Small Business Server

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In this series of articles we will present a way to configure a Linux server to work in a mixed Windows/UNIX environment in a way that will scale well.

Warning: Don't try to configure a system in a fastest way possible, migrations between configurations (for example: from flat files to LDAP, for both UNIX and Windows authentication) are not easy to do, are disruptive and in the end result make those 5 minutes of work you do not do now, hours later on.
Note: I'm suggesting here how to pick out and configure a Linux server for a small company, with a server that is built from scratch or updated with a new install, not all suggestions apply for every possible workloads, though they should be a good starting point in most cases


This series of articles will show best practices to configure a Windows/UNIX mixed domain in a extensible way. What to do, how to do it and what not to do (and why).

Our server will support:

  • Network firewall and NAT
  • DNS and DHCP for hosts
  • User authentication and management with LDAP
  • File sharing with Samba, NAT and FTP
  • Printing with CUPS (from UNIX) and Samba (from Windows)
  • VPN service



You will need at at least 2 computers:

  • An Archlinux domain controller (our Small Business Server)
  • A Windows workstation or domain member server
  • A Linux domain member workstation/server

While the workstations can be made up of hardware that will make the OS work, server machines need a little more thought put into early on to save a few headaches later.


It's best to use a server worthy hardware, but Linux will work well on commodity hardware too. Things good to have:

  1. At least two disks for RAID (for a server that's the single most important thing)
  2. ECC RAM (ECC only RAM, not ECC Registered, is supported by most middle- and high-end commodity main-boards and isn't much more expensive that normal RAM)
  3. Hardware RAID isn't really necessary, Linux can utilize a software RAID configuration
    • Usually will give you better throughput (only very high amounts of Input/Output operations Per Second (IOPS) are hard to achive, but if you care for IOPS, you need to look at enterprise hardware)
    • Allow access to SMART data for HDDs
    • Doesn't tie the array to a controller
    • Is much more flexible than even the most expensive hardware RAID controllers
  4. Relatively fast processor
  5. Lots of RAM (4GB as of 2010 is absolute minimum for a new build)
  6. A gigabit ethernet NIC, plus a FastEthernet one if the server will work as a router too

Basic configuration

Some features (easy backups, migration and Windows Previous Versions on Samba shares) require LVM running on the server.

When you are installing a new OS, put it on LVM, at the very least. Even if you plan to use single partition for whole system, this way, later on, you'll be able to migrate to larger HDDs or RAID without even rebooting the system.

GRUB needs a physical partition (or a RAID1 volume) to install to, so the basic configuration needs to be something like this:

|/boot   |LVM PV  |

and like this for a 2+ drive setup:

  sda                      sdb                    
+--------+------------+ +--------+------------+
|/boot   |RAID volume | |/boot   |RAID volume |
+--------+------------+ +--------+------------+
            ^                       ^
            | RAID MD device        |
          | LVM PV                    |

File systems

Note on overall network architecture

Server Configuration

Network access and basic services





(dynamic DNS)


proxy server

FreeRadius EAP-TLS

Implementation 802.1x EAP-TLS using FreeRADIUS.

One common application of client side PKI certificates is 802.1x network authentication using EAP/TLS to present the client's identity to the server. Unlike many other EAP types, EAP/TLS does not transmit a password from the supplicant to the server, which is better network security.

This page explains how to build the FreeRadius server (v1.0.4 was current at the time) and configure it to be used for 802.1x network authentication and EAP/TLS.

Install OpenSSL and Freeradius:

* $pacman -S openssl
* $pacman -S freeradius

Go to the directory /etc/raddb/certs If you wish to production server, change the value on its files ca.cnf, server.cnf, client.cnf.

* $ cd /etc/raddb/certs
* $ make               //make Ccreate certificates A and сервера.

Generating Client Certificates

make client.pem

Configure Freeradius:

<               default_eap_type = md5

>               default_eap_type = tls

/etc/raddb/clients.conf > client { > secret = Testing123 > shortname = wifi-anna_r > }

<       suffix
> #     suffix

Run in debug mode radiusd -Xf. setting Example wifi AP.

Security Mode: RADIUS
Radius Server Radius:
Radius Server Port: 1812
Radius Shared Secret: Testing123

For a client connection, you must copy:

Windows -  Key Certification Center ca.der
It must be placed in the Trusted Root Certification.
and client.p12 placed in a private.

Linux - NetworkManager

Wireless Security: Dynamic WEP (802.1x)
Authentication: TLS
Inedtity: any identifier, such as -
User certificate: none
CA certificate: ca.der
Private key: client.p12
Private key password: whatever

Resources are used to configure the authentication server through an access point.


DNS and DHCP in LDAP on Arch, is it possible?
LDAP authentication or Samba 4 Active Directory Domain Controller


Samba 4 Active Directory Domain Controller

mail server

Zimbra or eGroupWare

web server

alternatives to group ware



Client backup

Windows workstation

joining samba domain

Samba 4 Active Directory Domain Controller

Linux workstation

LDAP authentication