Difference between revisions of "Screen capture"

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m (A small caveat relevant to Openbox)
(FFmpeg: Link to FFmpeg#Screen capture.)
 
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[[Category:Graphics and DTP (English)]]
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[[Category:System administration]]
[[Category:Utilities (English)]]
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[[Category:Image manipulation]]
{{i18n|Taking a Screenshot}}
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[[cs:Taking a screenshot]]
 +
[[es:Taking a screenshot]]
 +
[[fr:Capture d'écran]]
 +
[[ja:スクリーンショットの取得]]
 +
[[ru:Taking a screenshot]]
 +
[[zh-hans:Taking a screenshot]]
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{{Related articles start}}
 +
{{Related|Extra keyboard keys}}
 +
{{Related articles end}}
 +
This article explains different methods to capture your screen.
  
== import ==
+
For a list of [[Wikipedia:Screenshot|screenshot]] software, see [[List of applications/Multimedia#Screenshot]].
  
An easy way to take a screenshot of your curent system is using the import command:
+
For a list of [[Wikipedia:Screencast|screencast]] software, see [[List of applications/Multimedia#Screencast]].
  import -window root screenshot.jpg
 
  
import is part of the imagemagick package.
+
== Screenshot software ==
  
In case you only want to grab a single window you can use the xwininfo tool to find out it's id. Just run the following command and click into the window you want to take a screenshot of.
+
=== ImageMagick/GraphicsMagick ===
import -window `xwininfo |grep 'Window id:' |cut -d" " -f4` screenshot.jpg
 
  
If you run twinview or dualhead, simply take the screenshot twice and use imagemagick to paste them together:
+
An easy way to take a screenshot of your current system is using the {{man|1|import}} command:
import -window root -display :0.0 -screen /tmp/0.png
+
  $ import -window root screenshot.jpg
  import -window root -display :0.1 -screen /tmp/1.png
 
convert +append /tmp/0.png /tmp/1.png screenshot.png
 
rm /tmp/{0,1}.png
 
  
=== Screenshot of the active/focused window ===
+
{{ic|import}} is part of the {{Pkg|imagemagick}} package.
  
The following script takes a screenshot of the currently focused window.  It'll use the current date as a filename as well, to avoid overwriting previous screenshots.
+
Running {{ic|import}} without the {{ic|-window}} option allows selecting a window or an arbitrary region interactively.
  #!/bin/bash
 
  activeWinLine=$(xprop -root | grep "_NET_ACTIVE_WINDOW(WINDOW)")
 
  activeWinId="${activeWinLine:40}"
 
  import -window $activeWinId /tmp/`date +%F_%H%M%S_%N`.jpg
 
  
 +
{{Note|If you prefer '''graphicsmagick''' alternative, just prepend "gm", e.g. {{ic|$ gm import -window root screenshot.jpg}}.}}
  
 +
==== Screenshot of multiple X screens ====
  
== gimp ==
+
If you run twinview or dualhead, simply take the screenshot twice and use {{Ic|imagemagick}} to paste them together:
 +
{{bc|
 +
import -window root -display :0.0 -screen /tmp/0.png
 +
import -window root -display :0.1 -screen /tmp/1.png
 +
convert +append /tmp/0.png /tmp/1.png screenshot.png
 +
rm /tmp/{0,1}.png
 +
}}
  
You also can take screenshots with gimp (File -> Create -> Screenshot...).
+
==== Screenshot of individual Xinerama heads ====
  
== xwd ==
+
Xinerama-based multi-head setups have only one virtual screen. If the physical screens are different in height, you will find dead space in the screenshot. In this case, you may want to take screenshot of each physical screen individually. As long as Xinerama information is available from the X server, the following will work:
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
#!/bin/sh
 +
xdpyinfo -ext XINERAMA | sed '/^  head #/!d;s///' |
 +
while IFS=' :x@,' read i w h x y; do
 +
        import -window root -crop ${w}x$h+$x+$y head_$i.png
 +
done
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
xwd is part of the xorg-apps package.
+
==== Screenshot of the active/focused window ====
 +
 
 +
The following script takes a screenshot of the currently focused window. It works with EWMH/NetWM compatible X Window Managers. To avoid overwriting previous screenshots, the current date is used as the filename.
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
#!/bin/sh
 +
activeWinLine=$(xprop -root | grep "_NET_ACTIVE_WINDOW(WINDOW)")
 +
activeWinId=${activeWinLine:40}
 +
import -window "$activeWinId" /tmp/$(date +%F_%H%M%S_%N).png
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
Alternatively, the following should work regardless of EWMH support:
 +
$ import -window "$(xdotool getwindowfocus -f)" /tmp/$(date +%F_%H%M%S_%N).png
 +
 
 +
{{Note|If screenshots of some programs (dwb and zathura) appear blank, try appending {{ic|-frame}} or removing {{ic|-f}} from the {{ic|xdotool}} command.}}
 +
 
 +
=== GIMP ===
 +
 
 +
You also can take screenshots with [[GIMP]] (''File > Create > Screenshot''...).
 +
 
 +
=== xwd ===
 +
 
 +
{{man|1|xwd}} provided by {{Pkg|xorg-xwd}}
  
 
Take a screenshot of the root window:
 
Take a screenshot of the root window:
  xwd -root -out screenshot.xwd
+
  $ xwd -root -out screenshot.xwd
 +
 
 +
{{Note|The methods for taking shots of active windows with {{ic|import}} can also be used with {{ic|xwd}}.}}
 +
 
 +
=== scrot ===
 +
 
 +
{{Pkg|scrot}} enables taking screenshots from the CLI and offers features such as a user-definable time delay. Unless instructed otherwise, it saves the file in the current working directory.
 +
$ scrot -t 20 -d 5
  
== scrot ==
+
The above command saves a dated {{ic|.png}} file, along with a thumbnail (20% of original), for Web posting. It provides a 5 second delay before capturing in this instance.
  
Scrot, available in the "extra" repository, provides for taking screenshots from the CLI, and offers features such as a user-definable time delay. Unless instructed otherwise, it saves the file in the directory bash was at when the command was launched.
+
You can also use standard date and time formatting when saving to a file.  e.g.,
 +
$ scrot ~/screenshots/%Y-%m-%d-%T-screenshot.png
  
scrot -t 20 -d 5
+
saves the screenshot in a filename with the current year, month, date, hours, minutes, and seconds to a folder in your home directory called "screenshots"
  
saves a dated .PNG file, along with a thumbnail (20% of original) for Web posting. It provides a five second delay before capturing, in this instance.  
+
See {{man|1|scrot}} for more information. You can simply automate the file to uploaded like so [https://github.com/kaihendry/Kai-s--HOME/tree/master/bin].
  
== KDE ==
+
{{Note|In some window managers ({{AUR|dwm}}, {{Pkg|xmonad}} and possibly others) {{ic|scrot -s}} does not work properly when running via window manager's keyboard shortcut, this can be worked around by prepending scrot invocation with a short pause {{ic|sleep 0.2; scrot -s}}.}}
  
If you use KDE, you might want to use ksnapshot, which can also be activated using <Prt Scr>.
+
=== escrotum ===
  
== GNOME ==
+
{{AUR|escrotum-git}} screen capture using pygtk, inspired by scrot
  
You can press <Prt Scr> or Apps->Accessories->Take Screenshot.
+
Created because scrot has glitches when selection mode is used with refreshing windows.
  
{{Note|If <Prt Scr> complains about not finding gnome-screenshot or there is no "Take Screenshot" entry in your menu, you will need to install the [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/3154 gnome-utils] package.}}
+
Because the command line interface its almost the same as scrot, can be used as a replacement of it.
  
== Other Desktop Environment or Window Manager ==
+
=== imlib2 ===
For other desktop environment such as LXDE or window manager such as Openbox and Compiz, one can add the above commands to the hotkey to take the screenshot. For example,
 
import -window root ~/Pictures/`date '+%Y%m%d-%H%M%S'`.png
 
Adding the above command to the <Prt Scr> key to Compiz allows to take the screenshot to the Pictures folder according to date and time.
 
Notice that the rc.xml file in Openbox does not understand commas; so, in order to bind that command to the <Prt Scr> key in Openbox, you need to add the following to the keyboard section of your rc.xml file:
 
  
  <!-- Screenshot -->
+
{{Pkg|imlib2}} provides a binary {{ic|imlib2_grab}} to take screenshots. To take a screenshot of the full screen, type:
 +
  $ imlib2_grab screenshot.png
 +
 
 +
Note that {{Pkg|scrot}} actually uses {{ic|imlib2}}.
 +
 
 +
=== maim ===
 +
 
 +
{{Pkg|maim}} is aimed to be an improved scrot.
 +
 
 +
Takes screenshots of your desktop using [https://github.com/naelstrof/slop slop] for regions. It's meant to overcome shortcomings of scrot.
 +
 
 +
=== FFmpeg ===
 +
 
 +
See [[FFmpeg#Screen capture]].
 +
 
 +
=== Weston ===
 +
 
 +
In the [[Wayland#Weston|Weston]] Wayland compositor, screenshots can be taking by pressing {{ic|Super+s}}, which are stored in Weston's current working directory. Screencasts are also supported; recording is started and stopped by pressing {{ic|Super+r}}, which will create a file called {{ic|capture.wcap}} in Weston's current working directory. The capture can be decoded to YUV format by running {{ic|wcap-decode --yuv4mpeg2 capture.wcap}}; the output of this command can be written to a file or piped into FFmpeg for further processing.
 +
 
 +
== Details: desktop environment specific ==
 +
 
 +
=== Spectacle ===
 +
 
 +
If you use [[KDE]], you might want to use {{ic|Spectacle}}.
 +
 
 +
Spectacle is provided by the {{Pkg|spectacle}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Xfce Screenshooter ===
 +
 
 +
If you use [[Xfce]] you can install {{Pkg|xfce4-screenshooter}} and then add a keyboard binding:
 +
 
 +
''Xfce Menu > Settings > Keyboard > Application Shortcuts''
 +
 
 +
If you want to skip the Screenshot prompt, type {{ic|$ xfce4-screenshooter -h}} in terminal for the options.
 +
 
 +
=== GNOME ===
 +
 
 +
[[GNOME]] users can press {{ic|Prnt Scr}} or ''Apps > Accessories > Take Screenshot''. You may need to install {{Pkg|gnome-screenshot}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Cinnamon ===
 +
The default installation of [[Cinnamon]] does not provide a screenshot utility. Installing {{Pkg|gnome-screenshot}} will enable screenshots through the ''Menu > Accessories > Screenshot'' or by pressing {{ic|Prnt Scr}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Other desktop environments or window managers ===
 +
 
 +
For other desktop environments such as [[LXDE]] or window managers such as [[Openbox]] and [[Compiz]], one can add the above commands to the hotkey to take the screenshot. For example,
 +
$ import -window root ~/Pictures/$(date '+%Y%m%d-%H%M%S').png
 +
Adding the above command to the {{ic|Prnt Scr}} key to Compiz allows to take the screenshot to the Pictures folder according to date and time.
 +
Notice that the {{ic|rc.xml}} file in Openbox does not understand commas; so, in order to bind that command to the {{ic|Prnt Scr}} key in Openbox, you need to add the following to the keyboard section of your {{ic|rc.xml}} file:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|rc.xml|<nowiki>
 +
<!-- Screenshot -->
 
     <keybind key="Print">
 
     <keybind key="Print">
 
       <action name="Execute">
 
       <action name="Execute">
         <command>sh -c "import -window root ~/Pictures/`date '+%Y%m%d-%H%M%S'`.png"</command>
+
         <command>sh -c "import -window root ~/Pictures/$(date '+%Y%m%d-%H%M%S').png"</command>
 
       </action>
 
       </action>
 
     </keybind>
 
     </keybind>
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 +
If the {{ic|Print}} above does not work, see [[Extra keyboard keys]] and use different ''keysym'' or ''keycode''.
 +
 +
== Terminal ==
 +
 +
=== Capture with ANSI codes ===
 +
 +
You can use the {{man|1|script}} command, part of the {{Pkg|util-linux}} package.
 +
Just run {{ic|script}} and from that moment, all the output is going to be saved to the {{ic|typescript}} file, including the ANSI codes.
 +
 +
Once you are done, just run {{ic|exit}} and the {{ic|typescript}} would ready. The resulting file can be converted to HTML using the {{AUR|ansi2html}} package, from the [[AUR]].
 +
 +
To convert the {{ic|typescript}} file to {{ic|typescript.html}}, do the following:
 +
 +
$ ansi2html --bg=dark < typescript > typescript.html
 +
 +
Actually, '''some''' commands can be piped directly to ansi2html:
 +
 +
$ ls --color|ansi2html --bg=dark >output.html
 +
 +
That does not work on every single case, so in those cases, using {{ic|script}} is mandatory.
 +
 +
=== Framebuffer ===
 +
 +
Install a [[framebuffer]] and use {{AUR|fbgrab}} or {{AUR|fbdump}} to take a screenshot.
 +
 +
=== Virtual console ===
  
== Virtual console ==
+
If you merely want to capture the text in the console and not an actual image, you can use {{ic|setterm}}, which is part of the {{Pkg|util-linux}} package.  The following command will dump the textual contents of virtual console 1 to a file screen.dump in the current directory:
 +
# setterm -dump 1 -file screen.dump
  
Install a [[framebuffer]] and use {{Package Official|fbgrab}} to take a screen shot. Another option is to use {{Package Official|fbshot}}, but that tends to corrupt the image by inverting colors.
+
Root permission is needed because the contents of {{ic|/dev/vcs1}} need to be read.

Latest revision as of 18:30, 17 May 2018

This article explains different methods to capture your screen.

For a list of screenshot software, see List of applications/Multimedia#Screenshot.

For a list of screencast software, see List of applications/Multimedia#Screencast.

Screenshot software

ImageMagick/GraphicsMagick

An easy way to take a screenshot of your current system is using the import(1) command:

$ import -window root screenshot.jpg

import is part of the imagemagick package.

Running import without the -window option allows selecting a window or an arbitrary region interactively.

Note: If you prefer graphicsmagick alternative, just prepend "gm", e.g. $ gm import -window root screenshot.jpg.

Screenshot of multiple X screens

If you run twinview or dualhead, simply take the screenshot twice and use imagemagick to paste them together:

import -window root -display :0.0 -screen /tmp/0.png
import -window root -display :0.1 -screen /tmp/1.png
convert +append /tmp/0.png /tmp/1.png screenshot.png
rm /tmp/{0,1}.png

Screenshot of individual Xinerama heads

Xinerama-based multi-head setups have only one virtual screen. If the physical screens are different in height, you will find dead space in the screenshot. In this case, you may want to take screenshot of each physical screen individually. As long as Xinerama information is available from the X server, the following will work:

#!/bin/sh
xdpyinfo -ext XINERAMA | sed '/^  head #/!d;s///' |
while IFS=' :x@,' read i w h x y; do
        import -window root -crop ${w}x$h+$x+$y head_$i.png
done

Screenshot of the active/focused window

The following script takes a screenshot of the currently focused window. It works with EWMH/NetWM compatible X Window Managers. To avoid overwriting previous screenshots, the current date is used as the filename.

#!/bin/sh
activeWinLine=$(xprop -root | grep "_NET_ACTIVE_WINDOW(WINDOW)")
activeWinId=${activeWinLine:40}
import -window "$activeWinId" /tmp/$(date +%F_%H%M%S_%N).png

Alternatively, the following should work regardless of EWMH support:

$ import -window "$(xdotool getwindowfocus -f)" /tmp/$(date +%F_%H%M%S_%N).png
Note: If screenshots of some programs (dwb and zathura) appear blank, try appending -frame or removing -f from the xdotool command.

GIMP

You also can take screenshots with GIMP (File > Create > Screenshot...).

xwd

xwd(1) provided by xorg-xwd

Take a screenshot of the root window:

$ xwd -root -out screenshot.xwd
Note: The methods for taking shots of active windows with import can also be used with xwd.

scrot

scrot enables taking screenshots from the CLI and offers features such as a user-definable time delay. Unless instructed otherwise, it saves the file in the current working directory.

$ scrot -t 20 -d 5

The above command saves a dated .png file, along with a thumbnail (20% of original), for Web posting. It provides a 5 second delay before capturing in this instance.

You can also use standard date and time formatting when saving to a file. e.g.,

$ scrot ~/screenshots/%Y-%m-%d-%T-screenshot.png

saves the screenshot in a filename with the current year, month, date, hours, minutes, and seconds to a folder in your home directory called "screenshots"

See scrot(1) for more information. You can simply automate the file to uploaded like so [1].

Note: In some window managers (dwmAUR, xmonad and possibly others) scrot -s does not work properly when running via window manager's keyboard shortcut, this can be worked around by prepending scrot invocation with a short pause sleep 0.2; scrot -s.

escrotum

escrotum-gitAUR screen capture using pygtk, inspired by scrot

Created because scrot has glitches when selection mode is used with refreshing windows.

Because the command line interface its almost the same as scrot, can be used as a replacement of it.

imlib2

imlib2 provides a binary imlib2_grab to take screenshots. To take a screenshot of the full screen, type:

$ imlib2_grab screenshot.png

Note that scrot actually uses imlib2.

maim

maim is aimed to be an improved scrot.

Takes screenshots of your desktop using slop for regions. It's meant to overcome shortcomings of scrot.

FFmpeg

See FFmpeg#Screen capture.

Weston

In the Weston Wayland compositor, screenshots can be taking by pressing Super+s, which are stored in Weston's current working directory. Screencasts are also supported; recording is started and stopped by pressing Super+r, which will create a file called capture.wcap in Weston's current working directory. The capture can be decoded to YUV format by running wcap-decode --yuv4mpeg2 capture.wcap; the output of this command can be written to a file or piped into FFmpeg for further processing.

Details: desktop environment specific

Spectacle

If you use KDE, you might want to use Spectacle.

Spectacle is provided by the spectacle.

Xfce Screenshooter

If you use Xfce you can install xfce4-screenshooter and then add a keyboard binding:

Xfce Menu > Settings > Keyboard > Application Shortcuts

If you want to skip the Screenshot prompt, type $ xfce4-screenshooter -h in terminal for the options.

GNOME

GNOME users can press Prnt Scr or Apps > Accessories > Take Screenshot. You may need to install gnome-screenshot.

Cinnamon

The default installation of Cinnamon does not provide a screenshot utility. Installing gnome-screenshot will enable screenshots through the Menu > Accessories > Screenshot or by pressing Prnt Scr.

Other desktop environments or window managers

For other desktop environments such as LXDE or window managers such as Openbox and Compiz, one can add the above commands to the hotkey to take the screenshot. For example,

$ import -window root ~/Pictures/$(date '+%Y%m%d-%H%M%S').png

Adding the above command to the Prnt Scr key to Compiz allows to take the screenshot to the Pictures folder according to date and time. Notice that the rc.xml file in Openbox does not understand commas; so, in order to bind that command to the Prnt Scr key in Openbox, you need to add the following to the keyboard section of your rc.xml file:

rc.xml
<!-- Screenshot -->
    <keybind key="Print">
      <action name="Execute">
        <command>sh -c "import -window root ~/Pictures/$(date '+%Y%m%d-%H%M%S').png"</command>
      </action>
    </keybind>

If the Print above does not work, see Extra keyboard keys and use different keysym or keycode.

Terminal

Capture with ANSI codes

You can use the script(1) command, part of the util-linux package. Just run script and from that moment, all the output is going to be saved to the typescript file, including the ANSI codes.

Once you are done, just run exit and the typescript would ready. The resulting file can be converted to HTML using the ansi2htmlAUR package, from the AUR.

To convert the typescript file to typescript.html, do the following:

$ ansi2html --bg=dark < typescript > typescript.html

Actually, some commands can be piped directly to ansi2html:

$ ls --color|ansi2html --bg=dark >output.html

That does not work on every single case, so in those cases, using script is mandatory.

Framebuffer

Install a framebuffer and use fbgrabAUR or fbdumpAUR to take a screenshot.

Virtual console

If you merely want to capture the text in the console and not an actual image, you can use setterm, which is part of the util-linux package. The following command will dump the textual contents of virtual console 1 to a file screen.dump in the current directory:

# setterm -dump 1 -file screen.dump

Root permission is needed because the contents of /dev/vcs1 need to be read.