zh-CN:Subversion Setup "Apache Subversion is a full-featured version control system originally designed to be a better CVS. Subversion has since expanded beyond its original goal of replacing CVS, but its basic model, design, and interface remain heavily influenced by that goal."
This article deals with setting up an svn-server on your machine. There are two popular svn-servers, the built in svnserve and the more advanced option, Apache with svn plugins.
- 1 Apache Subversion Setup
- 1.1 Goals
- 1.2 Apache Installation
- 1.3 Subversion Installation
- 1.4 Subversion Configuration
- 1.5 Create a Project
- 2 Svnserve setup
- 3 Subversion backup
- 4 Subversion clients
Apache Subversion Setup
The goal of this how to is to setup Subversion, with Apache. Why use Apache for Subversion? Well, quite simply, it provides features that the standalone
svnserve does not have...
- You get the ability to use https protocol. This is more secure than the md5 authentication used by svnserve.
- You get fine-grained access controls. You can use Apache auth to limit permissions by directory. This means you can grant read access to everything, but commit access only to trunk for instance, while have another group with commit access to tags or branches.
- You get a free repository viewer. While not very exciting, it does work.
- The Subversion team is working on seamless webdav integration. At some point you should be able to use any webdav interface to update files in the repository.
This howto does not cover installation and initial setup of the Apache web server. This is covered here.
Besides official repositories.you will only need to install , available from the
Create a directory for your repositories:
mkdir -p /home/svn/repositories
Ensure the following are listed...if not, add them (you will typically have to add just the last two), they must be in this order:
LoadModule dav_module modules/mod_dav.so LoadModule dav_fs_module modules/mod_dav_fs.so LoadModule dav_svn_module modules/mod_dav_svn.so LoadModule authz_svn_module modules/mod_authz_svn.so
To SSL or not to SSL?
SSL for SVN access has a few benefits, for instance it allows you to use Apache's AuthType Basic, with little fear of someone sniffing passwords.
Generate the certificate by:
cd /etc/httpd/conf/; openssl req -new -x509 -keyout server.key -out server.crt -days 365 -nodes
Add the following to
/etc/httpd/conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf. (Or add to
/etc/httpd/conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf if your not using ssl[at your own risk], or are on a local testing server) Include the following inside of a virtual host directive:
<Location /svn> DAV svn SVNParentPath /home/svn/repositories AuthzSVNAccessFile /home/svn/.svn-policy-file AuthName "SVN Repositories" AuthType Basic AuthUserFile /home/svn/.svn-auth-file Satisfy Any Require valid-user </Location>
To make sure the SSL settings get loaded, uncomment the SSL configuration line in
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf so it looks like this:
[/] * = r [REPO_NAME:/] USER_NAME = rw
The * in the / section is matched to anonymous users. Any access above and beyond read only will be prompted for a user/pass by apache AuthType Basic. The REPO_NAME:/ section inherits permissions from those above, so anon users have read only permission to it. The last bit grants read/write permission of the REPO_NAME repository to the user USER_NAME.
This is either an htpasswd, or htdigest file. I used htpasswd. Again, because of SSL, I do not worry as much about password sniffing. htdigest would provide even more security vs sniffing, but at this point, I do not have a need for it. Run the following command
htpasswd -cs /home/svn/.svn-auth-file USER_NAME
The above creates the file (-c) and uses sha1 for storing the password (-s). The user USER_NAME is created.
To add additional users, leave off the (-c) flag.
htpasswd -s /home/svn/.svn-auth-file OTHER_USER_NAME
Create a Repository
svnadmin create /home/svn/repositories/REPO_NAME
The Apache user needs permissions over the new repository.
chown -R http:http /home/svn/repositories/REPO_NAME
Create a Project
Directory structure for project
trunk directory structure on your development machine.
cd /path/to/project mkdir branches tags trunk
Copy or move your project source files into the created trunk directory.
cp -R /home/USER_NAME/project/REPO_NAME/code/* trunk
Import the Project
svn import -m "Initial import" https://yourdomain.net/svn/REPO_NAME/
Test SVN Checkout
cd /path/to/directory_of_choice cd .. rm -rf /path/to/directory_of_choice svn checkout https://yourdomain.net/svn/REPO_NAME/
If everything worked out, you should now have a working, checked out copy of your freshly created SVN repo.
Install the package
Install official repositories.from the
Create a repository
Create your repository
mkdir /path/to/repos/ svnadmin create /path/to/repos/repo1
Your initial repository is empty, if you want to import files into it, use the following command.
svn import ~/code/project1 file:///path/to/repos/repo1 --message 'Initial repository layout'
Set access policies
Edit the file /path/to/repos/repo1/conf/svnserve.conf and uncomment or add the line under [general]
password-db = passwd
You might also want to change the default option for anonymous users.
anon-access = read
Replace "read" with "write" for a repository that anyone can commit to, or set it to "none" to disable all anonymous access.
Now edit the file /path/to/repos/repo1/conf/passwd
[users] harry = foopassword sally = barpassword
The above defines users harry and sally, with passwords foopassword and barpassword, change it as you like
Start the server daemon
Before you start the server, edit the config file：
SVNSERVE_ARGS="-r /path/to/repos --listen-port=4711" SVNSERVE_USER="user"
--listen-port flag is optional.
-r /path/to/repos option set the root of repository tree. If you have multiple repositories use
-r /path-to/reposparent. Then access independent repositories by passing in repository name in the URL:
svn://host/repo1. make sure that the user has read/write access to the repository files)
Now start the svnserve daemon.
For a guide on backing up your subversion repositories, see Subversion backup and restore.
For a list of subversion clients, see the Wikipedia article.