Difference between revisions of "UEFI Bootloaders"

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[[Category:Boot loaders]]
#REDIRECT [[Boot Loaders]]
[[zh-CN:UEFI Bootloaders]]
This page contains info about various [[UEFI]] Bootloaders capable of booting Linux kernel. It is recommended to read the [[UEFI]] and [[GPT]] pages before reading this page. The following [[Boot Loader|bootloaders]] are explained here:
== Linux Kernel EFISTUB ==
{{Warning|1=A bug has been noticed where booting EFISTUB can fail depending on kernel version and motherboard model. See [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=156670&p=1] for more information.}}
Linux (Kernel >= 3.3) supports {{ic|EFISTUB (EFI BOOT STUB)}} booting. It is enabled by default on Arch Linux kernels or can be activated by setting {{ic|CONFIG_EFI_STUB=y}} in the Kernel configuration (see [https://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git;a=blob_plain;f=Documentation/x86/efi-stub.txt;hb=HEAD The EFI Boot Stub] for more information).
A single EFISTUB kernel is not capable of launching other kernels, hence each EFISTUB Kernel + Initramfs pair requires a separate boot menu entry. It is recommended to use a UEFI Boot Manager to manage multiple kernels.
=== Setting up EFISTUB ===
# [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Unified_Extensible_Firmware_Interface#EFI_System_Partition Create a FAT32 EFI System Partition]
# Mount the EFI System Partition (EFISYS) (mountpoint hereafter mentioned as {{ic|$esp}} in the below commands) either at {{ic|/boot}} (former recommended if you are planning to use Gummiboot) or some other location of your choice (most distros and tools use {{ic|/boot/efi}}).
{{Note|The below steps are required only if you DID NOT use {{ic|/boot}} as the EFISYS mountpoint.}}
# Create {{ic|$esp/EFI/arch/}}
# Copy the following files from source to destination
{| border="1"
!Boot File Source!!UEFI Destination
| /boot/vmlinuz-linux  || $esp/EFI/arch/vmlinuz-arch.efi
| /boot/initramfs-linux.img || $esp/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch.img
| /boot/initramfs-linux-fallback.img  || $esp/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch-fallback.img
=== Sync EFISTUB Kernel ===
{{Note|The '''Sync EFISTUB Kernel''' steps are required only if you DID NOT use {{ic|/boot}} as the EFISYS mountpoint.}}
{{Warning|The EFISTUB Kernel must be updated each time the kernel is updated (follow step 4 in [#Setting_up_EFISTUB|Setting up EFISTUB]. Failure to do so will result in failure to boot. Alternatively one can automatically update the EFISTUB kernel using one of the following methods:}}
==== Systemd ====
[[Systemd]] features event triggered tasks. In this particular case, the ability to detect a change in path is used to sync the EFISTUB kernel and initramfs files when they are updated in {{ic|boot}}.
{{Warning|Since mkinitcpio takes time to build the kernel stub and the initramfs. It is possible for the following systemd services to copy older kernel stubs and initramfs instead of the new ones. To reduce the chance of this error, it is better to bind the efistub copying service to check if the initramfs-linux-fallback.img was changed (since it is the last thing built by mkinitcpio).}}
{{Tip|Save the following script as {{ic|/etc/systemd/system/efistub-update.path}}}}
Description=Copy EFISTUB Kernel to UEFISYS Partition
{{Tip|Save the following script as {{ic|/etc/systemd/system/efistub-update.service}}}}
Description=Copy EFISTUB Kernel to UEFISYS Partition
ExecStart=/usr/bin/cp -f /boot/vmlinuz-linux $esp/EFI/arch/vmlinuz-arch.efi
ExecStart=/usr/bin/cp -f /boot/initramfs-linux.img $esp/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch.img
ExecStart=/usr/bin/cp -f /boot/initramfs-linux-fallback.img $esp/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch-fallback.img
{{Tip|Enable these services with
# systemctl enable efistub-update.path
==== Incron ====
{{Pkg|incron}} can run a script to sync the EFISTUB Kernel after updates
{{Tip|Save the following script as {{ic|/usr/local/bin/efistub-update.sh}}}}
#!/usr/bin/env bash
/usr/bin/cp -f /boot/vmlinuz-linux $esp/EFI/arch/vmlinuz-arch.efi
/usr/bin/cp -f /boot/initramfs-linux.img $esp/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch.img
/usr/bin/cp -f /boot/initramfs-linux-fallback.img $esp/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch-fallback.img
{{Tip|Save the following script as {{ic|/etc/incron.d/efistub-update.conf}}}}
{{Note|The first parameter {{ic|/boot/initramfs-linux-fallback.img}} is the file to watch. The second parameter {{ic|IN_CLOSE_WRITE}} is the action to watch for. The third parameter {{ic|/usr/local/bin/efistub-update.sh}} is the script to execute.}}
/boot/initramfs-linux-fallback.img IN_CLOSE_WRITE /usr/local/bin/efistub-update.sh
{{Tip|In order to use this method, incron must be activated, if it is not run
# systemctl enable incrond.service
==== Mkinitcpio hook ====
Mkinitcpio can generate a hook that does not need a system level daemon to function. It spawns a background process which waits for the generation of {{ic|vm-linuz}}, {{ic|initramfs-linux.img}}, and {{ic|initramfs-linux-fallback.img}}; then follows step 4 in [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/UEFI_Bootloaders#Setting_up_EFISTUB Setting up EFISTUB]
{{Tip|Save the following script as {{ic|/usr/lib/initcpio/install/efistub-update}}}}
#!/usr/bin/env bash
build() {
/root/watch.sh &
help() {
This hook waits for mkinitcpio to finish and copies the finished ramdisk and kernel to the ESP
{{Tip|Save the following script as {{ic|/root/watch.sh}} and make it executable}}
#!/usr/bin/env bash
while [[ -d "/proc/$PPID" ]]; do
sleep 1
/usr/bin/cp -f /boot/vmlinuz-linux $esp/EFI/arch/vmlinuz-arch.efi
/usr/bin/cp -f /boot/initramfs-linux.img $esp/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch.img
/usr/bin/cp -f /boot/initramfs-linux-fallback.img $esp/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch-fallback.img
echo "Synced kernel with ESP"
{{Tip|Add {{ic|efistub-update}} to the list of hooks in {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}}}}
==== /etc/fstab bind mount ====
* The following method should work similarly with any distribution or any combination thereof.
* This involves no special scripts, services, or bootloader filesystem drivers.
* This centralizes and organizes kernels and initrds across installations on one partition.
* This avoids possible limitations imposed by firmware and/or the bootloader on boot device configuration as can often occur with RAID and/or LVM (excepting the standard FAT32 EFI system partition, of course).
* Beyond initial configuration this should persist without special consideration or maintenance.
* This should be transparent to any action normally affecting {{ic|/boot}} and the files therein.}}
* This requires both a kernel and a bootloader compatible with the FAT32 filesystem.
* Initial configuration requires {{ic|root}} level access.
* This may require a large EFI system partition in order to accomodate multiple installations.
* All kernels will require at least a {{ic|1=root=''system root''}} parameter passed at boot.}}
; Method: Whereas the general convention is to mount the EFI system partition to a {{ic|/boot/efi}} subfolder, the following will achieve the opposite.
* Create a {{ic|ef00}} type EFI system partition of FAT32 format as described elsewhere.
:* It may be beneficial to make it several gigabytes in size to accomodate multiple installations.
:* Use the GPT partition name feature for added convenience. For example name the partition {{ic|esp}}.}}
* Create a mount-point and mount the EFI system partition somewhere on the filesystem. For example:
: {{ic|$ mkdir /esp<br />$ mount -L esp /esp}}
* Create a folder in {{ic|/EFI/boot}} on the EFI system partition to contain your system's {{ic|/boot}} files. For example:
: {{ic|$ mkdir /esp/EFI/boot/arch64-laptop}}
: {{Tip|
:* The refind bootloader automatically detects and adds EFI loadable kernel files installed to the EFI system partition in {{ic|/EFI/boot/*/}} by default.
:* Keying {{ic|F2}} on a highlighted refind boot menu entry enables adding the required {{ic|1=root=}} kernel parameter to an auto-added or otherwise unconfigured menu entry.}}
* Move all files in {{ic|/boot}} to the newly created folder on your EFI system partition. For example:
: {{ic|$ mv /boot/* /esp/EFI/boot/arch64-laptop/}}
* Bind mount the newly populated folder on your EFI system partition to {{ic|/boot}}. For example:
: {{ic|$ mount --bind /esp/EFI/boot/arch64-laptop /boot}}
* Verify your files are available as expected with {{ic|$ ls /boot/}} then persist the configuration by editing {{ic|/etc/fstab}}. For example:
: {{ic|##/etc/fstab<br />LABEL&#61;arch64-laptop_rootfs / ext4 defaults 0 0<br />LABEL&#61;esp /esp vfat defaults 0 0<br />/esp/EFI/boot/arch64-laptop /boot none defaults,bind 0 0}}
* Update your bootloader to apply the {{ic|1=root=}} kernel boot parameter as necessary. For example:
: {{ic|##/boot/refind_linux.conf<br />... root&#61;LABEL&#61;arch64-laptop_rootfs ...}}
{{Note| As of [https://www.archlinux.org/packages/extra/any/refind-efi/ refind-efi 0.2.7], refind automatically detects kernels in {{ic|/boot}}. They do not have to be renamed to have a {{ic|.efi}} extension either. Hence, the following sync scripts aren't needed if using [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/UEFI_Bootloaders#Using_rEFInd refind]. You do need to isntall an EFI driver to read the Linux filesystem on which the kernel is stored, though.}}
=== Booting EFISTUB ===
{{Warning|Linux Kernel EFISTUB initramfs path should be relative to the EFI System Partition's root. For example, if the initramfs is located in {{ic|$esp/EFI/arch/initramfs-linux.img}}, the corresponding UEFI formatted line should be {{ic|1=initrd=/EFI/arch/initramfs-linux.img}} or {{ic|1=initrd=\EFI\arch\initramfs-linux.img}}.}}
One can boot the EFISTUB kernel using one of the following ways :
==== Using gummiboot ====
[[Gummiboot]] is a UEFI Boot Manager which provides a nice menu for EFISTUB Kernels. It is available in [core] as {{Pkg|gummiboot}} is the recommended boot manager for EFISTUB booting. See [[gummiboot]] for more info.
==== Using rEFInd ====
rEFInd is a fork of rEFIt Boot Manager (used in Intel Macs) by Rod Smith (author of GPT-fdisk). rEFInd fixes many issues in rEFIt with respect to non-Mac UEFI booting and also has support for booting EFISTUB kernels and contains some features specific to them.
{{Tip|If you're new to EFISTUB and/or rEFInd, you need to read [http://www.rodsbooks.com/refind/linux.html The rEFInd Boot Manager: Methods of Booting Linux] before going any further. This section illustrates only one possible use-case which is not suitable for all configurations.}}
# Install {{Pkg|refind-efi}} package with {{ic|# pacman -S refind-efi}}
# Copy the following files from their source directory to their destination
{{Note|1=<arch> is the bit architecture of the system. Run {{ic|$ uname -m}} to get the architecture. Replace <arch> with "ia32" for 32 bit systems, and <arch> with "x64" for 64 bit systems.}}
{| border="1"
!rEFInd File Source!!UEFI Destination
| /usr/share/refind/refind_<arch>.efi || $esp/EFI/refind/refind_<arch>.efi
| /usr/share/refind/refind.conf-sample  || $esp/EFI/refind/refind.conf
| /usr/share/refind/icons || $esp/EFI/refind/icons
| /usr/share/refind/drivers_<arch> || $esp/EFI/refind/drivers
{{Tip|rEFInd's configuration file is located in {{ic|$esp/EFI/refind/refind.conf}}. The file is well commented.}}
{{Note|As of {{Pkg|refind-efi}} 0.2.7, refind can auto-detect kernels in {{ic|/boot}}, if there are UEFI drivers for the filesystem used by /boot partition (or / partition if no separate /boot is used) in the ESP, and are loaded by rEFInd. This is enabled in the default configuration in {{ic|refind.conf}} (you may need to include the PATH to the drivers folders in the ESP). See [http://www.rodsbooks.com/refind/drivers.html] for more info.}}
Edit the {{ic|refind_linux.conf}} configuration file to be similar to the template below. Replace the string after PARTUUID with your root's PARTUUID
{{Note|1=Please notice the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1286972 difference] between the standard UUID and the PARTUUID shown by {{ic|$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-partuuid/}}}}
"Boot with defaults" "root=PARTUUID=3518bb68-d01e-45c9-b973-0b5d918aae96 rw rootfstype=ext4 add_efi_memmap systemd.unit=graphical.target"
"Boot to Terminal"  "root=PARTUUID=3518bb68-d01e-45c9-b973-0b5d918aae96 rw rootfstype=ext4 add_efi_memmap systemd.unit=multi-user.target"</nowiki>}}
{{Tip|Each line of {{ic|refind_linux.conf}} is displayed as a submenu by rEFInd. Access the submenu with "+" or "insert" keys.}}
{{Tip|In non-Mac systems, create an entry for rEFInd using [[UEFI#efibootmgr|efibootmgr]] where sdX is the UEFI disk, and Y is the UEFI partition number. Run :
# efibootmgr -c -d /dev/sdX -p Y -l /EFI/refind/refind_<arch>.efi -L "rEFInd"
===== Systemd Automation =====
{{Tip|To automate the process of copying refind files and updating the nvram (if needed) use the following script}}
{{Note|Save this script as {{ic|/usr/lib/systemd/scripts/refind_name_patchv2}}}}
{{Tip|If you want to change the directory that refind is installed in the UEFISYS partition, just change the value of $refind_dir in the script}}
#!/usr/bin/env bash
## COPYRIGHT 2013 : MARK E. LEE (BLUERIDER) : mlee24@binghamton.edu; mark@markelee.com
## LOG
## 1/17/2013 : Version 2 of refind_name_patch is released
##          : Supports long subdirectory location for refind
##          : Updates nvram when needed
##          : 10% speed boost
## 7/15/2013 : Changed arch to match 32-bit (ia32) and 64-bit (x64) naming scheme
##          : Changed directory copying in update-efi-dir to copy tools and drivers directories explicitly
##          : Changed efibootmgr writing code to be more concise and added (-w) to write the entry as per dusktreader's excellent guide : https://docs.google.com/document/d/1pvgm3BprpXoadsQi38FxqMOCUZhcSqFhZ26FZBkmn9I/edit
##          : Function to check if NVRAM boot entry was already listed was fixed to use awk and an if then clause
##          : ref_bin_escape was modified from : ref_bin_escape=${ref_bin//\//\\\\} to remove extra backslashes (error does not show up when using cmdline)
## 7/29/2013 : Changed location of tools,drivers, and binary directory to match capricious upstream move to /usr/share/refind
function main () {  ## main insertion function
  declare -r refind_dir="/boot/efi/EFI/refind"; ## set the refind directory
  arch=$(uname -m | awk -F'_' '{if ($1 == "x86") {print "x"$2} else if ($1 == "i686") {print "ia32"}}') &&  ## get bit architecture
  update-efi-dir;  ## updates or creates the refind directory
  update-efi-nvram;  ## updates nvram if needed
function update-efi-dir () {  ## setup the refind directory
  if [ ! -d $refind_dir ]; then  ## check if refind directory exists
    echo "Couldn't find $refind_dir";
    mkdir $refind_dir &&  ## make the refind directory if needed
    echo "Made $refind_dir";
  if [ "$arch" ]; then  ## check if anything was stored in $arch
    cp -r /usr/share/refind/{refind_$arch.efi,keys,images,icons,fonts,docs,{tools,drivers}_$arch} $refind_dir/  && ## update the bins and dirs
    echo "Updated binaries and directory files for refind at $refind_dir";
    echo "Failed to detect an x86 architecture";
function update-efi-nvram () { ## update the nvram with efibootmgr
  declare -r ref_bin=${refind_dir/\/boot\/efi}/refind_$arch.efi;  ## get path of refind binary (without /boot/efi)
  declare -r ref_bin_escape=${ref_bin//\//\\};  ## insert escape characters into $ref_bin
  [ "$(efibootmgr -v | awk "/${ref_bin_escape//\\/\\\\}/")" ] && ( ## check if boot entry is in nvram \
    echo "Found boot entry, no need to update nvram";
    ) || ( ## if boot entry is not in nvram; add it
    declare -r esp=$(mount -l | awk '/ESP/ {print $1}') &&  ## get ESP partition
    efibootmgr -cgw -d ${esp:0:8} -p ${esp:8} -L "rEFInd" -l $ref_bin_escape && ## update nvram
    echo "
    Updated nvram with entry rEFInd to boot $ref_bin
    Did not copy configuration files, please move refind.conf to $refind_dir/";
main;  ## run the main insertion function
{{Note| As of [https://www.archlinux.org/packages/extra/any/refind-efi/ refind-efi 0.2.7], refind automatically detects kernels in {{ic|/boot}}. They do not have to be renamed to have a {{ic|.efi}} extension either. Hence, the following sync scripts aren't needed if using [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/UEFI_Bootloaders#Using_rEFInd refind]. You do need to isntall an EFI driver to read the Linux filesystem on which the kernel is stored, though.}}
{{Note|Save the following service file as {{ic|/usr/lib/systemd/system/refind_update.path}}}}
Description=Update rEFInd bootloader files
{{Note|Save the following service file as {{ic|/usr/lib/systemd/system/refind_update.service}}}}
Description=Update rEFInd directories, binaries, and nvram
ExecStart=/usr/bin/bash /usr/lib/systemd/scripts/refind_name_patchv2
{{Tip|Enable the systemd path unit by running :
# systemctl enable refind_update.path
===== Apple Macs =====
In case of Apple Macs, try {{AUR|mactel-boot}} for an experimental "bless" utility for Linux. If that does not work, use "bless" form within OSX to set rEFInd as default bootloader. Assuming UEFISYS partition is mounted at {{ic|/mnt/efi}} within OSX, do
$ sudo bless --setBoot --folder /mnt/efi/EFI/refind --file /mnt/efi/EFI/refind/refind_x64.efi
===== VirtualBox =====
In case of VirtualBox, see [[VirtualBox#Using_Arch_under_Virtualbox_EFI_mode]].
==== Using UEFI Shell ====
It is possible to launch EFISTUB kernel form UEFI Shell as if it is a normal UEFI application. In this case the kernel parameters are passed as normal parameters to the launched EFISTUB kernel file.
> fs0:
> cd \EFI\arch
> vmlinuz-arch.efi root=PARTUUID=3518bb68-d01e-45c9-b973-0b5d918aae96 ro rootfstype=ext4 add_efi_memmap initrd=EFI/arch/initramfs-arch.img
You can also write a simple {{ic|archlinux.nsh}} file with your boot parameters and put it in your UEFI System Partition, then run it with:
Example Script:
echo -on
\EFI\arch\vmlinuz-arch.efi root=PARTUUID=3518bb68-d01e-45c9-b973-0b5d918aae96 rootfstype=ext4 add_efi_memmap initrd=EFI/arch/initramfs-arch.img
This way you can specify UUID's without needing to remember the name or type out 20-30 characters.
==== Using efibootmgr entry ====
{{Warning|1=Some kernel and efibootmgr combinations might not work without manual intervention [https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/34641]. You will be able to delete but not create boot entries.}}
{{Note|Some UEFI firmwares may not support embedding command line parameters to uefi applications in the boot entries.}}
It is possible to directly embed the kernel parameters within the boot entry created by efibootmgr. This means that you can use your UEFI boot order/GUI to directly boot Arch Linux without a separate bootloader like GRUB (below, the EFI System Partition is on {{ic|/dev/sdX}}, partition {{ic|Y}}).
# efibootmgr -c -d /dev/sdX -p Y -l /EFI/arch/vmlinuz-arch.efi -L "Arch Linux (EFISTUB)" -u "$(cat /proc/cmdline)"
It is a good idea to run
# efibootmgr -v
to verify that the resulting entry is correct. You should also consider reordering the boot options ({{ic|efibootmgr -o}}) to place the Arch entry last, which could make the system easier to recover if it fails.
{{Tip|Save the command for creating your boot entry in a shell script somewhere, which makes it easier to modify (when changing kernel parameters, for example).}}
More info about efibootmgr at [[UEFI#efibootmgr]]. Forum post https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1090040#p1090040 .
== GRUB 2.xx ==
GRUB 2.x contains its own filesystem drivers and does not rely on the firmware to access the files. It can directly read files from {{ic|/boot}} and does not require the kernel and initramfs files to be in the UEFISYS partition. Detailed information at [[GRUB#UEFI_systems_2]]. For bzr development version try AUR package - {{AUR|grub-bzr}}.
== SYSLINUX 6.xx ==
Install {{Pkg|syslinux}} (from [testing]) or {{AUR|syslinux-firmware-git}} AUR package and copy {{ic|/usr/lib/syslinux/efi64/*}} to {{ic|$esp/EFI/syslinux/}} ({{ic|$esp}} is the mountpoint of UEFISYS partition) ({{ic|efi64}} is for x86_64 UEFI firmwares, replace with {{ic|efi32}} for ia32 UEFI firmwares), and then create a boot entry using efibootmgr in the firmware boot manager.
== ELILO ==
ELILO is the UEFI version of LILO Boot Loader. It was originally created for Intel Itanium systems which supported only EFI (precursor to UEFI). It is the oldest UEFI bootloader for Linux. It is still in development but happens at a very slow pace. Upstream provided compiled binaries are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/elilo/ . Elilo config file {{ic|elilo.conf}} is similar to [[LILO]]'s config file. AUR package - {{AUR|elilo-efi}}.
== Troubleshooting ==
{{Poor writing|This troubleshooting note has been transferred from [[Beginners' Guide]] as discussed on the talk page. It is not yet well integrated here and is rather selective in terms of the help provided.}}
* On some UEFI motherboards like the Intel Z77 boards, adding entries with efibootmgr or bcfg from efi shell will not work because they don't show up on the boot menu list after being added to NVRAM.
:To solve this you have to trick the UEFI firmware that Windows boot manager is present on the ESP partition.
:Copy the bootx64.efi file from USB drive as bootmgfw.efi efi file to your ESP partition by booting into EFI shell and typing:
cd EFI
mkdir Microsoft
cd Microsoft
mkdir Boot
cp FS0:\EFI\BOOT\bootx64.efi FS1:\EFI\Microsoft\Boot\bootmgfw.efi
:After reboot, any entries added to NVRAM should show up in the boot menu.
== See also ==
* [http://www.rodsbooks.com/efi-bootloaders/ Rod Smith - Managing EFI Boot Loaders for Linux]
* [http://www.rodsbooks.com/refind/ Rod Smith - rEFInd, a fork or rEFIt]
* [https://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git;a=blob_plain;f=Documentation/x86/efi-stub.txt;hb=HEAD Linux Kernel Documentation on EFISTUB]
* [http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git;a=commitdiff;h=291f36325f9f252bd76ef5f603995f37e453fc60;hp=55839d515495e766605d7aaabd9c2758370a8d27 Linux Kernel EFISTUB Git Commit]
* [http://www.rodsbooks.com/efi-bootloaders/efistub.html Rod Smith's page on EFISTUB]
* [http://www.rodsbooks.com/refind/linux.html rEFInd Documentation for booting EFISTUB Kernels]

Revision as of 11:54, 24 October 2013

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