Difference between revisions of "Sudo"

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m (added default sudoers skeleton for Defaults commands)
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  Defaults umask_override
 
  Defaults umask_override
 
This sets sudo's umask to root's default umask (0022) and overrides the default behavior, always using the indicated umask regardless of what umask the user as set.
 
This sets sudo's umask to root's default umask (0022) and overrides the default behavior, always using the indicated umask regardless of what umask the user as set.
 +
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=== Defaults Skeleton ===
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Here is a commented out list of all the options available to use with the {{ic|Defaults}} command in {{ic|/etc/sudoers}}  The idea is to copy and paste this in your sudoers files and then make changes.
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{{bc|<nowiki>
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#Defaults      always_set_home
 +
# always_set_home: If enabled, sudo will set the HOME environment variable to the home directory of the target user (which is root unless the -u option is used).  This effectively means that the -H op
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#    always_set_home is only effective for configurations where either env_reset is disabled or HOME is present in the env_keep list.  This flag is off by default.
 +
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#Defaults      authenticate
 +
# authenticate: If set, users must authenticate themselves via a password (or other means of authentication) before they may run commands.  This default may be overridden via the PASSWD and NOPASSWD t
 +
 +
#Defaults      closefrom_override
 +
# closefrom_override: If set, the user may use sudo's -C option which overrides the default starting point at which sudo begins closing open file descriptors.  This flag is off by default.
 +
 +
#Defaults      compress_io
 +
# compress_io: If set, and sudo is configured to log a command's input or output, the I/O logs will be compressed using zlib.  This flag is on by default when sudo is compiled with zlib support.
 +
 +
#Defaults      env_editor
 +
# env_editor: If set, visudo will use the value of the EDITOR or VISUAL environment variables before falling back on the default editor list.  Note that this may create a security hole as it allows th
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#  separated list of editors in the editor variable.  visudo will then only use the EDITOR or VISUAL if they match a value specified in editor.  This flag is on by default.
 +
 +
#Defaults      env_reset
 +
# env_reset: If set, sudo will run the command in a minimal environment containing the TERM, PATH, HOME, MAIL, SHELL, LOGNAME, USER, USERNAME and SUDO_* variables.  Any variables in the caller's envir
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#  in the file specified by the env_file option (if any).  The default contents of the env_keep and env_check lists are displayed when sudo is run by root with the -V option.  If the secure_path opti
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#  default.
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#Defaults      fast_glob
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# fast_glob: Normally, sudo uses the glob(3) function to do shell-style globbing when matching path names.  However, since it accesses the file system, glob(3) can take a long time to complete for som
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#  (automounted).  The fast_glob option causes sudo to use the fnmatch(3) function, which does not access the file system to do its matching.  The disadvantage of fast_glob is that it is unable to ma
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#  names that include globbing characters are used with the negation operator, '!', as such rules can be trivially bypassed.  As such, this option should not be used when sudoers contains rules that
 +
 +
#Defaults      fqdn
 +
# fqdn: Set this flag if you want to put fully qualified host names in the sudoers file.  I.e., instead of myhost you would use myhost.mydomain.edu.  You may still use the short form if you wish (and
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#  sudo unusable if DNS stops working (for example if the machine is not plugged into the network).  Also note that you must use the host's official name as DNS knows it.  That is, you may not use a
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#    all aliases from DNS.  If your machine's host name (as returned by the hostname command) is already fully qualified you shouldn't need to set fqdn.  This flag is off by default.
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#Defaults      ignore_dot
 +
# ignore_dot: If set, sudo will ignore '.' or '' (current dir) in the PATH environment variable; the PATH itself is not modified.  This flag is off by default.
 +
 +
#Defaults      ignore_local_sudoers
 +
# ignore_local_sudoers: If set via LDAP, parsing of /etc/sudoers will be skipped.  This is intended for Enterprises that wish to prevent the usage of local sudoers files so that only LDAP is used.  Th
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#  present, /etc/sudoers does not even need to exist. Since this option tells sudo how to behave when no specific LDAP entries have been matched, this sudoOption is only meaningful for the cn=default
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 +
#Defaults      insults
 +
# insults: If set, sudo will insult users when they enter an incorrect password.  This flag is off by default.
 +
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#Defaults      log_host
 +
# log_host: If set, the host name will be logged in the (non-syslog) sudo log file.  This flag is off by default.
 +
 +
#Defaults      log_input
 +
# log_input: If set, sudo will run the command in a pseudo tty and log all user input.  If the standard input is not connected to the user's tty, due to I/O redirection or because the command is part
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#  Input is logged to the directory specified by the iolog_dir option (/var/log/sudo-io by default) using a unique session ID that is included in the normal sudo log line, prefixed with TSID=.  The i
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#  Note that user input may contain sensitive information such as passwords (even if they are not echoed to the screen), which will be stored in the log file unencrypted.  In most cases, logging the
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#Defaults      log_output
 +
# log_output: If set, sudo will run the command in a pseudo tty and log all output that is sent to the screen, similar to the script(1) command.  If the standard output or standard error is not connec
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#  is also captured and stored in separate log files.
 +
#  Output is logged to the directory specified by the iolog_dir option (/var/log/sudo-io by default) using a unique session ID that is included in the normal sudo log line, prefixed with TSID=.  The
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#  Output logs may be viewed with the sudoreplay(8) utility, which can also be used to list or search the available logs.
 +
 +
#Defaults      log_year
 +
# log_year: If set, the four-digit year will be logged in the (non-syslog) sudo log file.  This flag is off by default.
 +
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#Defaults      long_otp_prompt
 +
# long_otp_prompt: When validating with a One Time Password (OTP) scheme such as S/Key or OPIE, a two-line prompt is used to make it easier to cut and paste the challenge to a local window.  It's not
 +
 +
#Defaults      mail_always
 +
# mail_always: Send mail to the mailto user every time a users runs sudo.  This flag is off by default.
 +
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#Defaults      mail_badpass
 +
# mail_badpass: Send mail to the mailto user if the user running sudo does not enter the correct password.  This flag is off by default.
 +
 +
#Defaults      mail_no_host
 +
# mail_no_host: If set, mail will be sent to the mailto user if the invoking user exists in the sudoers file, but is not allowed to run commands on the current host.  This flag is off by default.
 +
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#Defaults      mail_no_perms
 +
# mail_no_perms: If set, mail will be sent to the mailto user if the invoking user is allowed to use sudo but the command they are trying is not listed in their sudoers file entry or is explicitly den
 +
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#Defaults      mail_no_user
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# mail_no_user: If set, mail will be sent to the mailto user if the invoking user is not in the sudoers file.  This flag is on by default.
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#Defaults      noexec
 +
# noexec: If set, all commands run via sudo will behave as if the NOEXEC tag has been set, unless overridden by a EXEC tag.  See the description of NOEXEC and EXEC below as well as the "PREVENTING SHE
 +
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#Defaults      path_info
 +
# path_info: Normally, sudo will tell the user when a command could not be found in their PATH environment variable.  Some sites may wish to disable this as it could be used to gather information on t
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#  the executable is simply not in the user's PATH, sudo will tell the user that they are not allowed to run it, which can be confusing.  This flag is on by default.
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#Defaults      passprompt_override
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# passprompt_override: The password prompt specified by passprompt will normally only be used if the password prompt provided by systems such as PAM matches the string "Password:".  If passprompt_over
 +
 +
#Defaults      preserve_groups
 +
# preserve_groups: By default, sudo will initialize the group vector to the list of groups the target user is in.  When preserve_groups is set, the user's existing group vector is left unaltered.  The
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#  default.
 +
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#Defaults      pwfeedback
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# pwfeedback: By default, sudo reads the password like most other Unix programs, by turning off echo until the user hits the return (or enter) key.  Some users become confused by this as it appears to
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#  the user presses a key.  Note that this does have a security impact as an onlooker may be able to determine the length of the password being entered.  This flag is off by default.
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#Defaults      requiretty
 +
# requiretty: If set, sudo will only run when the user is logged in to a real tty.  When this flag is set, sudo can only be run from a login session and not via other means such as cron(8) or cgi-bin
 +
 +
#Defaults      root_sudo
 +
# root_sudo: If set, root is allowed to run sudo too.  Disabling this prevents users from "chaining" sudo commands to get a root shell by doing something like "sudo sudo /bin/sh".  Note, however, that
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#  real additional security; it exists purely for historical reasons.  This flag is on by default.
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#Defaults      rootpw
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# rootpw: If set, sudo will prompt for the root password instead of the password of the invoking user.  This flag is off by default.
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#Defaults      runaspw
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# runaspw: If set, sudo will prompt for the password of the user defined by the runas_default option (defaults to root) instead of the password of the invoking user.  This flag is off by default.
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#Defaults      set_home
 +
# set_home: If enabled and sudo is invoked with the -s option the HOME environment variable will be set to the home directory of the target user (which is root unless the -u option is used).  This eff
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#  is enabled, so set_home is only effective for configurations where either env_reset is disabled or HOME is present in the env_keep list.  This flag is off by default.
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#Defaults      set_logname
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# set_logname: Normally, sudo will set the LOGNAME, USER and USERNAME environment variables to the name of the target user (usually root unless the -u option is given).  However, since some programs (
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#  may be desirable to change this behavior.  This can be done by negating the set_logname option.  Note that if the env_reset option has not been disabled, entries in the env_keep list will override
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#Defaults      set_utmp
 +
# set_utmp: When enabled, sudo will create an entry in the utmp (or utmpx) file when a pseudo-tty is allocated.  A pseudo-tty is allocated by sudo when the log_input, log_output or use_pty flags are e
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#  the tty, time, type and pid fields updated.  This flag is on by default.
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#Defaults      setenv
 +
# setenv: Allow the user to disable the env_reset option from the command line via the -E option.  Additionally, environment variables set via the command line are not subject to the restrictions impo
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#  variables in this manner.  This flag is off by default.
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#Defaults      shell_noargs
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# shell_noargs: If set and sudo is invoked with no arguments it acts as if the -s option had been given.  That is, it runs a shell as root (the shell is determined by the SHELL environment variable if
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#  is off by default.
 +
 +
#Defaults      stay_setuid
 +
# stay_setuid: Normally, when sudo executes a command the real and effective UIDs are set to the target user (root by default).  This option changes that behavior such that the real UID is left as the
 +
#  systems that disable some potentially dangerous functionality when a program is run setuid.  This option is only effective on systems with either the setreuid() or setresuid() function.  This flag
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 +
#Defaults      targetpw
 +
# targetpw: If set, sudo will prompt for the password of the user specified by the -u option (defaults to root) instead of the password of the invoking user.  In addition, the timestamp file name will
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#  passwd database as an argument to the -u option.  This flag is off by default.
 +
 +
#Defaults      tty_tickets
 +
# tty_tickets: If set, users must authenticate on a per-tty basis.  With this flag enabled, sudo will use a file named for the tty the user is logged in on in the user's time stamp directory.  If disa
 +
 +
#Defaults      umask_override
 +
# umask_override: If set, sudo will set the umask as specified by sudoers without modification.  This makes it possible to specify a more permissive umask in sudoers than the user's own umask and matc
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#  user's umask and what is specified in sudoers.  This flag is off by default.
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#Defaults      use_pty
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# use_pty: If set, sudo will run the command in a pseudo-pty even if no I/O logging is being gone.  A malicious program run under sudo could conceivably fork a background process that retains to the u
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#  that impossible.  This flag is off by default.
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#Defaults      utmp_runas
 +
# utmp_runas: If set, sudo will store the name of the runas user when updating the utmp (or utmpx) file.  By default, sudo stores the name of the invoking user.  This flag is off by default.
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#Defaults      visiblepw
 +
# visiblepw: By default, sudo will refuse to run if the user must enter a password but it is not possible to disable echo on the terminal.  If the visiblepw flag is set, sudo will prompt for a passwor
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#  somehost sudo ls" since rsh(1) does not allocate a tty.  This flag is off by default.
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#Defaults      closefrom
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# closefrom: Before it executes a command, sudo will close all open file descriptors other than standard input, standard output and standard error (ie: file descriptors 0-2).  The closefrom option can
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#Defaults      passwd_tries
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# passwd_tries: The number of tries a user gets to enter his/her password before sudo logs the failure and exits.  The default is 3.
 +
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#Defaults      loglinelen
 +
# loglinelen: Number of characters per line for the file log.  This value is used to decide when to wrap lines for nicer log files.  This has no effect on the syslog log file, only the file log.  The
 +
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#Defaults      passwd_timeout
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# passwd_timeout: Number of minutes before the sudo password prompt times out, or 0 for no timeout.  The timeout may include a fractional component if minute granularity is insufficient, for example 2
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#Defaults      timestamp_timeout
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# timestamp_timeout: Number of minutes that can elapse before sudo will ask for a passwd again.  The timeout may include a fractional component if minute granularity is insufficient, for example 2.5.
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#  timestamp will never expire.  This can be used to allow users to create or delete their own timestamps via sudo -v and sudo -k respectively.
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#Defaults      umask
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# umask: Umask to use when running the command.  Negate this option or set it to 0777 to preserve the user's umask.  The actual umask that is used will be the union of the user's umask and the value o
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#  running a command.  Note on systems that use PAM, the default PAM configuration may specify its own umask which will override the value set in sudoers.
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#Defaults      badpass_message
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# badpass_message: Message that is displayed if a user enters an incorrect password.  The default is Sorry, try again. unless insults are enabled.
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#Defaults      editor
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# editor: A colon (':') separated list of editors allowed to be used with visudo.  visudo will choose the editor that matches the user's EDITOR environment variable if possible, or the first editor in
 +
 +
#Defaults      iolog_dir
 +
# iolog_dir: The top-level directory to use when constructing the path name for the input/output log directory.  Only used if the log_input or log_output options are enabled or when the LOG_INPUT or L
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#  directory.  The default is "/var/log/sudo-io".
 +
#  The following percent (`%') escape sequences are supported:
 +
#    %{seq} - expanded to a monotonically increasing base-36 sequence number, such as 0100A5, where every two digits are used to form a new directory, e.g. 01/00/A5
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#    %{user} - expanded to the invoking user's login name
 +
#    %{group} - expanded to the name of the invoking user's real group ID
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#    %{runas_user} - expanded to the login name of the user the command will be run as (e.g. root)
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#    %{runas_group} - expanded to the group name of the user the command will be run as (e.g. wheel)
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#    %{hostname} - expanded to the local host name without the domain name
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#    %{command} - expanded to the base name of the command being run
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#  In addition, any escape sequences supported by the system's strftime() function will be expanded.
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#  To include a literal `%' character, the string `%%' should be used.
 +
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#Defaults      iolog_file
 +
# iolog_file: The path name, relative to iolog_dir, in which to store input/output logs when the log_input or log_output options are enabled or when the LOG_INPUT or LOG_OUTPUT tags are present for a
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#  See the iolog_dir option above for a list of supported percent (`%') escape sequences.
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#  In addition to the escape sequences, path names that end in six or more Xs will have the Xs replaced with a unique combination of digits and letters, similar to the mktemp() function.
 +
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#Defaults      mailsub
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# mailsub: Subject of the mail sent to the mailto user. The escape %h will expand to the host name of the machine.  Default is *** SECURITY information for %h ***.
 +
 +
#Defaults      noexec_file
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# noexec_file: This option is no longer supported.  The path to the noexec file should now be set in the /etc/sudo.conf file.
 +
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#Defaults      passprompt
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# passprompt: The default prompt to use when asking for a password; can be overridden via the -p option or the SUDO_PROMPT environment variable.  The following percent (`%') escape sequences are suppo
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#    %H  expanded to the local host name including the domain name (only if the machine's host name is fully qualified or the fqdn option is set)
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#    %h  expanded to the local host name without the domain name
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#    %p  expanded to the user whose password is being asked for (respects the rootpw, targetpw and runaspw flags in sudoers)
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#    %U  expanded to the login name of the user the command will be run as (defaults to root)
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#    %u  expanded to the invoking user's login name
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#    %%  two consecutive % characters are collapsed into a single % character
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#  The default value is Password:.
 +
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#Defaults      runas_default
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# runas_default: The default user to run commands as if the -u option is not specified on the command line.  This defaults to root.
 +
 +
#Defaults      syslog_badpri
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# syslog_badpri: Syslog priority to use when user authenticates unsuccessfully.  Defaults to alert.
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#  The following syslog priorities are supported: alert, crit, debug, emerg, err, info, notice, and warning.
 +
 +
#Defaults      syslog_goodpri
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# syslog_goodpri: Syslog priority to use when user authenticates successfully.  Defaults to notice.
 +
#  See syslog_badpri for the list of supported syslog priorities.
 +
 +
#Defaults      sudoers_locale
 +
# sudoers_locale: Locale to use when parsing the sudoers file, logging commands, and sending email.  Note that changing the locale may affect how sudoers is interpreted.  Defaults to "C".
 +
 +
#Defaults      timestampdir
 +
# timestampdir: The directory in which sudo stores its timestamp files.  The default is /var/db/sudo.
 +
 +
#Defaults      timestampowner
 +
# timestampowner: The owner of the timestamp directory and the timestamps stored therein.  The default is root.
 +
 +
#Defaults      env_file
 +
# env_file: The env_file option specifies the fully qualified path to a file containing variables to be set in the environment of the program being run.  Entries in this file should either be of the f
 +
#  quotes.  Variables in this file are subject to other sudo environment settings such as env_keep and env_check.
 +
 +
#Defaults      exempt_group
 +
# exempt_group: Users in this group are exempt from password and PATH requirements.  The group name specified should not include a % prefix.  This is not set by default.
 +
 +
#Defaults      group_plugin
 +
# group_plugin: A string containing a sudoers group plugin with optional arguments.  This can be used to implement support for the nonunix_group syntax described earlier.  The string should consist of
 +
#  configuration arguments the plugin requires.  These arguments (if any) will be passed to the plugin's initialization function.  If arguments are present, the string must be enclosed in double quot
 +
#  For example, given /etc/sudo-group, a group file in Unix group format, the sample group plugin can be used:
 +
#  Defaults group_plugin="sample_group.so /etc/sudo-group"
 +
#  For more information see sudo_plugin(5).
 +
 +
#Defaults      lecture
 +
# lecture: This option controls when a short lecture will be printed along with the password prompt.  It has the following possible values:
 +
#    always  Always lecture the user.
 +
#    never  Never lecture the user.
 +
#    once    Only lecture the user the first time they run sudo.
 +
#  If no value is specified, a value of once is implied.  Negating the option results in a value of never being used.  The default value is once.
 +
 +
#Defaults      lecture_file
 +
# lecture_file: Path to a file containing an alternate sudo lecture that will be used in place of the standard lecture if the named file exists.  By default, sudo uses a built-in lecture.
 +
 +
#Defaults      listpw
 +
# listpw: This option controls when a password will be required when a user runs sudo with the -l option.  It has the following possible values:
 +
#    all    All the user's sudoers entries for the current host must have the NOPASSWD flag set to avoid entering a password.
 +
#    always  The user must always enter a password to use the -l option.
 +
#    any    At least one of the user's sudoers entries for the current host must have the NOPASSWD flag set to avoid entering a password.
 +
#    never  The user need never enter a password to use the -l option.
 +
#  If no value is specified, a value of any is implied.  Negating the option results in a value of never being used.  The default value is any.
 +
 +
#Defaults      logfile
 +
# logfile: Path to the sudo log file (not the syslog log file).  Setting a path turns on logging to a file; negating this option turns it off.  By default, sudo logs via syslog.
 +
 +
#Defaults      mailerflags
 +
# mailerflags: Flags to use when invoking mailer. Defaults to -t.
 +
 +
#Defaults      mailerpath
 +
# mailerpath: Path to mail program used to send warning mail.  Defaults to the path to sendmail found at configure time.
 +
 +
#Defaults      mailfrom
 +
# mailfrom: Address to use for the "from" address when sending warning and error mail.  The address should be enclosed in double quotes (") to protect against sudo interpreting the @ sign.  Defaults t
 +
 +
#Defaults      mailto
 +
# mailto: Address to send warning and error mail to.  The address should be enclosed in double quotes (") to protect against sudo interpreting the @ sign.  Defaults to root.
 +
 +
#Defaults      secure_path
 +
# secure_path: Path used for every command run from sudo.  If you don't trust the people running sudo to have a sane PATH environment variable you may want to use this.  Another use is if you want to
 +
#  option are not affected by secure_path.  This option is not set by default.
 +
 +
#Defaults      syslog
 +
# syslog: Syslog facility if syslog is being used for logging (negate to disable syslog logging).  Defaults to auth.
 +
#  The following syslog facilities are supported: authpriv (if your OS supports it), auth, daemon, user, local0, local1, local2, local3, local4, local5, local6, and local7.
 +
 +
#Defaults      verifypw
 +
# verifypw: This option controls when a password will be required when a user runs sudo with the -v option.  It has the following possible values:
 +
#    all    All the user's sudoers entries for the current host must have the NOPASSWD flag set to avoid entering a password.
 +
#    always  The user must always enter a password to use the -v option.
 +
#    any    At least one of the user's sudoers entries for the current host must have the NOPASSWD flag set to avoid entering a password.
 +
#    never  The user need never enter a password to use the -v option.
 +
#  If no value is specified, a value of all is implied.  Negating the option results in a value of never being used.  The default value is all.
 +
 +
#Defaults      env_check
 +
# env_check: Environment variables to be removed from the user's environment if the variable's value contains % or / characters.  This can be used to guard against printf-style format vulnerabilities
 +
#  value without double-quotes.  The list can be replaced, added to, deleted from, or disabled by using the =, +=, -=, and ! operators respectively.  Regardless of whether the env_reset option is ena
 +
#  they pass the aforementioned check.  The default list of environment variables to check is displayed when sudo is run by root with the -V option.
 +
 +
#Defaults      env_delete
 +
# env_delete: Environment variables to be removed from the user's environment when the env_reset option is not in effect.  The argument may be a double-quoted, space-separated list or a single value w
 +
#  +=, -=, and ! operators respectively.  The default list of environment variables to remove is displayed when sudo is run by root with the -V option.  Note that many operating systems will remove p
 +
 +
#Defaults      env_keep
 +
# env_keep: Environment variables to be preserved in the user's environment when the env_reset option is in effect.  This allows fine-grained control over the environment sudo-spawned processes will r
 +
#  quotes.  The list can be replaced, added to, deleted from, or disabled by using the =, +=, -=, and ! operators respectively.  The default list of variables to keep is displayed when sudo is run by
 +
</nowiki>}}

Revision as of 22:50, 23 February 2012

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Summary help replacing me
An overview of the popular privilege escalation utility.
Overview
Template:Access control overview

sudo (superuser "do") allows a system administrator to delegate authority to give certain users (or groups of users) the ability to run some (or all) commands as root or another user while providing an audit trail of the commands and their arguments.[1]

Rationale

Sudo is an alternative to su for running commands as root. Unlike su, which launches a root shell that allows all further commands root access, sudo instead grants temporary privilege escalation to a single command. By enabling root privileges only when needed, sudo usage reduces the likelyhood that a typo or a bug in an invoked command will ruin the system. Sudo can also be used to run commands as other users; additionally, sudo logs all commands and failed access attempts for security auditing.

Installation

Install the sudo package, available in the official repositories. To begin using sudo as a non-privileged user, it must be properly configured, so make sure you read the configuration section.

Usage

With sudo, users can prefix commands with sudo to run them with superuser (or other) privileges. For example to use pacman:

$ sudo pacman -Syu

See the sudo manual for more information.

Configuration

Using visudo

The configuration file for sudo is /etc/sudoers. It should always be edited with the visudo command. visudo locks the sudoers file, saves edits to a temporary file, and checks that file's grammar before copying it to /etc/sudoers.

Warning: It is imperative that sudoers be free of syntax errors! Any error makes sudo unusable. Always edit it with visudo to prevent errors.

A handy alias to edit sudoers with syntax highlighting in vim without losing the benefits of visudo:

# alias visudo="sudo bash -c 'umask 0227;F=/etc/sudoers;T=\$F.tmp;cp -vPf \$F \$T;vim -u /dev/null --noplugins -mpX -c '\''exe \"set nu noswf nobk noaw write ft=sudoers\"|syn on|colorscheme desert'\'' \$T; visudo -cs -f \$T && mv -vf \$T \$F'"

The default editor for visudo is vi. It will be used if you do not specify another editor, by setting one of the SUDO_EDITOR, VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables (used in that order) to the desired editor, e.g. vim. The command is run as root:

# SUDO_EDITOR="/usr/bin/vim -p -X" visudo

You can permanently change the setting system-wide to e.g. vim by appending

export SUDO_EDITOR="/usr/bin/vim -p -X"

to your ~/.bashrc file. Note that this won't take effect for already-running shells.

To change the editor of choice permanently only for visudo, add the following line to /etc/sudoers where vim is your prefered editor:

# Reset environment by default
Defaults      env_reset
# Set default EDITOR to vim, and do not allow visudo to use EDITOR/VISUAL.
Defaults      editor="/usr/bin/vim -p -X", !env_editor

Example Entries

To allow a user to gain full root privileges when he/she precedes a command with sudo, add the following line:

USER_NAME   ALL=(ALL) ALL

To allow a user to run all commands as any user but only the machine with hostname HOST_NAME:

USER_NAME   HOST_NAME=(ALL) ALL

To allow members of group wheel sudo access requiring no password:

%wheel      ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL

To disable asking for a password for user USER_NAME

Defaults:USER_NAME      !authenticate

Enable explicitly defined commands only for user USER_NAME on host HOST_NAME:

USER_NAME HOST_NAME=/sbin/halt,/sbin/poweroff,/sbin/reboot,/usr/bin/pacman -Syu


A detailed sudoers example can be found here. Otherwise, see the sudoers manual for detailed information.

Sudoers default file permissions

The owner and group for the sudoers file must both be 0. The file permissions must be set to 0440. These permissions are set by default, but if you accidentally change them, they should be changed back immediately or sudo will fail.

# chown -c root:root /etc/sudoers
# chmod -c 0440 /etc/sudoers

Password cache timeout

Users may wish to change the default timeout before the cached password expires. This is accomplished with the timestamp_timeout option in /etc/sudoers which is in minutes. Set timeout to 20 minutes.

Defaults:USER_NAME timestamp_timeout=20
Tip: To ensure sudo always asks for a password, set the timeout to 0. To ensure the password never times out, set to less than 0.

Tips and tricks

File example

This example is especially helpful for those using terminal multiplexers like screen, tmux, or ratpoison, and those using sudo from scripts/cronjobs:

/etc/sudoers
Cmnd_Alias WHEELER = /usr/sbin/lsof, /bin/nice, /bin/ps, /usr/bin/top, /usr/local/bin/nano, /bin/netstat, /usr/bin/locate, /usr/bin/find, /usr/bin/rsync
Cmnd_Alias PROCESSES = /bin/nice, /bin/kill, /usr/bin/nice, /usr/bin/ionice, /usr/bin/top, /usr/bin/kill, /usr/bin/killall, /usr/bin/ps, /usr/bin/pkill
Cmnd_Alias EDITS = /usr/bin/vim, /usr/bin/nano, /usr/bin/cat, /usr/bin/vi
Cmnd_Alias ARCHLINUX = /usr/sbin/gparted, /usr/bin/pacman, /usr/bin/pacman-color

root ALL = (ALL) ALL
USER_NAME ALL = (ALL) ALL, NOPASSWD: WHEELER, NOPASSWD: PROCESSES, NOPASSWD: ARCHLINUX, NOPASSWD: EDITS
 
Defaults !requiretty, !tty_tickets, !umask
Defaults visiblepw, path_info, insults, lecture=always
Defaults loglinelen = 0, logfile =/var/log/sudo.log, log_year, log_host, syslog=auth
Defaults mailto=webmaster@foobar.com, mail_badpass, mail_no_user, mail_no_perms
Defaults passwd_tries = 8, passwd_timeout = 1
Defaults env_reset, always_set_home, set_home, set_logname
Defaults !env_editor, editor="/usr/bin/vim:/usr/bin/vi:/usr/bin/nano"
Defaults timestamp_timeout=360
Defaults passprompt="Sudo invoked by [%u] on [%H] - Cmd run as %U - Password for user %p:"

Enabling tab-completion in bash

Tab-completion, by default, will not work when a user is initially added to the sudoers file. For example, normally john only needs to type:

fire<TAB>

and the shell will complete the command for him as:

firefox

If, however, john is added to the sudoers file and he types:

sudo fire<TAB>

the shell will do nothing.

To enable tab-completion with sudo, add the following to your ~/.bashrc:

complete -cf sudo

Alternatively, you could also install and enable bash-completion to get smarter tab-completion for commands like sudo, see bash#Auto-completion for more information.

Run X11 apps using sudo

To allow sudo to start graphical application in X11, you need to add

Defaults env_keep += "HOME"

to visudo.

Disable per-terminal sudo

Warning: This will let any process use your sudo session

If you are annoyed by sudo's defaults that require you to enter your password every time you open a new terminal, disable tty_tickets:

Defaults !tty_tickets

Environment variables (Outdated?)

If you have a lot of environment variables, or you export your proxy settings via export http_proxy="...", when using sudo these variables do not get passed to the root account unless you run sudo with the -E option.

$ sudo -E pacman -Syu

Because of this you may wish to add an alias in ~/.bashrc:

alias sudo="sudo -E"

Another way of fixing this would be to add in /etc/sudoers:

Defaults !env_reset

If you want to just pass *_proxy variables, add the following:

Defaults env_keep += "ftp_proxy http_proxy https_proxy no_proxy"

Add /sbin and /usr/sbin to root's PATH

If you want to run administrative commands (those in /sbin or /usr/sbin) with sudo without using their full path, add:

Defaults secure_path="/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin" 

in /etc/sudoers.

This allows you to do:

$ sudo command

instead of:

$ sudo /sbin/command

or:

$ sudo /usr/sbin/command

Passing aliases

If you use a lot of aliases, you might have noticed that they do not carry over to the root account when using sudo. However, there is an easy way to make them work. Simply add the following to your ~/.bashrc or /etc/bash.bashrc:

alias sudo='sudo '

Insults

Users can configure sudo to display clever insults when an incorrect password is entered instead of printing the default "wrong password" message. Find the Defaults line in /etc/sudoers and append "insults" after a comma to existing options. The final result might look like this:

#Defaults specification
Defaults insults

To test, type sudo -K to end the current session a let sudo ask for the password again.

Root password

Users can configure sudo to ask for the root password instead of the user password by adding "rootpw" to the Defaults line in /etc/sudoers:

Defaults timestamp_timeout=0,rootpw

Disable root login

Warning: Arch Linux is not fine-tuned to run with a disabled root account. Users may encounter problems with this method.

With sudo installed and configured, users may wish to disable the root login. Without root, attackers must first guess a user name configured as a sudoer as well as the user password.

Warning: Ensure a user is properly configured as a sudoer before disabling the root account!

The account can be locked via passwd:

# passwd -l root

A similar command unlocks root.

$ sudo passwd -u root

Alternatively, edit /etc/shadow and replace the root's encrypted password with "!":

root:!:12345::::::

To enable root login again:

$ sudo passwd root

kdesu

kdesu may be used under KDE to launch GUI applications with root privileges. It is possible that by default kdesu will try to use su even if the root account is disabled. Fortunately one can tell kdesu to use sudo instead of su. Create/edit the file /usr/share/config/kdesurc:

[super-user-command]
super-user-command=sudo

PolicyKit

When disabling the root account, it is necessary to change the PolicyKit configuration for local authorization to reflect that. The default is to ask for the root password, so that must be changed. With polkit-1, this can be achieved by editing /etc/polkit-1/localauthority.conf.d/50-localauthority.conf so that

AdminIdentities=unix-user:0

is replaced by something else, depending on the system configuration. It can be a list of users and groups, for example

AdminIdentities=unix-group:wheel

or

AdminIdentities=unix-user:me;unixuser:mom;unix-group:wheel

For more information, see man pklocalauthority.

Troubleshooting

SSH TTY Issues

SSH does not allocate a tty by default when running a remote command. Without a tty, sudo cannot disable echo when prompting for a password. You can use ssh's -tt option to force it to allocate a tty. (use -tt twice).

The Defaults option requiretty only allows the user to run sudo if they have a tty.

# Disable "ssh hostname sudo <cmd>", because it will show the password in clear text. You have to run "ssh -t hostname sudo <cmd>".
#
#Defaults    requiretty

Display User Privileges

You can find out what privileges a particular user has with the following command:

 sudo -lU yourusename

Or view your own with

 sudo -l
Matching Defaults entries for yourusename on this host:
    loglinelen=0, logfile=/var/log/sudo.log, log_year, syslog=auth, mailto=sqpt.webmaster@gmail.com, mail_badpass, mail_no_user, mail_no_perms, env_reset, always_set_home, tty_tickets, lecture=always, pwfeedback, rootpw, set_home

User yourusename may run the following commands on this host:
    (ALL) ALL, 
    (ALL) NOPASSWD: /usr/sbin/lsof, /bin/nice, /bin/netstat, /usr/bin/su, /usr/bin/locate, /usr/bin/find, /usr/bin/rsync, /usr/bin/strace, 
    (ALL) /bin/nice, /bin/kill, /usr/bin/nice, /usr/bin/ionice, /usr/bin/top, /usr/bin/kill, /usr/bin/killall, /usr/bin/ps, /usr/bin/pkill, 
    (ALL) /usr/sbin/gparted, /usr/bin/pacman
    (ALL) /usr/local/bin/synergyc, /usr/local/bin/synergys, 
    (ALL) /usr/bin/vim, /usr/bin/nano, /usr/bin/cat
    (root) NOPASSWD: /usr/local/bin/synergyc

Permissive Umask

Sudo will union the user's umask value with its own umask (which defaults to 0022). This prevents sudo from creating files with more open permissions than the user's umask allows. While this is a sane default if no custom umask is in use, this can lead to situations where a utility run by sudo may create files with different permissions than if run by root directly. If errors arise from this, sudo provides a means to fix the umask, even if the desired umask is more permissive than the umask that the user has specified. Adding this (using visudo) will override sudo's default behavior:

Defaults umask = 0022
Defaults umask_override

This sets sudo's umask to root's default umask (0022) and overrides the default behavior, always using the indicated umask regardless of what umask the user as set.


Defaults Skeleton

Here is a commented out list of all the options available to use with the Defaults command in /etc/sudoers The idea is to copy and paste this in your sudoers files and then make changes.

#Defaults       always_set_home
# always_set_home: If enabled, sudo will set the HOME environment variable to the home directory of the target user (which is root unless the -u option is used).  This effectively means that the -H op
#     always_set_home is only effective for configurations where either env_reset is disabled or HOME is present in the env_keep list.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       authenticate
# authenticate: If set, users must authenticate themselves via a password (or other means of authentication) before they may run commands.  This default may be overridden via the PASSWD and NOPASSWD t

#Defaults       closefrom_override
# closefrom_override: If set, the user may use sudo's -C option which overrides the default starting point at which sudo begins closing open file descriptors.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       compress_io
# compress_io: If set, and sudo is configured to log a command's input or output, the I/O logs will be compressed using zlib.  This flag is on by default when sudo is compiled with zlib support.

#Defaults       env_editor
# env_editor: If set, visudo will use the value of the EDITOR or VISUAL environment variables before falling back on the default editor list.  Note that this may create a security hole as it allows th
#   separated list of editors in the editor variable.  visudo will then only use the EDITOR or VISUAL if they match a value specified in editor.  This flag is on by default.

#Defaults       env_reset
# env_reset: If set, sudo will run the command in a minimal environment containing the TERM, PATH, HOME, MAIL, SHELL, LOGNAME, USER, USERNAME and SUDO_* variables.  Any variables in the caller's envir
#   in the file specified by the env_file option (if any).  The default contents of the env_keep and env_check lists are displayed when sudo is run by root with the -V option.  If the secure_path opti
#   default.

#Defaults       fast_glob
# fast_glob: Normally, sudo uses the glob(3) function to do shell-style globbing when matching path names.  However, since it accesses the file system, glob(3) can take a long time to complete for som
#   (automounted).  The fast_glob option causes sudo to use the fnmatch(3) function, which does not access the file system to do its matching.  The disadvantage of fast_glob is that it is unable to ma
#   names that include globbing characters are used with the negation operator, '!', as such rules can be trivially bypassed.  As such, this option should not be used when sudoers contains rules that

#Defaults       fqdn
# fqdn: Set this flag if you want to put fully qualified host names in the sudoers file.  I.e., instead of myhost you would use myhost.mydomain.edu.  You may still use the short form if you wish (and
#   sudo unusable if DNS stops working (for example if the machine is not plugged into the network).  Also note that you must use the host's official name as DNS knows it.  That is, you may not use a
#     all aliases from DNS.  If your machine's host name (as returned by the hostname command) is already fully qualified you shouldn't need to set fqdn.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       ignore_dot
# ignore_dot: If set, sudo will ignore '.' or '' (current dir) in the PATH environment variable; the PATH itself is not modified.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       ignore_local_sudoers
# ignore_local_sudoers: If set via LDAP, parsing of /etc/sudoers will be skipped.  This is intended for Enterprises that wish to prevent the usage of local sudoers files so that only LDAP is used.  Th
#   present, /etc/sudoers does not even need to exist. Since this option tells sudo how to behave when no specific LDAP entries have been matched, this sudoOption is only meaningful for the cn=default

#Defaults       insults
# insults: If set, sudo will insult users when they enter an incorrect password.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       log_host
# log_host: If set, the host name will be logged in the (non-syslog) sudo log file.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       log_input
# log_input: If set, sudo will run the command in a pseudo tty and log all user input.  If the standard input is not connected to the user's tty, due to I/O redirection or because the command is part
#   Input is logged to the directory specified by the iolog_dir option (/var/log/sudo-io by default) using a unique session ID that is included in the normal sudo log line, prefixed with TSID=.  The i
#   Note that user input may contain sensitive information such as passwords (even if they are not echoed to the screen), which will be stored in the log file unencrypted.  In most cases, logging the

#Defaults       log_output
# log_output: If set, sudo will run the command in a pseudo tty and log all output that is sent to the screen, similar to the script(1) command.  If the standard output or standard error is not connec
#   is also captured and stored in separate log files.
#   Output is logged to the directory specified by the iolog_dir option (/var/log/sudo-io by default) using a unique session ID that is included in the normal sudo log line, prefixed with TSID=.  The
#   Output logs may be viewed with the sudoreplay(8) utility, which can also be used to list or search the available logs.

#Defaults       log_year
# log_year: If set, the four-digit year will be logged in the (non-syslog) sudo log file.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       long_otp_prompt
# long_otp_prompt: When validating with a One Time Password (OTP) scheme such as S/Key or OPIE, a two-line prompt is used to make it easier to cut and paste the challenge to a local window.  It's not

#Defaults       mail_always
# mail_always: Send mail to the mailto user every time a users runs sudo.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       mail_badpass
# mail_badpass: Send mail to the mailto user if the user running sudo does not enter the correct password.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       mail_no_host
# mail_no_host: If set, mail will be sent to the mailto user if the invoking user exists in the sudoers file, but is not allowed to run commands on the current host.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       mail_no_perms
# mail_no_perms: If set, mail will be sent to the mailto user if the invoking user is allowed to use sudo but the command they are trying is not listed in their sudoers file entry or is explicitly den

#Defaults       mail_no_user
# mail_no_user: If set, mail will be sent to the mailto user if the invoking user is not in the sudoers file.  This flag is on by default.

#Defaults       noexec
# noexec: If set, all commands run via sudo will behave as if the NOEXEC tag has been set, unless overridden by a EXEC tag.  See the description of NOEXEC and EXEC below as well as the "PREVENTING SHE

#Defaults       path_info
# path_info: Normally, sudo will tell the user when a command could not be found in their PATH environment variable.  Some sites may wish to disable this as it could be used to gather information on t
#   the executable is simply not in the user's PATH, sudo will tell the user that they are not allowed to run it, which can be confusing.  This flag is on by default.

#Defaults       passprompt_override
# passprompt_override: The password prompt specified by passprompt will normally only be used if the password prompt provided by systems such as PAM matches the string "Password:".  If passprompt_over

#Defaults       preserve_groups
# preserve_groups: By default, sudo will initialize the group vector to the list of groups the target user is in.  When preserve_groups is set, the user's existing group vector is left unaltered.  The
#   default.

#Defaults       pwfeedback
# pwfeedback: By default, sudo reads the password like most other Unix programs, by turning off echo until the user hits the return (or enter) key.  Some users become confused by this as it appears to
#   the user presses a key.  Note that this does have a security impact as an onlooker may be able to determine the length of the password being entered.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       requiretty
# requiretty: If set, sudo will only run when the user is logged in to a real tty.  When this flag is set, sudo can only be run from a login session and not via other means such as cron(8) or cgi-bin

#Defaults       root_sudo
# root_sudo: If set, root is allowed to run sudo too.  Disabling this prevents users from "chaining" sudo commands to get a root shell by doing something like "sudo sudo /bin/sh".  Note, however, that
#   real additional security; it exists purely for historical reasons.  This flag is on by default.

#Defaults       rootpw
# rootpw: If set, sudo will prompt for the root password instead of the password of the invoking user.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       runaspw
# runaspw: If set, sudo will prompt for the password of the user defined by the runas_default option (defaults to root) instead of the password of the invoking user.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       set_home
# set_home: If enabled and sudo is invoked with the -s option the HOME environment variable will be set to the home directory of the target user (which is root unless the -u option is used).  This eff
#   is enabled, so set_home is only effective for configurations where either env_reset is disabled or HOME is present in the env_keep list.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       set_logname
# set_logname: Normally, sudo will set the LOGNAME, USER and USERNAME environment variables to the name of the target user (usually root unless the -u option is given).  However, since some programs (
#   may be desirable to change this behavior.  This can be done by negating the set_logname option.  Note that if the env_reset option has not been disabled, entries in the env_keep list will override

#Defaults       set_utmp
# set_utmp: When enabled, sudo will create an entry in the utmp (or utmpx) file when a pseudo-tty is allocated.  A pseudo-tty is allocated by sudo when the log_input, log_output or use_pty flags are e
#   the tty, time, type and pid fields updated.  This flag is on by default.

#Defaults       setenv
# setenv: Allow the user to disable the env_reset option from the command line via the -E option.  Additionally, environment variables set via the command line are not subject to the restrictions impo
#   variables in this manner.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       shell_noargs
# shell_noargs: If set and sudo is invoked with no arguments it acts as if the -s option had been given.  That is, it runs a shell as root (the shell is determined by the SHELL environment variable if
#   is off by default.

#Defaults       stay_setuid
# stay_setuid: Normally, when sudo executes a command the real and effective UIDs are set to the target user (root by default).  This option changes that behavior such that the real UID is left as the
#   systems that disable some potentially dangerous functionality when a program is run setuid.  This option is only effective on systems with either the setreuid() or setresuid() function.  This flag

#Defaults       targetpw
# targetpw: If set, sudo will prompt for the password of the user specified by the -u option (defaults to root) instead of the password of the invoking user.  In addition, the timestamp file name will
#   passwd database as an argument to the -u option.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       tty_tickets
# tty_tickets: If set, users must authenticate on a per-tty basis.  With this flag enabled, sudo will use a file named for the tty the user is logged in on in the user's time stamp directory.  If disa

#Defaults       umask_override
# umask_override: If set, sudo will set the umask as specified by sudoers without modification.  This makes it possible to specify a more permissive umask in sudoers than the user's own umask and matc
#   user's umask and what is specified in sudoers.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       use_pty
# use_pty: If set, sudo will run the command in a pseudo-pty even if no I/O logging is being gone.  A malicious program run under sudo could conceivably fork a background process that retains to the u
#   that impossible.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       utmp_runas
# utmp_runas: If set, sudo will store the name of the runas user when updating the utmp (or utmpx) file.  By default, sudo stores the name of the invoking user.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       visiblepw
# visiblepw: By default, sudo will refuse to run if the user must enter a password but it is not possible to disable echo on the terminal.  If the visiblepw flag is set, sudo will prompt for a passwor
#   somehost sudo ls" since rsh(1) does not allocate a tty.  This flag is off by default.

#Defaults       closefrom
# closefrom: Before it executes a command, sudo will close all open file descriptors other than standard input, standard output and standard error (ie: file descriptors 0-2).  The closefrom option can

#Defaults       passwd_tries
# passwd_tries: The number of tries a user gets to enter his/her password before sudo logs the failure and exits.  The default is 3.

#Defaults       loglinelen
# loglinelen: Number of characters per line for the file log.  This value is used to decide when to wrap lines for nicer log files.  This has no effect on the syslog log file, only the file log.  The

#Defaults       passwd_timeout
# passwd_timeout: Number of minutes before the sudo password prompt times out, or 0 for no timeout.  The timeout may include a fractional component if minute granularity is insufficient, for example 2

#Defaults       timestamp_timeout
# timestamp_timeout: Number of minutes that can elapse before sudo will ask for a passwd again.  The timeout may include a fractional component if minute granularity is insufficient, for example 2.5.
#   timestamp will never expire.  This can be used to allow users to create or delete their own timestamps via sudo -v and sudo -k respectively.

#Defaults       umask
# umask: Umask to use when running the command.  Negate this option or set it to 0777 to preserve the user's umask.  The actual umask that is used will be the union of the user's umask and the value o
#   running a command.  Note on systems that use PAM, the default PAM configuration may specify its own umask which will override the value set in sudoers.

#Defaults       badpass_message
# badpass_message: Message that is displayed if a user enters an incorrect password.  The default is Sorry, try again. unless insults are enabled.

#Defaults       editor
# editor: A colon (':') separated list of editors allowed to be used with visudo.  visudo will choose the editor that matches the user's EDITOR environment variable if possible, or the first editor in

#Defaults       iolog_dir
# iolog_dir: The top-level directory to use when constructing the path name for the input/output log directory.  Only used if the log_input or log_output options are enabled or when the LOG_INPUT or L
#   directory.  The default is "/var/log/sudo-io".
#   The following percent (`%') escape sequences are supported:
#     %{seq} - expanded to a monotonically increasing base-36 sequence number, such as 0100A5, where every two digits are used to form a new directory, e.g. 01/00/A5
#     %{user} - expanded to the invoking user's login name
#     %{group} - expanded to the name of the invoking user's real group ID
#     %{runas_user} - expanded to the login name of the user the command will be run as (e.g. root)
#     %{runas_group} - expanded to the group name of the user the command will be run as (e.g. wheel)
#     %{hostname} - expanded to the local host name without the domain name
#     %{command} - expanded to the base name of the command being run
#   In addition, any escape sequences supported by the system's strftime() function will be expanded.
#   To include a literal `%' character, the string `%%' should be used.

#Defaults       iolog_file
# iolog_file: The path name, relative to iolog_dir, in which to store input/output logs when the log_input or log_output options are enabled or when the LOG_INPUT or LOG_OUTPUT tags are present for a
#   See the iolog_dir option above for a list of supported percent (`%') escape sequences.
#   In addition to the escape sequences, path names that end in six or more Xs will have the Xs replaced with a unique combination of digits and letters, similar to the mktemp() function.

#Defaults       mailsub
# mailsub: Subject of the mail sent to the mailto user. The escape %h will expand to the host name of the machine.  Default is *** SECURITY information for %h ***.

#Defaults       noexec_file
# noexec_file: This option is no longer supported.  The path to the noexec file should now be set in the /etc/sudo.conf file.

#Defaults       passprompt
# passprompt: The default prompt to use when asking for a password; can be overridden via the -p option or the SUDO_PROMPT environment variable.  The following percent (`%') escape sequences are suppo
#     %H  expanded to the local host name including the domain name (only if the machine's host name is fully qualified or the fqdn option is set)
#     %h  expanded to the local host name without the domain name
#     %p  expanded to the user whose password is being asked for (respects the rootpw, targetpw and runaspw flags in sudoers)
#     %U  expanded to the login name of the user the command will be run as (defaults to root)
#     %u  expanded to the invoking user's login name
#     %%  two consecutive % characters are collapsed into a single % character
#   The default value is Password:.

#Defaults       runas_default
# runas_default: The default user to run commands as if the -u option is not specified on the command line.  This defaults to root.

#Defaults       syslog_badpri
# syslog_badpri: Syslog priority to use when user authenticates unsuccessfully.  Defaults to alert.
#   The following syslog priorities are supported: alert, crit, debug, emerg, err, info, notice, and warning.

#Defaults       syslog_goodpri
# syslog_goodpri: Syslog priority to use when user authenticates successfully.  Defaults to notice.
#   See syslog_badpri for the list of supported syslog priorities.

#Defaults       sudoers_locale
# sudoers_locale: Locale to use when parsing the sudoers file, logging commands, and sending email.  Note that changing the locale may affect how sudoers is interpreted.  Defaults to "C".

#Defaults       timestampdir
# timestampdir: The directory in which sudo stores its timestamp files.  The default is /var/db/sudo.

#Defaults       timestampowner
# timestampowner: The owner of the timestamp directory and the timestamps stored therein.  The default is root.

#Defaults       env_file
# env_file: The env_file option specifies the fully qualified path to a file containing variables to be set in the environment of the program being run.  Entries in this file should either be of the f
#   quotes.  Variables in this file are subject to other sudo environment settings such as env_keep and env_check.

#Defaults       exempt_group
# exempt_group: Users in this group are exempt from password and PATH requirements.  The group name specified should not include a % prefix.  This is not set by default.

#Defaults       group_plugin
# group_plugin: A string containing a sudoers group plugin with optional arguments.  This can be used to implement support for the nonunix_group syntax described earlier.  The string should consist of
#   configuration arguments the plugin requires.  These arguments (if any) will be passed to the plugin's initialization function.  If arguments are present, the string must be enclosed in double quot
#   For example, given /etc/sudo-group, a group file in Unix group format, the sample group plugin can be used:
#   Defaults group_plugin="sample_group.so /etc/sudo-group"
#   For more information see sudo_plugin(5).

#Defaults       lecture
# lecture: This option controls when a short lecture will be printed along with the password prompt.  It has the following possible values:
#     always  Always lecture the user.
#     never   Never lecture the user.
#     once    Only lecture the user the first time they run sudo.
#   If no value is specified, a value of once is implied.  Negating the option results in a value of never being used.  The default value is once.

#Defaults       lecture_file
# lecture_file: Path to a file containing an alternate sudo lecture that will be used in place of the standard lecture if the named file exists.  By default, sudo uses a built-in lecture.

#Defaults       listpw
# listpw: This option controls when a password will be required when a user runs sudo with the -l option.  It has the following possible values:
#     all     All the user's sudoers entries for the current host must have the NOPASSWD flag set to avoid entering a password.
#     always  The user must always enter a password to use the -l option.
#     any     At least one of the user's sudoers entries for the current host must have the NOPASSWD flag set to avoid entering a password.
#     never   The user need never enter a password to use the -l option.
#   If no value is specified, a value of any is implied.  Negating the option results in a value of never being used.  The default value is any.

#Defaults       logfile
# logfile: Path to the sudo log file (not the syslog log file).  Setting a path turns on logging to a file; negating this option turns it off.  By default, sudo logs via syslog.

#Defaults       mailerflags
# mailerflags: Flags to use when invoking mailer. Defaults to -t.

#Defaults       mailerpath
# mailerpath: Path to mail program used to send warning mail.  Defaults to the path to sendmail found at configure time.

#Defaults       mailfrom
# mailfrom: Address to use for the "from" address when sending warning and error mail.  The address should be enclosed in double quotes (") to protect against sudo interpreting the @ sign.  Defaults t

#Defaults       mailto
# mailto: Address to send warning and error mail to.  The address should be enclosed in double quotes (") to protect against sudo interpreting the @ sign.  Defaults to root.

#Defaults       secure_path
# secure_path: Path used for every command run from sudo.  If you don't trust the people running sudo to have a sane PATH environment variable you may want to use this.  Another use is if you want to
#   option are not affected by secure_path.  This option is not set by default.

#Defaults       syslog
# syslog: Syslog facility if syslog is being used for logging (negate to disable syslog logging).  Defaults to auth.
#   The following syslog facilities are supported: authpriv (if your OS supports it), auth, daemon, user, local0, local1, local2, local3, local4, local5, local6, and local7.

#Defaults       verifypw
# verifypw: This option controls when a password will be required when a user runs sudo with the -v option.  It has the following possible values:
#     all     All the user's sudoers entries for the current host must have the NOPASSWD flag set to avoid entering a password.
#     always  The user must always enter a password to use the -v option.
#     any     At least one of the user's sudoers entries for the current host must have the NOPASSWD flag set to avoid entering a password.
#     never   The user need never enter a password to use the -v option.
#   If no value is specified, a value of all is implied.  Negating the option results in a value of never being used.  The default value is all.

#Defaults       env_check
# env_check: Environment variables to be removed from the user's environment if the variable's value contains % or / characters.  This can be used to guard against printf-style format vulnerabilities
#   value without double-quotes.  The list can be replaced, added to, deleted from, or disabled by using the =, +=, -=, and ! operators respectively.  Regardless of whether the env_reset option is ena
#   they pass the aforementioned check.  The default list of environment variables to check is displayed when sudo is run by root with the -V option.

#Defaults       env_delete
# env_delete: Environment variables to be removed from the user's environment when the env_reset option is not in effect.  The argument may be a double-quoted, space-separated list or a single value w
#   +=, -=, and ! operators respectively.  The default list of environment variables to remove is displayed when sudo is run by root with the -V option.  Note that many operating systems will remove p

#Defaults       env_keep
# env_keep: Environment variables to be preserved in the user's environment when the env_reset option is in effect.  This allows fine-grained control over the environment sudo-spawned processes will r
#   quotes.  The list can be replaced, added to, deleted from, or disabled by using the =, +=, -=, and ! operators respectively.  The default list of variables to keep is displayed when sudo is run by