Software RAID and LVM
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- 1 Background
- 2 Introduction
- 3 Outline
- 4 Procedure
- 4.1 Partition the Hard Drives
- 4.2 Load the RAID Modules
- 4.3 Create the RAID Redundant Partitions
- 4.4 Setup LVM and Create the / (root) LVM Volume
- 4.5 Activate existing RAID devices and LVM volumes
- 4.6 Create and Mount the Filesystems
- 4.7 Install and Configure Arch
- 4.8 Install Grub on the Primary Hard Drive
- 4.9 Reboot
- 4.10 Install Grub on the Alternate Boot Drives
- 4.11 Archive your Filesystem Partition Scheme
- 5 Management
- 6 Mounting from a Live CD
- 7 Removing device, stop using the array
- 8 Adding a device to the array
- 9 Troubleshooting
- 10 Benchmarking
- 11 Additional Resources
Although RAID and LVM may seem like analogous technologies they each present unique features.
Template:Wikipedia Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) is designed to prevent data loss in the event of a hard disk failure. There are different levels of RAID. RAID 0 (striping) is not really RAID at all, because it provides no redundancy. It does, however, provide a speed benefit. This example will utilize RAID 0 for swap, on the assumption that a desktop system is being used, where the speed increase is worth the possibility of system crash if one of your drives fails. On a server, a RAID 1 or RAID 5 array is more appropriate. The size of a RAID 0 array block device is the size of the smallest component partition times the number of component partitions.
RAID 1 is the most straightforward RAID level: straight mirroring. As with other RAID levels, it only makes sense if the partitions are on different physical disk drives. If one of those drives fails, the block device provided by the RAID array will continue to function as normal. The example will be using RAID 1 for everything except swap. Note that RAID 1 is the only option for the boot partition, because bootloaders (which read the boot partition) do not understand RAID, but a RAID 1 component partition can be read as a normal partition. The size of a RAID 1 array block device is the size of the smallest component partition.
RAID 5 requires 3 or more physical drives, and provides the redundancy of RAID 1 combined with the speed and size benefits of RAID 0. RAID 5 uses striping, like RAID 0, but also stores parity blocks distributed across each member disk. In the event of a failed disk, these parity blocks are used to reconstruct the data on a replacement disk. RAID 5 can withstand the loss of one member disk.
RAID does not provide a guarantee that your data is safe. If there is a fire, if your computer is stolen or if you have multiple hard drive failures, RAID will not protect your data. Therefore it is important to make backups. Whether you use tape drives, DVDs, CDROMs or another computer, keep an current copy of your data out of your computer (and preferably offsite). Get into the habit of making regular backups. You can also divide the data on your computer into current and archived directories. Then back up the current data frequently, and the archived data occasionally.
LVM (Logical Volume Management) makes use of the device-mapper feature of the Linux kernel to provide a system of partitions that is independent of the underlying disk's layout. What this means for you is that you can extend and shrink partitions (subject to the filesystem you use allowing this) and add/remove partitions without worrying about whether you have enough contiguous space on a particular disk, without getting caught up in the problems of fdisking a disk that is in use (and wondering whether the kernel is using the old or new partition table) and without having to move other partition out of the way.
This is strictly an ease-of-management issue: it does not provide any addition security. However, it sits nicely with the other two technologies we are using.
Note that LVM is not used for the boot partition, because of the bootloader problem.
This article provides an example of how to install Arch Linux with a standard software RAID or LVM support. All configurations and settings are not referenced. Instead this article should provide a basic framework for you installation.
This example uses a computer with three similar IDE hard drives that are at least 80GB in size, installed as primary master, primary slave, and secondary master. A CD-ROM drive is installed as the secondary slave. The article assumes that the drives are accessible as Template:Filename, Template:Filename, and Template:Filename, and that the CD-ROM drive is Template:Filename.
We will create a 100MB /boot partition, a 2048MB (2GB) swap partition and a ~ 78GB root partition using LVM. The boot and swap partitions will be RAID1, while the root partition will be RAID5. Why RAID1? For boot, it is so you can boot the kernel from grub (which has no RAID drivers!), and for swap, it is for redundancy, so that your machine will not lose its swap state even if 1 or 2 drives fail.
Each RAID1 redundant partition will have three physical partitions, all the same size, one on each of the drives. The total storage capacity will be the size of a single one of these physical partitions. A RAID1 redundant partition with 3 physical partitions can lose any two of its physical partitions and still function.
Each RAID5 redundant partition will also have three physical partitions, all the same size, one on each of the drives. The total storage capacity will be the combined size of two of these physical partitions, with the third drive being consumed to provide parity information. A RAID5 redundant partition with 3 physical partitions can lose any one of its physical partitions and still function.
Just to give you an idea of how all this will work, I will outline the steps. The details for these will be filled in below.
- Boot the Installer CD
- Partition the Hard Drives
- Create the RAID Redundant Partitions
- Create and Mount the Main Filesystems
- Setup LVM and Create the / (root) LVM Volume
- Install and Configure Arch
- Install Grub on the Primary Hard Drive
- Unmount Filesystems and Reboot
- Install Grub on the Alternate Boot Drives
- Archive your Filesystem Partition Scheme
Partition the Hard Drives
Name Flags Part Type FS Type [Label] Size (MB) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- sda1 Boot Primary linux_raid_m [boot] 100.00 sda2 Primary linux_raid_m [swap] 2048.00 sda3 Primary linux_raid_m [raid] 77852.00
Open Template:Codeline with the first hard drive:
# cfdisk /dev/sda
and create the three partitions in order:
- Select Template:Codeline.
- Hit Template:Codeline to make it a Template:Codeline partition.
- For Template:Filename and Template:Filename type the appropriate size in MB (see above). For Template:Filename just hit Template:Codeline to select the remainder of the drive.
- Hit Template:Codeline to place the partition at the Template:Codeline.
- Select Template:Codeline and hit Template:Codeline to see the second page of the list, and then type
FDfor the Linux RAID Autodetect type.
- For Template:Filename select Template:Codeline.
- Hit the down arrow (selecting the remaining free space) to go on to the next partition to be created.
When you are done, select Template:Codeline, and confirm by typing Template:Codeline to write the partition table to the disk. When finished select Template:Codeline and repeat this process for Template:Filename and Template:Filename.
Make sure to create the same exact partitions on each disk. If a group of partitions of different sizes are assembled to create a RAID partition, it will work, but the redundant partition will be in multiples of the size of the smallest partition, leaving the unallocated space to waste.
# sfdisk -d /dev/sda > table
and then write the partition table to the other two hard drives.
# sfdisk /dev/sdb < table # sfdisk /dev/sdc < table
Load the RAID Modules
mdadm, you need load the modules for the RAID levels you will be using. In this example, we are using levels 1 and 5, so we will load those. You can ignore any modprobe errors like
"cannot insert md-mod.ko: File exists". Busybox's modprobe can be a little slow sometimes.
# modprobe raid1 # modprobe raid5
Create the RAID Redundant Partitions
Now that you have created all the physical partitions, you are ready to set up the three RAIDs. The tool you use to create RAID arrays is Template:Codeline.
# mdadm --create /dev/md0 --level=5 --raid-devices=3 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3 /dev/sdc3
# mdadm --create /dev/md1 --level=1 --raid-devices=3 --metadata=0.90 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1
If you want to use GRUB 0.97 (default in the Arch Linux 2010.05 release) on RAID 1, you need to specify an older version of metadata than the default. Add the option "--metadata=0.90" to the above command. Otherwise Grub will respond with "Filesystem type unknown, partition type 0xfd" and refuse to install. This may also be necessary with GRUB2.
# mdadm --create /dev/md2 --level=1 --raid-devices=3 /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdc2
At this point, you should have working RAID partitions. When you create the RAID partitions, they need to sync themselves so the contents of all three physical partitions are the same on all three drives. The hard drives lights will come on as they try to sync up. You can monitor the progress by typing:
# cat /proc/mdstat
You can also get particular information about, say, the root partition by typing:
# mdadm --misc --detail /dev/md0
You do not have to wait for synchronization to finish -- you may proceed with the installation while synchronization is still occurring. You can even reboot at the end of the installation with synchronization still going.
Setup LVM and Create the / (root) LVM Volume
This is where you create the LVM volumes. LVM works with abstract layers, check out LVM and/or its documentation to discover more. What you will be doing in short:
- Turn block devices (e.g. /dev/sda1 or /dev/md0) into Physical Volume(s) that can be used by LVM
- Create a Volume Group consisting of Physical Volume(s)
- Create Logical Volume(s) within the Volume Group
Note: If you are using an Arch Linux install CD <= 0.7.1, you have to create and mount a sysfs partition on /sys, to keep lvm from getting cranky. Otherwise you can skip this mounting of sysfs, unless you run into trouble. If you forget to do this, instead of giving you an intelligent error message, lvm will simply Segmentation fault at various inconvenient times.
To mount the sysfs partition, do:
# mkdir /sys # mount -t sysfs none /sys
Let us get started:
Make sure that the device-mapper module is loaded:
# modprobe dm-mod
Now you need to do is tell LVM you have a Physical Volume for it to use. It is really a virtual RAID volume (
/dev/md0), but LVM does not know this, or really care. Do:
# pvcreate /dev/md0
This might fail if you are using raid or creating PV on an existing Volume Group. If so you might want to add -ff option.
LVM should report back that it has added the Physical Volume. You can confirm this with:
Now it is time to create a Volume Group (which I will call
array) which has control over the LVM Physical Volume we created. Do:
# vgcreate array /dev/md0
LVM should report that it has created the Volume Group
array. You can confirm this with:
Next, we create a Logical Volume called
root in Volume Group
array that fills all the free space left on the volume group:
# lvcreate -l +100%FREE array -n root
LVM should report that it created the Logical Volume
root. You can confirm this with:
The LVM volume should now be available as
/dev/mapper/array-root. Or something similar, LVM will also be able to tell you which when you issue the display command.
Activate existing RAID devices and LVM volumes
If you already have RAID partitions created on your system and you have also set up LVM and all you want is enabling them follow this simple procedure. This might come in handy if you are switching distributions and do not want to lose data in /home for example.
First you need to enable RAID support. RAID1 and RAID5 in this case.
# modprobe raid1 # modprobe raid5
Activate RAID devices: md1 for /boot and md0 for LVM where two logical volumes will reside.
# mdadm --assemble /dev/md0 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3 /dev/sdc3 # mdadm --assemble /dev/md1 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1
RAID devices should now be enabled. Check /proc/mdstat.
If you have not loaded kernel LVM support do so now.
# modprobe dm-mod
Startup of LVM requires just the following two commands:
# vgscan # vgchange -ay
You can now jump to  Set Filesystem Mountpoints in your menu based setup and mount created partitions as needed.
Create and Mount the Filesystems
When you are using a setup that is newer then 2008.03; this step is optional!
Example using ReiserFS (V3):
To create /boot:
# mkreiserfs /dev/md1
To create swap space:
# mkswap /dev/md2
To create /:
# mkreiserfs /dev/array/root
Now, mount the boot and root partitions where the installer expects them:
# mount /dev/array/root /mnt # mkdir /mnt/boot # mount /dev/md1 /mnt/boot
We have created all our filesystems! And we are ready to install the OS!
Install and Configure Arch
This section does not attempt to teach you all about the Arch Installer. It leaves out some details here and there for brevity, but still seeks to be basically follow-able. If you are having trouble with the installer, you may wish to seek help elsewhere in the Wiki or forums.
Now you can continue using the installer to set-up the system and install the packages you need. Here is the walkthrough:
/arch/setupto launch the main installer.
< OK >at the opening screen.
1 CD_ROMto install from CD-ROM (or
2 FTPif you have a local Arch mirror on FTP).
- If you have skipped the optional step (Create and Mount the Filesystems) above, and have not created a fileystem yet, select
1 Prepare Hard Drive>
3 Set Filesystem Mountpointsand create your filesystems and mountpoints here
- Now at the main menu, Select
2 Select Packagesand select all the packages in the base category, as well as the
lvm2packages from the system category. Note: mdadm & lvm2 are included in base category since arch-base-0.7.2.
3 Install Packages. This will take a little while.
- Note: Because the installer builds the initrd using /etc/mdadm.conf in the target system, you should update that file with your RAID configuration. The original file can simply be deleted because it contains comments on how to fill it correctly, and that is something mdadm can do automaticly for you. So let us delete the original and have mdadm create you a new one with the currect setup:
Press Alt-F2 to get a new terminal an log in, then do
# mdadm --examine --scan > /mnt/etc/mdadm.conf
4 Configure System:
Add the dm_mod module to the MODULES list in /etc/mkinitcpio.conf.
Add the mdadm and lvm2 hook to the HOOKS list in /etc/mkinitcpio.conf after udev. See Configuring mkinitpcio using RAID for more details.
/etc/rc.conf. It should contain a
USELVM entry already, which you should change to:
Please Note: The
rc.sysinit script that parses the
USELVM variable entry will accept either
YES, however it will not accept mixed case. Please be sure you have got your capitalization correct.
/etc/fstab to contain the entries:
/dev/array/root / reiserfs defaults 0 1 /dev/md2 swap swap defaults 0 0 /dev/md1 /boot reiserfs defaults 0 0
At this point, make any other configuration changes you need to other files.
Then exit the configuration menu.
Since you will not be installing Grub from the installer, select
7 Exit Install to leave the installer program.
Then specify the raid array you are booting from in /mnt/boot/grub/menu.lst like:
# Example with /dev/array/root for / & /dev/md1 for /boot: kernel /vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/array/root ro md=1,/dev/sda1,/dev/sdb1,/dev/sdc1 md=0,/dev/sda3,/dev/sdb3,/dev/sdc3
Nowadays (2009.02), with the mdadm hook in the initrd it it no longer necessary to add kernel parameters concerning the RAID array(s).
The arrays can be assembled on boot by the kernel using that hook and the contents of /etc/mdadm.conf, which is included in the initrd image when it is built. (See Configuring mkinitpcio using RAID )
An example of a GRUB boot configuration for booting of a root on an LVM volume like this:
# (0) Arch Linux title Arch Linux root (hd0,0) kernel /vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/array/root ro initrd /initramfs-linux.img
Install Grub on the Primary Hard Drive
This can also be done from the installer just fine now (2009.08 and should also work for 2009.02)
This is the last and final step before you have a bootable system!
As an overview, the basic concept is to copy over the grub bootloader files into /boot/grub, mount a procfs and a device tree inside of /mnt, then chroot to /mnt so you are effectively inside your new system. Once in your new system, you will run grub to install the bootloader in the boot area of your first hard drive.
Copy the GRUB files into place and get into our chroot:
# cp -a /mnt/usr/lib/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/boot/grub # sync # mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev # mount -t proc none /mnt/proc # mount -t sysfs none /mnt/sys # chroot /mnt /bin/bash
At this point, you may no longer be able to see keys you type at your console. I am not sure of the reason for this (NOTE: try "chroot /mnt /bin/<shell>"), but it you can fix it by typing
reset at the prompt.
Once you have got console echo back on, type:
After a short wait while grub does some looking around, it should come back with a grub prompt. Do:
grub> root (hd0,0) grub> setup (hd0) grub> quit
That is it. You can exit your chroot now by hitting
CTRL-D or typing
You can also install grub2 when you are in the chroot environment.
# mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev # mount -t proc none /mnt/proc # mount -t sysfs none /mnt/sys # chroot /mnt /bin/bash
Install and configure grub2
root@pc-chroot:~# pacman -S grub2 root@pc-chroot:~# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg root@pc-chroot:~# grub-install --no-floppy --modules="raid" /dev/sda root@pc-chroot:~# grub-install --no-floppy --modules="raid" /dev/sdb
The hard part is all over! Now remove the CD from your CD-ROM drive, and type:
Install Grub on the Alternate Boot Drives
Once you have successfully booted your new system for the first time, you will want to install Grub onto the other two disks (or on the other disk if you have only 2 HDDs) so that, in the event of disk failure, the system can be booted from another drive. Log in to your new system as root and do:
# grub grub> device (hd0) /dev/sdb grub> root (hd0,0) grub> setup (hd0) grub> device (hd0) /dev/sdc grub> root (hd0,0) grub> setup (hd0) grub> quit
Archive your Filesystem Partition Scheme
Now that you are done, it is worth taking a second to archive off the partition state of each of your drives. This guarantees that it will be trivially easy to replace/rebuild a disk in the event that one fails. You do this with the
sfdisk tool and the following steps:
# mkdir /etc/partitions # sfdisk --dump /dev/sda >/etc/partitions/disc0.partitions # sfdisk --dump /dev/sdb >/etc/partitions/disc1.partitions # sfdisk --dump /dev/sdc >/etc/partitions/disc2.partitions
For LVM management, please have a look at LVM
Mounting from a Live CD
If you want to mount your RAID partition from a Live CD, use
# mdadm --assemble /dev/md0 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3 /dev/sdc3
(or whatever mdX and drives apply to you)
Removing device, stop using the array
You can remove a device from the array after you mark it as faulty.
# mdadm --fail /dev/md0 /dev/sdxx
Then you can remove it from the array.
# mdadm -r /dev/md0 /dev/sdxx
Remove device permanently (for example in the case you want to use it individally from now on). Issue the two commands described above then:
# mdadm --zero-superblock /dev/sdxx
After this you can use the disk as you did before creating the array.
Stop using an array:
- Umount target array
- Repeat the three command described in the beginning of this section on each device.
- Stop the array with:
mdadm --stop /dev/md0
- Remove the corresponding line from /etc/mdadm.conf
Adding a device to the array
Adding new devices with mdadm can be done on a running system with the devices mounted. Partition the new device "/dev/sdx" using the same layout as one of those already in the arrays "/dev/sda".
# sfdisk -d /dev/sda > table # sdfisk /dev/sdx < table
Assemble the RAID arrays if they are not already assembled:
# mdadm --assemble /dev/md1 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 # mdadm --assemble /dev/md2 /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdc2 # mdadm --assemble /dev/md0 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3 /dev/sdc3
First, add the new device as a Spare Device to all of the arrays. We will assume you have followed the guide and use separate arrays for /boot RAID 1 (/dev/md1), swap RAID 1 (/dev/md2) and root RAID 5 (/dev/md0).
# mdadm --add /dev/md1 /dev/sdx1 # mdadm --add /dev/md2 /dev/sdx2 # mdadm --add /dev/md0 /dev/sdx3
This should not take long for mdadm to do. Check the progress with:
# cat /proc/mdstat
Check that the device has been added with the command:
# mdadm --misc --detail /dev/md0
It should be listed as a Spare Device.
Tell mdadm to grow the arrays from 3 devices to 4 (or however many devices you want to use):
# mdadm --grow -n 4 /dev/md1 # mdadm --grow -n 4 /dev/md2 # mdadm --grow -n 4 /dev/md0
This will probably take several hours. You need to wait for it to finish before you can continue. Check the progress in /proc/mdstat. The RAID 1 arrays should automatically sync /boot and swap but you need to install Grub on the MBR of the new device manually. Installing_with_Software_RAID_or_LVM#Install_Grub_on_the_Alternate_Boot_Drives
The rest of this guide will explain how to resize the underlying LVM and filesystem on the RAID 5 array.
If you are have encrypted your LVM volumes with LUKS, you need resize the LUKS volume first. Otherwise, ignore this step.
# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/md0 cryptedlvm # cryptsetup resize cryptedlvm
Activate the LVM volume groups:
# vgscan # vgchange -ay
Resize the LVM Physical Volume /dev/md0 (or e.g. /dev/mapper/cryptedlvm if using LUKS) to take up all the available space on the array. You can list them with the command "pvdisplay".
# pvresize /dev/md0
Resize the Logical Volume you wish to allocate the new space to. You can list them with "lvdisplay". Assuming you want to put it all to your /home volume:
# lvresize -l +100%FREE /dev/array/home
To resize the filesystem to allocate the new space use the appropriate tool. If using ext2 you can resize a mounted filesystem with ext2online. For ext3 you can use resize2fs or ext2resize but not while mounted.
You should check the filesystem before resizing.
# e2fsck -f /dev/array/home # resize2fs /dev/array/home
Read the manuals for lvresize and resize2fs if you want to customize the sizes for the volumes.
If you are getting error when you reboot about "invalid raid superblock magic" and you have additional hard drives other than the ones you installed to, check that your hard drive order is correct. During installation, your RAID devices may be hdd, hde and hdf, but during boot they may be hda, hdb and hdc. Adjust your kernel line in /boot/grub/menu.lst accordingly. This is what happened to me anyway.
Recovering from a broken or missing drive in the raid
You might get the above mentioned error also when one of the drives breaks for whatever reason. In that case you will have to fore the raid to still turn on even with one disk short. Type this (change where needed):
# mdadm --manage /dev/md0 --run
Now you should be able to mount it again with something like this (if you had it in fstab):
# mount /dev/md0
Now the raid should be working again and available to use, however with one disk short! So, to add that one disc partition it the way like described above in #Partition_the_Hard_Drives. Once that is done you can add the new disk to the raid by doing:
# mdadm --manage --add /dev/md0 /dev/sdd1
If you type:
# cat /proc/mdstat
you probably see that the raid is now active and rebuilding.
You also might want to update your /etc/mdadm.conf file by typing:
# mdadm --examine --scan > /etc/mdadm.conf
That should be about all steps required to recover your raid. It certainly worked for me when i had lost a dive due to a partition table corruption.
There are several tools for benchmarking a RAID. The most notable improvement is the speed increase when multiple threads are reading from the same RAID volume.
Tiobench specifically benchmarks these performance improvements by measuring fully-threaded I/O on the disk.
Bonnie++ tests database type access to one or more files, and creation, reading, and deleting of small files which can simulate the usage of programs such as Squid, INN, or Maildir format e-mail. The enclosed ZCAV program tests the performance of different zones of a hard drive without writing any data to the disk.
Template:Codeline should NOT be used to benchmark a RAID, because it provides very inconsistent results.
- LVM2 Resource Page on SourceWare.org
- RAID/Software on the Gentoo Wiki
- Software RAID Install on the Gentoo Wiki
- Software RAID in the new Linux 2.4 kernel, Part 1 and Part 2 in the Gentoo Linux Docs
- Linux RAID wiki entry on The Linux Kernel Archives
- Arch Linux software RAID installation guide on Linux 101
- Chapter 15: Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Documentation
- Linux-RAID FAQ on the Linux Documentation Project
RAID & LVM
- Setup Arch Linux on top of raid, LVM2 and encrypted partitions by Yannick Loth
- RAID vs. LVM on Stack Overflow
- What is better LVM on RAID or RAID on LVM? on Server Fault
- Managing RAID and LVM with Linux (v0.5) by Gregory Gulik
- 2011-04-20 - Arch Linux - Software RAID and LVM questions
- 2011-03-12 - Arch Linux - Some newbie questions about installation, LVM, grub, RAID
- 2011-07-29 - Gentoo - Use RAID metadata 1.2 in boot and root partition