Difference between revisions of "USB 3G Modem"

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[[Category:Networking (English)]]
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[[Category:Modems]]
[[Category:HOWTOs (English)]]
+
[[ja:USB 3G モデム]]
{{Stub}}
+
[[ru:USB 3G Modem]]
 +
{{Style|does not conform to [[Help:Style]]}}
 +
{{Related articles start}}
 +
{{Related|wvdial}}
 +
{{Related|Direct Modem Connection}}
 +
{{Related|3G and GPRS modems with pppd}}
 +
{{Related|:Category:Modems}}
 +
{{Related articles end}}
 +
A number of mobile telephone networks around the world offer mobile internet connections over UMTS (or EDGE or GSM) using a portable USB modem device.
  
A number of mobile telephone networks around the world offer mobile internet connections over UMTS (or EDGE or GSM) using a portable USB modem device.
+
==Remove the PIN==
 +
First of all use your SIM card in a normal phone and disable the PIN request if present. If the SIM card asks the PIN wvdial will not work.
 +
 
 +
Failing that, you can also use ''mmcli'' to unlock the SIM card:
 +
 
 +
# mmcli -i ''SIMNUMBER'' --pin=XXXX
 +
 
 +
where ''SIMNUMBER'' can be found using {{ic|mmcli -L}} and {{ic|mmcli -m X}}.
  
 
==Device identification==
 
==Device identification==
Install usbutils
+
Examine the output of
pacman -S usbutils
 
and then examine the output of
 
 
  $ lsusb
 
  $ lsusb
 
which will show the vendor and product IDs of the device. Note that some devices will show ''two'' different product IDs at different times as explained below.
 
which will show the vendor and product IDs of the device. Note that some devices will show ''two'' different product IDs at different times as explained below.
Line 16: Line 29:
 
Often these devices will have two modes (1) USB flash memory storage (2) USB Modem. The first mode, sometimes known as ZeroCD, is often used to deliver an internet communications program for another operating system and is generally of no interest to Linux users. Additionally some have a slot into which the user can insert an additional flash memory card.
 
Often these devices will have two modes (1) USB flash memory storage (2) USB Modem. The first mode, sometimes known as ZeroCD, is often used to deliver an internet communications program for another operating system and is generally of no interest to Linux users. Additionally some have a slot into which the user can insert an additional flash memory card.
  
A useful utility for switching these devices into modem mode is [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=18047 usb_modeswitch], available in the AUR.
+
A useful utility for switching these devices into modem mode is {{Pkg|usb_modeswitch}}, available in the [[official repositories]].
Some devices are now supported in the USB serial kernel module called "option" (after the Option devices, but not limited to just those) and may be used without usb_modeswitch.
 
  
A configuration file /etc/usb_modeswitch.conf is supplied with the package. This contains entries for many devices, which are disabled by default. You need to find your device and uncomment the entry.
+
Udev rules are supplied with the package in {{ic|/lib/udev/rules.d/40-usb_modeswitch.rules}}. This contains entries for many devices, which it will switch to modem mode upon insertion.
  
When a device is switched, its product ID may change to a different value. The vendor ID will remain unchanged. This can be seen in the output of lsusb.
+
When a device is switched, its product ID may change to a different value. The vendor ID will remain unchanged. This can be seen in the output of {{ic|lsusb}}.
 +
 
 +
Some devices are supported in the USB serial kernel module called "option" (after the Option devices, but not limited to just those) and may be used without usb_modeswitch.
 +
 
 +
Udev itself included a utility called {{ic|/lib/udev/modem-modeswitch}}. In udev 157 this was renamed to {{ic|/lib/udev/mobile-action-modeswitch}} and morphed into a tool that only switches Mobile Action cables. For other devices use {{ic|usb_modeswitch}}.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|You can find an alternative way to do this base on eject command [[ZTE_MF110/MF190#Switch_from_CD_mode_to_modem_mode_on_the_device|here]].}}
  
 
==Connection==
 
==Connection==
  
The general procedure is to switch the device into modem mode, make sure the USBtty device(s) are recognized by the usbserial kernel module, and then to run wvdial to dial, connect and start pppd.
+
=== Network Manager ===
 +
 
 +
After installing {{Pkg|usbutils}} and {{Pkg|usb_modeswitch}}, you just need to install {{Pkg|modemmanager}} to make the modem work with [[NetworkManager]].
 +
 
 +
Make sure both NetworkManager and ModemManager services are running, see [[systemd#Using units]] for details.
 +
 
 +
Make sure {{Pkg|mobile-broadband-provider-info}} and {{Pkg|nm-connection-editor}} are installed.
 +
 
 +
A system restart might be necessary for ModemManager to detect the USB modem. After you restart the NetworkManager-applet and plug the modem in again NetworkManager should recognize the modem in the menu without further configuration. Setting up the modem in NetworkManager is self-explanatory, you should only need the login-information provided by your network provider.
 +
 
 +
In case NetworkManager does not recognize the modem, check the output of ModemManager.service:
 +
 
 +
# systemctl status ModemManager
 +
 
 +
If you get error messages such as "Couldn't check support for device" and "not supported by any plugin", you may have to whitelist your device using the ModemManager filter rules https://www.freedesktop.org/software/ModemManager/api/1.8.0/ref-overview-modem-filter.html
 +
 
 +
Whilst running ModemManager gammu will not work. SMS and Ussd codes can be still used with {{Pkg|modem-manager-gui}}.
 +
 
 +
=== pppd ===
 +
[[pppd]] can be used to configure 3g connections. Step by step instruction is available on [[3G and GPRS modems with pppd]]. Optionally, {{Aur|pppconfig}} can be used to simplify the pppd configuration using dialog interface.
 +
 
 +
=== wvdial ===
 +
See main article: [[wvdial]]
 +
 
 +
=== netctl ===
 +
Netctl can be used to establish a connection using a USB modem. An example configuration file provided by {{Pkg|netctl}} is located at {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples/mobile_ppp}}. Minimally you will probably have to specify
 +
{{hc|/etc/netctl/mobile_ppp|
 +
<nowiki>Interface=cdc-wdmX
 +
Connection=mobile_ppp
 +
PhoneNumber=XxxxXXXX
 +
AccessPointName=Broadband</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
See the [[netctl]] article and [https://github.com/joukewitteveen/netctl/blob/master/docs/netctl.profile.5.txt netctl.profile] for more information.
 +
 
 +
=== libmbim ===
 +
Install {{ic|libmbim}} from the official repositories. To bring up the modem you can use {{ic|mbim-network}} which is a wrapper for {{ic|mmcli}} calls. First create a profile for mbim-network.
 +
{{hc|/etc/mbim-network.conf|
 +
<nowiki>APN=Broadband</nowiki>}}
 +
Now connect to the network with {{bc|# mbim-network /dev/cdc-wdmX start}}. Then bring up the interface and get an ip address:
 +
{{bc|
 +
# ip link set wwanY up
 +
# dhcpcd wwanY
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
=== sakis3g ===
 +
There may be the chance that the modem stick is supported by [http://www.sakis3g.com/ sakis3g] which is an all in one command line script and automates all the steps above. Install {{AUR|sakis3g}} from the [[AUR]].
 +
 
 +
=== Low connection speed ===
 +
Someone claims that the connection speed under Linux is lower than Windows: [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=111513]
 +
 
 +
A short summary for possible solutions which are not fully verified.
 +
In most of conditions, the low speed is caused by bad receiver signals and too many people in cell. But you still could use the following method to try to improve the connection speed.
 +
 
 +
====QoS parameter====
 +
The {{ic|AT+CGEQMIN}} and {{ic|AT+CGEQREQ}} commands can be used to set the QoS. It is also possible to decrease and limit the connect speed.
 +
Add the following {{ic|Init}} command in {{ic|/etc/wvdial.conf}}:
 +
Init6 = AT+CGEQMIN=1,4,64,640,64,640
 +
Init7 = AT+CGEQREQ=1,4,64,640,64,640
 +
 
 +
====Baud parameter====
 +
Baud parameter in wvdial.conf could be used to increase the connection speed.
 +
 
 +
Baud = 460800
 +
 
 +
But the official Huawei E261 windows application set the Baud=9600 under Windows Vista.
 +
More verifications are needed to double check this point.
 +
 
 +
===Monitor used bandwith===
 +
Frequently a 3G connection obtained via a mobile phone operator comes with restricted bandwidth, so that you are only allowed to use a certain bandwidth per time (e.g. 1GB per month). While it is quite straight-forward to know which type of network applications are pretty bandwidth extensive (e.g. video streaming, gaming, torrent, etc.), it may be difficult to keep an overview about overall consumed bandwidth.
 +
 
 +
A number of tools are available to help with that. Two console tools are {{pkg|vnstat}}, which allows to keep track of bandwith over time, and {{pkg|iftop}} to monitor bandwidth of individual sessions. If you are a [[KDE]] user, {{Pkg|knemo}} might help. All are available in the [[official repositories]].
 +
 
 +
===Connection halts after few minutes running===
 +
This problem occurs on some modems which locked by a mobile operator. You can successfully connect to the internet but after few minutes
 +
connection halts and your modem reboots. That happens because an operator built a some checks into modem firmware so a modem checks if
 +
a branded software is running on your pc, but usually that software is Windows-only, and obviously you don't use it.
 +
Fix (it works on ZTE-mf190 at least) is simple - send this command through serial port (use minicom or similar soft):
 +
AT+ZCDRUN=E\r\n
 +
 
 +
This command will delete a NODOWNLOAD.FLG file in the modem's filesystem - it will disable such checks.
 +
 
 +
==Reading SMS==
 +
This was tested on a Huawei EM770W (GTM382E) 3g card integrated into an Acer Aspire AS3810TG laptop.
 +
 
 +
{{bc|
 +
$ pacman -S gnokii
 +
$ mkdir -p $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/gnokii
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Usually the configuration directory is {{ic|~/.config/gnokii}}.  
  
Install wvdial
+
{{bc|
pacman -S wvdial
+
$ cp /etc/gnokiirc ~/.config/gnokii/config
The configuration file /etc/wvdial.conf will in general depend on (a) which device you have (b) which mobile network you are connecting to. A single wvdial.conf file can be defined with named sections to be usable with several USB modems and networks, should you need them.
+
}}
  
Run (as root)
+
edit {{ic|~/.config/gnokii/config}} as follows:
# wvdialconf
 
which will attempt to write /etc/wvdial.conf correctly. You will need to add the user, password and Access Point Name (APN). You can obtain these (i) from your network provider,
 
(ii) from other users via published wvdial.confs, or (iii) by logging the USB tty traffic under another operating system.
 
  
A typical /etc/wvdial.conf looks like this:
+
{{bc|1=
 +
port = /dev/ttyUSB0
 +
}}
  
<pre>
+
You may have to use a different port depending on your configuration, for example {{ic|/dev/ttyUSB1}} or something else:
[Dialer Defaults]
 
Init1 = ATZ
 
Init2 = ATQ0 V1 E1 S0=0 &C1 &D2 +FCLASS=0
 
Modem Type = Analog Modem
 
ISDN = 0
 
Modem = /dev/ttyUSB2
 
Baud = 9600
 
  
[Dialer thenet]
+
{{bc|1=
Phone = *99***1#
+
model = AT
Username = thenetuser
+
connection = serial
Password = thenetpw
+
}}
Stupid Mode = 1
 
Baud = 460800
 
Init3 = AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","apn.thenet.net"
 
  
[Dialer mypin]
+
You need to be part of the {{ic|uucp}} group to use {{ic|/dev/ttyUSB0}}, for example if your user is called "x":
Init4 = AT+CPIN=1234
+
{{bc|
</pre>
+
# gpasswd -a x uucp
 +
$ newgrp uucp
 +
}}
 +
The ''newgrp'' command allows you to take advantage of the new group assignment immediately without having to logout/login.
  
Often there will be several devices (at /dev/USBtty0, /dev/USBtty1, /dev/USBtty2 for example). If in doubt about which to use, try each of them in turn. Once the configuration files are prepared, the internet connection is established with a simple script like this:
+
Then launch gnokii:
 +
{{bc|
 +
$ xgnokii
 +
}}
 +
Click on the "SMS" icon button, a window opens up. Then click: "messages->activate sms reading". Your messages will show up in the window.
 +
===command line script===
 +
A small command line script using gnokii to read SMS on your SIM card (not phone memory) without having to start a GUI:
 +
$  gnokii --getsms SM 0 end 2>&1|grep Text -A1 -B3|grep -v Text
 +
What it does:
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
gnokii # invoke gnokii
 +
--getsms SM 0 end # read SMS from SM-memory location (=SIM card) starting at 0 and reading all occupied memory locations ("end")
 +
2>&1 # connect STDERR to STDOUT to make sure the output from the --getsms command can be piped to grep
 +
|grep Text # pipe output from gnokii to grep, anchoring at output containing "Text"
 +
-A1 -B3 # print one line after the matched pattern and three lines before the matched pattern
 +
|grep -v Text # grep result to another grep to exclude the "Text" line (-v for inverting the pattern)
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
Granted this does not work very well if your SMS contains the word "Text", but you may adapt the script to your liking.
  
usbmodeswitch
+
== Fix image quality ==
sleep 2
+
If you are getting low quality images while browsing the web over a mobile broadband connection with the hints "shift+r improves the quality of this image" and "shift+a improves the quality of all images on this page", follow these instructions:
modprobe usbserial vendor=0xVVVV product=0xMMMM maxSize=4096
 
sleep 2
 
wvdial thenet
 
  
where VVVV is the hexadecimal vendor ID from lsusb, and MMMM is the hexadecimal product ID ''when in modem mode'', and "thenet" is the name of the section in wvdial.conf which you wish to use. The maxSize option may or may not be necessary. It simplifies matters if you disable the SIM PIN, but if you require it, run "wvdial mypin" before "wvdial thenet".
+
[[Install]] {{Pkg|tinyproxy}}, available in the [[official repositories]].
  
The final wvdial command should start pppd and the obained IP address should be visible in the terminal output. At that point the internet connection should be live, which can be easily checked with a web browser or by pinging an external IP address.
+
Edit /etc/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.conf and insert the following two lines:
 +
AddHeader "Pragma" "No-Cache"
 +
AddHeader "Cache-Control" "No-Cache"
 +
Start tinyproxy:
 +
systemctl start tinyproxy
 +
Configure your browser to use localhost:8888 as a proxy server and you are all done. This is especially useful if you are using, for example, Google Chrome which, unlike Firefox, does not allow you to modify the Pragma and Cache-Control headers.

Latest revision as of 22:22, 27 April 2018

Tango-edit-clear.pngThis article or section needs language, wiki syntax or style improvements. See Help:Style for reference.Tango-edit-clear.png

Reason: does not conform to Help:Style (Discuss in Talk:USB 3G Modem#)

A number of mobile telephone networks around the world offer mobile internet connections over UMTS (or EDGE or GSM) using a portable USB modem device.

Remove the PIN

First of all use your SIM card in a normal phone and disable the PIN request if present. If the SIM card asks the PIN wvdial will not work.

Failing that, you can also use mmcli to unlock the SIM card:

# mmcli -i SIMNUMBER --pin=XXXX

where SIMNUMBER can be found using mmcli -L and mmcli -m X.

Device identification

Examine the output of

$ lsusb

which will show the vendor and product IDs of the device. Note that some devices will show two different product IDs at different times as explained below.

Mode switching

Often these devices will have two modes (1) USB flash memory storage (2) USB Modem. The first mode, sometimes known as ZeroCD, is often used to deliver an internet communications program for another operating system and is generally of no interest to Linux users. Additionally some have a slot into which the user can insert an additional flash memory card.

A useful utility for switching these devices into modem mode is usb_modeswitch, available in the official repositories.

Udev rules are supplied with the package in /lib/udev/rules.d/40-usb_modeswitch.rules. This contains entries for many devices, which it will switch to modem mode upon insertion.

When a device is switched, its product ID may change to a different value. The vendor ID will remain unchanged. This can be seen in the output of lsusb.

Some devices are supported in the USB serial kernel module called "option" (after the Option devices, but not limited to just those) and may be used without usb_modeswitch.

Udev itself included a utility called /lib/udev/modem-modeswitch. In udev 157 this was renamed to /lib/udev/mobile-action-modeswitch and morphed into a tool that only switches Mobile Action cables. For other devices use usb_modeswitch.

Note: You can find an alternative way to do this base on eject command here.

Connection

Network Manager

After installing usbutils and usb_modeswitch, you just need to install modemmanager to make the modem work with NetworkManager.

Make sure both NetworkManager and ModemManager services are running, see systemd#Using units for details.

Make sure mobile-broadband-provider-info and nm-connection-editor are installed.

A system restart might be necessary for ModemManager to detect the USB modem. After you restart the NetworkManager-applet and plug the modem in again NetworkManager should recognize the modem in the menu without further configuration. Setting up the modem in NetworkManager is self-explanatory, you should only need the login-information provided by your network provider.

In case NetworkManager does not recognize the modem, check the output of ModemManager.service:

# systemctl status ModemManager

If you get error messages such as "Couldn't check support for device" and "not supported by any plugin", you may have to whitelist your device using the ModemManager filter rules https://www.freedesktop.org/software/ModemManager/api/1.8.0/ref-overview-modem-filter.html

Whilst running ModemManager gammu will not work. SMS and Ussd codes can be still used with modem-manager-gui.

pppd

pppd can be used to configure 3g connections. Step by step instruction is available on 3G and GPRS modems with pppd. Optionally, pppconfigAUR can be used to simplify the pppd configuration using dialog interface.

wvdial

See main article: wvdial

netctl

Netctl can be used to establish a connection using a USB modem. An example configuration file provided by netctl is located at /etc/netctl/examples/mobile_ppp. Minimally you will probably have to specify

/etc/netctl/mobile_ppp
Interface=cdc-wdmX
Connection=mobile_ppp
PhoneNumber=XxxxXXXX
AccessPointName=Broadband

See the netctl article and netctl.profile for more information.

libmbim

Install libmbim from the official repositories. To bring up the modem you can use mbim-network which is a wrapper for mmcli calls. First create a profile for mbim-network.

/etc/mbim-network.conf
APN=Broadband
Now connect to the network with
# mbim-network /dev/cdc-wdmX start
. Then bring up the interface and get an ip address:
# ip link set wwanY up
# dhcpcd wwanY

sakis3g

There may be the chance that the modem stick is supported by sakis3g which is an all in one command line script and automates all the steps above. Install sakis3gAUR from the AUR.

Low connection speed

Someone claims that the connection speed under Linux is lower than Windows: [1]

A short summary for possible solutions which are not fully verified. In most of conditions, the low speed is caused by bad receiver signals and too many people in cell. But you still could use the following method to try to improve the connection speed.

QoS parameter

The AT+CGEQMIN and AT+CGEQREQ commands can be used to set the QoS. It is also possible to decrease and limit the connect speed. Add the following Init command in /etc/wvdial.conf:

Init6 = AT+CGEQMIN=1,4,64,640,64,640
Init7 = AT+CGEQREQ=1,4,64,640,64,640

Baud parameter

Baud parameter in wvdial.conf could be used to increase the connection speed.

Baud = 460800

But the official Huawei E261 windows application set the Baud=9600 under Windows Vista. More verifications are needed to double check this point.

Monitor used bandwith

Frequently a 3G connection obtained via a mobile phone operator comes with restricted bandwidth, so that you are only allowed to use a certain bandwidth per time (e.g. 1GB per month). While it is quite straight-forward to know which type of network applications are pretty bandwidth extensive (e.g. video streaming, gaming, torrent, etc.), it may be difficult to keep an overview about overall consumed bandwidth.

A number of tools are available to help with that. Two console tools are vnstat, which allows to keep track of bandwith over time, and iftop to monitor bandwidth of individual sessions. If you are a KDE user, knemo might help. All are available in the official repositories.

Connection halts after few minutes running

This problem occurs on some modems which locked by a mobile operator. You can successfully connect to the internet but after few minutes connection halts and your modem reboots. That happens because an operator built a some checks into modem firmware so a modem checks if a branded software is running on your pc, but usually that software is Windows-only, and obviously you don't use it. Fix (it works on ZTE-mf190 at least) is simple - send this command through serial port (use minicom or similar soft):

AT+ZCDRUN=E\r\n

This command will delete a NODOWNLOAD.FLG file in the modem's filesystem - it will disable such checks.

Reading SMS

This was tested on a Huawei EM770W (GTM382E) 3g card integrated into an Acer Aspire AS3810TG laptop.

$ pacman -S gnokii
$ mkdir -p $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/gnokii

Usually the configuration directory is ~/.config/gnokii.

$ cp /etc/gnokiirc ~/.config/gnokii/config

edit ~/.config/gnokii/config as follows:

port = /dev/ttyUSB0

You may have to use a different port depending on your configuration, for example /dev/ttyUSB1 or something else:

model = AT
connection = serial

You need to be part of the uucp group to use /dev/ttyUSB0, for example if your user is called "x":

# gpasswd -a x uucp
$ newgrp uucp

The newgrp command allows you to take advantage of the new group assignment immediately without having to logout/login.

Then launch gnokii:

$ xgnokii

Click on the "SMS" icon button, a window opens up. Then click: "messages->activate sms reading". Your messages will show up in the window.

command line script

A small command line script using gnokii to read SMS on your SIM card (not phone memory) without having to start a GUI:

$  gnokii --getsms SM 0 end 2>&1|grep Text -A1 -B3|grep -v Text

What it does:

gnokii # invoke gnokii
--getsms SM 0 end # read SMS from SM-memory location (=SIM card) starting at 0 and reading all occupied memory locations ("end")
2>&1 # connect STDERR to STDOUT to make sure the output from the --getsms command can be piped to grep
|grep Text # pipe output from gnokii to grep, anchoring at output containing "Text"
-A1 -B3 # print one line after the matched pattern and three lines before the matched pattern
|grep -v Text # grep result to another grep to exclude the "Text" line (-v for inverting the pattern)

Granted this does not work very well if your SMS contains the word "Text", but you may adapt the script to your liking.

Fix image quality

If you are getting low quality images while browsing the web over a mobile broadband connection with the hints "shift+r improves the quality of this image" and "shift+a improves the quality of all images on this page", follow these instructions:

Install tinyproxy, available in the official repositories.

Edit /etc/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.conf and insert the following two lines:

AddHeader "Pragma" "No-Cache"
AddHeader "Cache-Control" "No-Cache"

Start tinyproxy:

systemctl start tinyproxy

Configure your browser to use localhost:8888 as a proxy server and you are all done. This is especially useful if you are using, for example, Google Chrome which, unlike Firefox, does not allow you to modify the Pragma and Cache-Control headers.