email@example.com commonName = "Example Server Certificate" ...
You need to edit client.cnf only if you are using EAP-TLS. If not, then that file can be left as-is.
Once the ca.cnf and server.cnf files have been edited, re-create the CA and Server certificates as before in the EAP howto. This process will destroy any existing certificates, so you should make a backup of this directory before continuing. $ cd /etc/raddb/certs $ make
Depending on the version of FreeRADIUS, the output may be make: Nothing to be done for `all'. In that case, you will have to remove some files manually, and then re-create the certificates: $ rm -f *csr *key $ make
Otherwise, you should see OpenSSL creating the keys and certificates, as shown below: openssl req -new -x509 -keyout ca.key -out ca.pem -config ./ca.cnf Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key ................................................... etc.
Генерация сертификатов для клиентов
Ресурсы которые использовались для настройки сервера аутентификации через Точку доступа.