Power management/Suspend and hibernate

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Summary help replacing me
Describes suspend(sleep-to-ram), hibernate(sleep-to-disk)
Related articles
Suspend to RAM
Systemd
pm-utils
Uswsusp
Tuxonice
Suspending to RAM with hibernate-script
Suspending to Disk with hibernate-script

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Notes: see Suspend to RAM for better introduction; for details see separate pages (e.g. uswsusp or pm-utils) (Discuss in Talk:Power management/Suspend and hibernate#)

Manually suspending the operating system, either to memory (standby) or to disk (hibernate) sometimes provides the most efficient way to optimize battery life, depending on the usage pattern of the laptop. While there is relatively straightforward support in the linux kernel to support these operations, typically some adjustments have to be made before initiating these operations (typically due to problematic drivers, modules or hardware). The following tools provide wrappers around the kernel interfaces to suspend/resume

  • Wrappers: Systemd, pm-utils
  • Backend: kernel, uswsusp, tuxonice

Backend

Kernel

Suspend

Suspension works out-of-box.

Hibernation

It needs a swap partiton.

About swap partition size

Even if your swap partition is smaller than RAM, you still have a big chance in hibernating successfully. According to kernel documentation: "/sys/power/image_size controls the size of the image created by the suspend-to-disk mechanism [...] which is set to 2/5 of available RAM by default. [...] The suspend-to-disk mechanism will do its best to ensure the image size will not exceed that number." You may either decrease it due to a small swap partition or increase it in purpose of possible hibernation speed up.

Add Kernel Parameters

The parameter resume=SWAP_PARTITION has to be passed to the Kernel parameters (where SWAP_PARTITION is either your swap device, i.e. /dev/sdaX, or your swap UUID). Consult Kernel parameters for more info.

 kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux ... resume=/dev/sdaX

If you are using swap file instead of regular swap partition, read Swap#Swap file resuming for more info.

 kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux ... resume=/dev/sdaX resume_offset=12345

You will also need to add the resume hook to mkinitcpio.conf:

/etc/mkinitcpio.conf
# resume must be placed after ide scsi sata and/or lvm2, but before filesystems
HOOKS="... block lvm2 resume filesystems"

You must rebuild the initrd image for these changes to take effect:

# mkinitcpio -p linux
Note: If you use a custom kernel, then you might have to change the value of the -p option.

Uswsusp

uswsusp (userspace software suspend) is a set of user space tools used for hibernation (suspend-to-disk) and suspend (suspend-to-RAM or standby) on Linux systems.

Consulte Uswsusp.

TuxOnIce

TuxOnIce , an advanced suspend/hibernate framework which supports suspending to a swap-disk or a regular file with fast LZO-compression.

Consulte TuxOnIce.

Wrappers

systemd

$ systemctl suspend
$ systemctl hibernate
$ systemctl hybrid-sleep

See Systemd#ACPI_power_management.

pm-utils

# pm-suspend
# pm-hibernate
# pm-suspend-hybrid

See pm-utils.