Difference between revisions of "USB flash installation media"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Using dd (Recommended method): Improved wording, removed "recommended" from the title, as this information is already in the Note. Added link to the alternative method.)
(Undo revision 437500 by Roqz (talk) - no purpose given, does not solve the '&& sync' part, might result in slower transfer)
 
(114 intermediate revisions by 49 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
 
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
[[ar:USB Installation Media]]
+
[[ar:USB flash installation media]]
[[bg:USB Installation Media]]
+
[[bg:USB flash installation media]]
 
[[de:Installation von einem USB-Stick]]
 
[[de:Installation von einem USB-Stick]]
[[es:USB Installation Media]]
+
[[es:USB flash installation media]]
[[it:USB Installation Media]]
+
[[fr:Créer une clef USB avec l'ISO Arch Linux]]
[[ja:USB Installation Media]]
+
[[it:USB flash installation media]]
 +
[[ja:USB インストールメディア]]
 
[[ro:Instalare prin USB]]
 
[[ro:Instalare prin USB]]
[[ru:USB Installation Media]]
+
[[ru:USB flash installation media]]
[[tr:USB_ile_kurulum]]
+
[[tr:USB ile kurulum]]
[[zh-CN:USB Installation Media]]
+
[[zh-cn:USB flash installation media]]
[[zh-TW:USB Installation Media]]
+
[[zh-tw:USB flash installation media]]
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related|CD Burning}}
 
{{Related|CD Burning}}
 
{{Related|Archiso}}
 
{{Related|Archiso}}
 +
{{Related|Multiboot USB drive}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
This page discusses various mutiplatform methods on how to create a Arch Linux Installer USB drive (also referred to as ''"flash drive", "USB stick", "USB key"'', etc) for booting in BIOS and UEFI systems. The result will be a LiveUSB (LiveCD-like) system that can be used for installing Arch Linux, system maintenance or for recovery purposes, and that, because of the nature of [[Wikipedia:SquashFS|SquashFS]], will discard all changes once the computer shuts down.
 
  
If you would like to run a full install of Arch Linux from a USB drive (i.e. with persistent settings), see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]]. If you would like to use your bootable Arch Linux USB stick as a rescue USB, see [[Change Root]].
+
This page discusses various multi-platform methods on how to create an Arch Linux Installer USB drive (also referred to as ''"flash drive", "USB stick", "USB key"'', etc) for booting in BIOS and UEFI systems. The result will be a LiveUSB (LiveCD-like) system that can be used for installing Arch Linux, system maintenance or for recovery purposes, and that, because of the nature of [[Wikipedia:SquashFS|SquashFS]], will discard all changes once the computer shuts down.
 +
 
 +
If you would like to run a full install of Arch Linux from a USB drive (i.e. with persistent settings), see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]]. If you would like to use your bootable Arch Linux USB stick as a rescue USB, see [[Change root]].
  
 
== BIOS and UEFI Bootable USB ==
 
== BIOS and UEFI Bootable USB ==
  
 
=== Using dd ===
 
=== Using dd ===
{{Note|This method is recommended due to its simplicity. If it does not work switch to the alternative method [[#Using manual formatting ]] below.}}
+
{{Note|This method is recommended due to its simplicity. If it does not work, switch to the alternative method [[#Using manual formatting]] below.}}
  
{{Warning|This will irrevocably destroy all data on {{ic|/dev/sd'''x'''}}.}}
+
{{Warning|This will irrevocably destroy all data on {{ic|/dev/'''sdx'''}}. To restore the USB drive as an empty, usable storage device after using the Arch ISO image, the iso9660 filesystem signature needs to be removed by running {{ic|wipefs --all /dev/'''sdx'''}} as root, before [[repartition]]ing and [[reformat]]ing the USB drive.}}
  
 
==== In GNU/Linux ====
 
==== In GNU/Linux ====
  
{{Tip|Check that the USB flash installation media is '''not''' mounted with {{ic|lsblk}}.}}
+
{{Tip|Find out the name of your USB drive with {{ic|lsblk}}. Make sure that it is '''not''' mounted.}}
  
{{Note|Use {{ic|/dev/sd'''x'''}} instead of {{ic|/dev/sd'''x1'''}}, and adjust '''x''' to reflect the targeted device.}}
+
Run the following command, replacing {{ic|/dev/'''sdx'''}} with your drive, e.g. {{ic|/dev/sdb}}. (do '''not''' append a partition number, so do '''not''' use something like {{ic|/dev/sdb'''1'''}}):
  
  # dd bs=4M if=/path/to/archlinux.iso of=/dev/sd'''x''' && sync
+
  # dd bs=4M if=/path/to/archlinux.iso of=/dev/'''sdx''' status=progress && sync
 +
 
 +
The option {{ic|1=status=progress}} above reports transfer progress every so often. Do '''not''' miss ''sync'' to complete before pulling the USB drive.
  
 
==== In Windows ====
 
==== In Windows ====
 +
 +
===== Using Rufus =====
 +
[https://rufus.akeo.ie/ Rufus] is a multi-purpose USB iso writer. Simply select the Arch Linux ISO, the USB drive you want to create the bootable Arch Linux onto and click start.
 +
 +
Since Rufus does not care if the drive is properly formatted or not and provides a GUI it may be the easiest and most robust tool to use.
 +
 +
===== Using USBwriter =====
 +
 +
This method does not require any workaround and is as straightforward as {{ic|dd}} under Linux. Just download the Arch Linux ISO, and with local administrator rights use the [http://sourceforge.net/p/usbwriter/wiki/Documentation/ USBwriter] utility to write to your USB flash memory.
  
 
===== Using Cygwin =====
 
===== Using Cygwin =====
Line 48: Line 62:
 
Run cygwin as administrator (required for cygwin to access hardware). To write to your USB drive use the following command:
 
Run cygwin as administrator (required for cygwin to access hardware). To write to your USB drive use the following command:
  
  dd if=image.iso of=\\.\[x]: bs=4M
+
  dd if=image.iso of=\\.\'''x''': bs=4M
  
where image.iso is the path to the iso image file within the {{ic|cygwin}} directory and {{ic|\\.\['''x''']}}: is your USB flash drive where '''x''' is the windows designated letter, e.g. {{ic|\\.\d:}}.
+
where image.iso is the path to the iso image file within the {{ic|cygwin}} directory and {{ic|\\.\'''x''':}} is your USB flash drive where {{ic|'''x'''}} is the windows designated letter, e.g. {{ic|\\.\d:}}.
  
On Cygwin 6.0 find out the correct partition with:
+
On Cygwin 6.0, find out the correct partition with:
  
 
  cat /proc/partitions
 
  cat /proc/partitions
Line 58: Line 72:
 
and write the ISO image with the information from the output. Example:
 
and write the ISO image with the information from the output. Example:
  
{{Warning|This will irrevocably delete all files on your USB flash drive, so make sure you do not have any important files on the stick before doing this.}}
+
{{Warning|This will irrevocably delete all files on your USB flash drive, so make sure you do not have any important files on the flash drive before doing this.}}
  
 
  dd if=image.iso of=/dev/sdb bs=4M
 
  dd if=image.iso of=/dev/sdb bs=4M
Line 74: Line 88:
 
If your Arch Linux ISO is elsewhere you may need to state the full path, for convenience you may wish to put the Arch Linux ISO into the same folder as the dd executable. The basic format of the command will look like this.
 
If your Arch Linux ISO is elsewhere you may need to state the full path, for convenience you may wish to put the Arch Linux ISO into the same folder as the dd executable. The basic format of the command will look like this.
  
{{bc|<nowiki>dd if=archlinux-2013-XX-xx-dual.iso of=\\.\x: bs=4m</nowiki>}}
+
# dd if=''archlinux-2015-XX-YY-dual.iso'' od=\\.\''x'': bs=4M
{{Warning|This command will replace the drive's contents and its formatting with the ISO's. You will likely be unable to recover its contents in the event of an accidental copy. Be absolutely sure that you are directing dd to the correct drive before executing!}}
+
Simply replace the various null spots (indicated by an "x") with the correct date and correct drive letter.
+
  
Here is a complete example.
+
{{Note|The Windows drive letters are linked to a partition. To allow selecting the entire disk, ''dd for Windows'' provides the {{ic|od}} parameter, which is used in the commands above. Note however that this parameter is specific to ''dd for Windows'' and cannot be found in other implementations of ''dd''.}}
{{bc|<nowiki>dd if=ISOs\archlinux-2013.08.01-dual.iso of=\\.\d: bs=4M</nowiki>}}
+
 
 +
{{Warning|Because the {{ic|od}} is used, all partitions on the selected disk will be destroyed. Be absolutely sure that you are directing dd to the correct drive before executing.}}
 +
 
 +
Simply replace the various null spots (indicated by an "x") with the correct date and correct drive letter. Here is a complete example.
 +
 
 +
# dd if=ISOs\archlinux-2015.01.01-dual.iso od=\\.\d: bs=4M
 +
 
 +
{{Accuracy|The following note may be invalid, the [http://www.chrysocome.net/dd upstream documentation] does not mention anything related to ''PhysicalDrive''.}}
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Alternatively, replace the drive letter with {{ic|\\.\PhysicalDrive''X''}}, where {{ic|''X''}} is the physical drive number (starts from 0). Example:
 +
{{bc|1=# dd if=ISOs\archlinux-2015.01.01-dual.iso of=\\.\PhysicalDrive1 bs=4M}}
 +
You can find out the physical drive number by typing {{ic|wmic diskdrive list brief}} at the command prompt or with {{ic|dd --list}}
 +
Any Explorer window must be closed or dd will report an error.}}
  
 
==== In Mac OS X ====
 
==== In Mac OS X ====
Line 87: Line 111:
 
  $ diskutil list
 
  $ diskutil list
  
Figure out what your USB device is called with {{ic|mount}} or {{ic|<nowiki>sudo dmesg | tail</nowiki>}} (e.g. {{ic|/dev/disk1}}) and unmount the partitions on the device (i.e., /dev/disk1s1) while keeping the device proper (i.e., /dev/disk1):
+
Figure out what your USB device is called with {{ic|mount}} or {{ic|<nowiki>sudo dmesg | tail</nowiki>}} (e.g. {{ic|/dev/disk2}}) and unmount the partitions on the device (i.e., /dev/disk2s1) while keeping the device proper (i.e., /dev/disk2):
  
  $ diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk1
+
  $ diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk2
  
Now we can continue in accordance with the instructions above (but use {{ic|1=bs=8192}} if you are using the OS X {{ic|dd}}, the number comes from {{ic|1024*8}}).
+
Now we can continue in accordance with the instructions above (but, if you are using the OS X {{ic|dd}}, use {{ic|/dev/rdisk}} instead of {{ic|/dev/disk}}, and use {{ic|1=bs=1m}}. {{ic|rdisk}} means "raw disk" and is much faster on OS X, and {{ic|1=bs=1m}} indicates a 1 MB block size).
  
{{hc|<nowiki>dd if=image.iso of=/dev/disk1 bs=8192</nowiki>|
+
{{hc|<nowiki># dd if=image.iso of=/dev/rdisk2 bs=1m</nowiki>|
 
20480+0 records in
 
20480+0 records in
 
20480+0 records out
 
20480+0 records out
Line 101: Line 125:
 
It is probably a good idea to eject your drive before physical removal at this point:
 
It is probably a good idea to eject your drive before physical removal at this point:
  
  $ diskutil eject /dev/disk1
+
  $ diskutil eject /dev/disk2
 
+
==== How to restore the USB drive ====
+
 
+
Because the ISO image is a hybrid which can either be burned to a disc or directly written to a USB drive, it does not include a standard partition table.
+
 
+
After you install Arch Linux and you are done with the USB drive, you should zero out its first 512 bytes ''(meaning the boot code from the MBR and the non-standard partition table)'' if you want to restore it to full capacity:
+
 
+
# dd count=1 bs=512 if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sd'''x''' && sync
+
 
+
Then create a new partition table (e.g. "msdos") and filesystem (e.g. EXT4, FAT32) using {{Pkg|gparted}}, or from a terminal:
+
 
+
* For EXT2/3/4 (adjust accordingly), it would be:
+
 
+
# cfdisk /dev/sd'''x'''
+
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sd'''x1'''
+
# e2label /dev/sd'''x1''' USB_STICK
+
 
+
* For FAT32, install the {{Pkg|dosfstools}} package and run:
+
 
+
# cfdisk /dev/sd'''x'''
+
# mkfs.vfat -F32 /dev/sd'''x1'''
+
# dosfslabel /dev/sd'''x1''' USB_STICK
+
  
 
=== Using manual formatting===
 
=== Using manual formatting===
Line 129: Line 131:
 
==== In GNU/Linux ====
 
==== In GNU/Linux ====
  
This method is more complicated than writing the image directly with {{ic|dd}}, but it does keep the flash drive usable for data storage.
+
This method is more complicated than writing the image directly with {{ic|dd}}, but it does keep the flash drive usable for data storage (that is, the ISO is installed in a specific partition within the already [[Partitioning|partitioned device]] without altering other partitions).
  
* Make sure that the latest ''syslinux'' package (version 6.02 or newer) is installed on the system.  
+
{{Note|Here, we will denote the targeted partition as {{ic|/dev/sd'''Xn'''}}. In any of the following commands, adjust '''X''' and '''n''' according to your system.}}
  
* A MBR (msdos) partition table with at least one partition, containing a FAT32 filesystem must be present on the device. If not, create the partition and/or filesystem before continuing.
+
* Make sure that the latest {{Pkg|syslinux}} package (version 6.02 or newer) is installed on the system.  
  
* Mount the ISO image.
+
* If not done yet, create the partition table and/or partition on the device before continuing. The partition {{ic|/dev/sd'''Xn'''}} must be formatted to FAT32.
# mkdir -p /mnt/iso
+
# mount -o loop archlinux-2013.10.01-dual.iso /mnt/iso
+
  
{{Note|In any of the following commands, adjust {{ic|/dev/sd'''X'''1}} according to your system.}}
+
* Mount the ISO image, mount the FAT32 filesystem located in the USB flash device, and copy the contents of the ISO image to it. Then unmount the ISO image, but keep the FAT32 partition mounted (this will be used in subsequent steps). Eg:
* Mount the FAT32 filesystem on the USB flash device, and copy the contents of the isofile to it.
+
  # mkdir -p /mnt/{iso,usb}
  # mkdir -p /mnt/usb
+
# mount -o loop archlinux-2016.04.01-dual.iso /mnt/iso
  # mount /dev/sd'''X'''1 /mnt/usb
+
  # mount /dev/sd'''Xn''' /mnt/usb
 
  # cp -a /mnt/iso/* /mnt/usb
 
  # cp -a /mnt/iso/* /mnt/usb
 
  # sync
 
  # sync
  # umount /mnt/{usb,iso}
+
  # umount /mnt/iso
  
* Adjust the configuration files archiso_sys32 and archiso_sys64. This step is not required when using [[Archboot]] instead of [[Archiso]]. This command replaces the {{ic|1=archisolabel=ARCH_2013XX}} part with your equivalent of {{ic|1=archiso'''device'''=/dev/disk/by-uuid/47FA-4071}} in both files.
+
* {{Note|The following step is not required when using [[Archboot]] instead of [[Archiso]].}} To boot either a label or an [[UUID]] to select the partition to boot from is required. By default the label {{ic|ARCH_2016'''XX'''}} (with the appropriate release month) is used. Thus, the partition’s label has to be set accordingly, for example using ''gparted''. Alternatively, you can change this behaviour by altering the lines ending by {{ic|1=archisolabel=ARCH_2016'''XX'''}} in files ''/mnt/usb/arch/boot/syslinux/archiso_sys32.cfg'' and ''archiso_sys64.cfg'', as well as ''/mnt/usb/loader/entries/archiso-x86_64.conf'' or similar for a 32-bit ISO (the last being useful only, if you want to boot the USB flash device from an EFI system). To use an UUID instead, replace those portions of lines with {{ic|1=archiso''device''=/dev/disk/by-uuid/'''YOUR-UUID'''}}. The UUID can be retrieved with {{ic|1=blkid -o value -s UUID /dev/sd'''Xn'''}}.
{{Warning|Failure to label the drive "{{ic|ARCH_2013XX}}" (with the appropriate release month) or to use an [[UUID]] (to re-label it to whatever you like) prevents booting from the created medium.}}
+
  
  $ sed -i "s|label=ARCH_.*|device=/dev/disk/by-uuid/$(blkid -o value -s UUID /dev/sd'''X'''1)|" archiso_sys{32,64}.cfg
+
  {{Warning|Mismatching labels or wrong UUID prevents booting from the created medium.}}
  
{{Note|Again, adjust {{ic|/dev/sd'''X'''1}}.}}
+
* Syslinux is already preinstalled in ''/mnt/usb/arch/boot/syslinux''. Install it completely to that folder by following [[Syslinux#Manual install]]. Instructions are reproduced here for convenience.
 +
** Overwrite the existing syslinux modules ({{ic|*.c32}} files) present in the USB (from the ISO) with the ones from the syslinux package. This is necessary to avoid boot failure because of a possible version mismatch.
 +
** Run:
 +
# extlinux --install /mnt/usb/arch/boot/syslinux
 +
** Unmount the partition ({{ic|umount /mnt/usb}}) and install the MBR or GPT partition table to the USB device as described in the page mentioned.
  
* Install Syslinux to the flash drive by following [[Syslinux#Manual_install]]. Overwrite the existing syslinux modules ({{ic|*.c32}} files) present in the USB (from the ISO) with the ones from the syslinux package. This is necessary to avoid boot failure because of a possible version mismatch.
+
* Mark the partition as active (or “bootable”).
 
+
* Mark the partition as active by following [[Syslinux#MBR_partition_table]]
+
  
 
==== In Windows ====
 
==== In Windows ====
  
 
{{Note|
 
{{Note|
* Do not use any '''Bootable USB Creator utility''' for creating the UEFI bootable USB. Do not use ''dd for Windows'' to dd the ISO to the USB drive.
+
* For manual formatting, do not use any '''Bootable USB Creator utility''' for creating the UEFI bootable USB. For manual formatting, do not use ''dd for Windows'' to dd the ISO to the USB drive either.
  
* In the below commands '''X:''' is assumed to be the USB flash drive in Windows.
+
* In the below commands, '''X:''' is assumed to be the USB flash drive in Windows.
  
* Windows used backward slash {{ic|\}} as path-separator, so the same is used in the below commands.
+
* Windows uses backward slash {{ic|\}} as path-separator, so the same is used in the below commands.
  
 
* All commands should be run in Windows command prompt '''as administrator'''.
 
* All commands should be run in Windows command prompt '''as administrator'''.
Line 172: Line 173:
 
}}
 
}}
  
* Partition and format the USB drive using [http://rufus.akeo.ie/ Rufus USB partitioner]. Select partition scheme option as '''MBR for BIOS and UEFI''' and File system as '''FAT32'''. Uncheck "Create a bootable disk using ISO image" and "Create extended label and icon files" options. Use
+
* Partition and format the USB drive using [http://rufus.akeo.ie/ Rufus USB partitioner]. Select partition scheme option as '''MBR for BIOS and UEFI''' and File system as '''FAT32'''. Uncheck "Create a bootable disk using ISO image" and "Create extended label and icon files" options.
  
* Change the '''Volume Label''' of the USB flash drive {{ic|X:}} to match the LABEL mentioned in {{ic|1=archisolabel=}} part in {{ic|<ISO>\loader\entries\archiso-x86_64.conf}}. This step is required for Official ISO ([[Archiso]]) but not required for [[Archboot]].
+
* Change the '''Volume Label''' of the USB flash drive {{ic|X:}} to match the LABEL mentioned in the {{ic|1=archisolabel=}} part in {{ic|<ISO>\loader\entries\archiso-x86_64.conf}}. This step is required for Official ISO ([[Archiso]]) but not required for [[Archboot]]. This step can be also performed using Rufus, during the prior "partition and format" step.
  
 
* Extract the ISO (similar to extracting ZIP archive) to the USB flash drive (using [http://7-zip.org/ 7-Zip].  
 
* Extract the ISO (similar to extracting ZIP archive) to the USB flash drive (using [http://7-zip.org/ 7-Zip].  
  
* Download latest official syslinux 6.xx binaries (zip file) from https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/boot/syslinux/  and extract it.
+
* Download official syslinux 6.xx binaries (zip file) from https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/boot/syslinux/  and extract it. The version of Syslinux should be the same version used in the ISO image.
  
 
* Run the following command (in Windows cmd prompt, as admin):
 
* Run the following command (in Windows cmd prompt, as admin):
Line 190: Line 191:
 
* Install Syslinux to the USB by running (use {{ic|win64\syslinux64.exe}} for x64 Windows):
 
* Install Syslinux to the USB by running (use {{ic|win64\syslinux64.exe}} for x64 Windows):
  
{{Note|Use {{ic|/boot/syslinux}} for Archboot iso.}}
+
{{Note|Use {{ic|-d /boot/syslinux}} for Archboot iso.}}
  
 
  > cd bios\
 
  > cd bios\
Line 196: Line 197:
  
 
{{Note|
 
{{Note|
* The above step install Syslinux {{ic|ldlinux.sys}} to the USB partition VBR, sets the partition as active/boot in the MBR partition table and write the MBR boot code to the 1st 400-byte boot code region of the USB.
+
* The above step installs Syslinux's {{ic|ldlinux.sys}} to the VBR of the USB partition, sets the partition as "active/boot" in the MBR partition table and writes the MBR boot code to the 1st 440-byte boot code region of the USB.
  
* The {{ic|-d}} switch expects path with forward slash path-separator like in *unix systems.
+
* The {{ic|-d}} switch expects a path with forward slash path-separator like in *unix systems.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
== Other Methods for BIOS systems ==
 
== Other Methods for BIOS systems ==
{{Out of date|Can someone verify these work/are even needed to be mentioned?|section=Other Methods for BIOS systems}}
+
 
 
=== In GNU/Linux ===
 
=== In GNU/Linux ===
  
==== Using UNetbootin ====
+
==== Using a multiboot USB drive ====
 +
This allows booting multiple ISOs from a single USB device, including the archiso. Updating an existing USB drive to a more recent ISO is simpler than for most other methods. See [[Multiboot USB drive]].
  
 +
==== Using GNOME Disk Utility ====
 +
Linux distributions running GNOME can easily make a live CD through {{Pkg|nautilus}} and {{Pkg|gnome-disk-utility}}.  Simply right-click on the .iso file, and select "Open With Disk Image Writer."  When GNOME Disk Utility opens, specify the flash drive from the "Destination" drop-down menu and click "Start Restoring."
 +
 +
==== Making an USB-ZIP drive ====
 +
For some old BIOS systems, only booting from USB-ZIP drives is supported. This method allows you to still boot from a USB-HDD drive.
 +
{{Warning|This will destroy all information on your USB flash drive!}}
 +
 +
* Download {{Pkg|syslinux}} and {{Pkg|mtools}} from the official repositories.
 +
* Find your usb drive with {{ic|lsblk}}.
 +
* Type {{ic|mkdiskimage -4 /dev/sd'''x''' 0 64 32}} (replace x with the letter of your drive). This will take a while.
 +
From here continue with the manual formatting method. The partition will be /dev/sd'''x'''4 due to the way ZIP drives work.
 +
 +
{{Note|Do not format the drive as FAT32 keep it as FAT16.}}
 +
 +
==== Using UNetbootin ====
 
UNetbootin can be used on any Linux distribution or Windows to copy your iso to a USB device. However, Unetbootin overwrites syslinux.cfg, so it creates a USB device that does not boot properly. For this reason, '''Unetbootin is not recommended''' -- please use {{ic|dd}} or one of the other methods discussed in this topic.
 
UNetbootin can be used on any Linux distribution or Windows to copy your iso to a USB device. However, Unetbootin overwrites syslinux.cfg, so it creates a USB device that does not boot properly. For this reason, '''Unetbootin is not recommended''' -- please use {{ic|dd}} or one of the other methods discussed in this topic.
 
{{Warning|UNetbootin writes over the default {{ic|syslinux.cfg}}; this must be restored before the USB device will boot properly.}}
 
{{Warning|UNetbootin writes over the default {{ic|syslinux.cfg}}; this must be restored before the USB device will boot properly.}}
Line 237: Line 254:
 
{{Warning|This will destroy all information on your USB flash drive!}}
 
{{Warning|This will destroy all information on your USB flash drive!}}
 
First, download the program from [http://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/ here]. Next, extract the archive and run the executable. Now, select the Arch Linux ISO under the {{ic|Image File}} section and the USB flash device letter (for example, [D:\]) under the {{ic|Device}} section. Finally, click {{ic|Write}} when ready.
 
First, download the program from [http://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/ here]. Next, extract the archive and run the executable. Now, select the Arch Linux ISO under the {{ic|Image File}} section and the USB flash device letter (for example, [D:\]) under the {{ic|Device}} section. Finally, click {{ic|Write}} when ready.
{{Tip|By default, the Win32 Disk Imager's file-browser assumes disk image files end with a {{ic|.img}} extension. However, you can simply change the {{ic|Files of type}} drop-down list to {{ic|*.*}} and continue on to selecting your Arch Linux ISO.}}
+
{{Note|After installation, you may need to restore the USB flash drive following a process as outlined [[#How to restore the USB drive|here]].}}
{{Note|After installation, you may need to restore the USB flash drive following a process as outlined [[USB_Installation_Media#How_to_restore_the_USB_drive|here]].}}
+
  
 
==== USBWriter for Windows ====
 
==== USBWriter for Windows ====
Line 246: Line 262:
 
==== The Flashnul way ====
 
==== The Flashnul way ====
  
[http://shounen.ru/soft/flashnul/ flashnul] is an utility to verify the functionality and maintenance of Flash-Memory (USB-Flash, IDE-Flash, SecureDigital, MMC, MemoryStick, SmartMedia, XD, CompactFlash etc).
+
[https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=&sl=ru&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fshounen.ru%2Fsoft%2Fflashnul%2Freadme.rus.html&sandbox=1 flashnul] is an utility to verify the functionality and maintenance of Flash-Memory (USB-Flash, IDE-Flash, SecureDigital, MMC, MemoryStick, SmartMedia, XD, CompactFlash etc).
  
 
From a command prompt, invoke flashnul with {{ic|-p}}, and determine which device index is your USB drive, e.g.:
 
From a command prompt, invoke flashnul with {{ic|-p}}, and determine which device index is your USB drive, e.g.:
Line 269: Line 285:
  
 
==== Loading the installation media from RAM ====
 
==== Loading the installation media from RAM ====
 +
 +
{{Merge|Multiboot USB drive#Using Syslinux and memdisk|This is the same method, only Syslinux is installed from Windows. Considering that [[multiboot USB drive]] can be used to boot an installation media and it is already linked from the Related articles box at the top, maybe this section should be merged there?}}
  
 
This method uses [[Syslinux]] and a [[Ramdisk]] ([http://www.syslinux.org/wiki/index.php/MEMDISK MEMDISK]) to load the entire Arch Linux ISO image into RAM. Since this will be running entirely from system memory, you will need to make sure the system you will be installing this on has an adequate amount. A minimum amount of RAM between 500 MB and 1 GB should suffice for a MEMDISK based, Arch Linux install.
 
This method uses [[Syslinux]] and a [[Ramdisk]] ([http://www.syslinux.org/wiki/index.php/MEMDISK MEMDISK]) to load the entire Arch Linux ISO image into RAM. Since this will be running entirely from system memory, you will need to make sure the system you will be installing this on has an adequate amount. A minimum amount of RAM between 500 MB and 1 GB should suffice for a MEMDISK based, Arch Linux install.
  
For more information on Arch Linux system requirements as well as those for MEMDISK see the [[Beginners' Guide]] and [http://www.etherboot.org/wiki/bootingmemdisk#preliminaries here].
+
For more information on Arch Linux system requirements as well as those for MEMDISK see the [[Beginners' guide]] and [http://www.etherboot.org/wiki/bootingmemdisk#preliminaries here]{{Dead link|2014|12|01}}. For reference, here is the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=135266 preceding forum thread].
 +
 
 
{{Tip|Once the installer has completed loading you can simply remove the USB stick and even use it on a different machine to start the process all over again. Utilizing MEMDISK also allows booting and installing Arch Linux to and from the same USB flash drive.}}
 
{{Tip|Once the installer has completed loading you can simply remove the USB stick and even use it on a different machine to start the process all over again. Utilizing MEMDISK also allows booting and installing Arch Linux to and from the same USB flash drive.}}
  
Line 298: Line 317:
 
         MENU LABEL Arch Setup
 
         MENU LABEL Arch Setup
 
         LINUX memdisk
 
         LINUX memdisk
         INITRD /Boot/ISOs/archlinux-2013.08.01-dual.iso
+
         INITRD /Boot/ISOs/archlinux-2015.01.01-dual.iso
 
         APPEND iso}}
 
         APPEND iso}}
 
For more information on Syslinux see the [[Syslinux|Arch Wiki article]].
 
For more information on Syslinux see the [[Syslinux|Arch Wiki article]].
Line 308: Line 327:
 
@echo off
 
@echo off
 
syslinux.exe -m -a -d /Boot/Settings X:}}
 
syslinux.exe -m -a -d /Boot/Settings X:}}
 
==== Universal USB Installer ====
 
 
The Windows tool [http://www.pendrivelinux.com/universal-usb-installer-easy-as-1-2-3/] can be used to quickly create a Live USB media with multiple Installers of many Linux distros. Once created, Installers can be added or removed without reformatting the USB drive.
 
  
 
== Troubleshooting ==
 
== Troubleshooting ==
Line 317: Line 332:
 
* For the [[#Loading the installation media from RAM|MEMDISK Method]], if you get the famous "30 seconds" error trying to boot the i686 version, press the {{ic|Tab}} key over the {{ic|Boot Arch Linux (i686)}} entry and add {{ic|vmalloc&#61;448M}} at the end. For reference: ''If your image is bigger than 128MiB and you have a 32-bit OS, then you have to increase the maximum memory usage of vmalloc''. [http://www.syslinux.org/wiki/index.php/MEMDISK#-_memdiskfind_in_combination_with_phram_and_mtdblock]
 
* For the [[#Loading the installation media from RAM|MEMDISK Method]], if you get the famous "30 seconds" error trying to boot the i686 version, press the {{ic|Tab}} key over the {{ic|Boot Arch Linux (i686)}} entry and add {{ic|vmalloc&#61;448M}} at the end. For reference: ''If your image is bigger than 128MiB and you have a 32-bit OS, then you have to increase the maximum memory usage of vmalloc''. [http://www.syslinux.org/wiki/index.php/MEMDISK#-_memdiskfind_in_combination_with_phram_and_mtdblock]
  
* If you get the "30 seconds" error due to the {{ic|/dev/disk/by-label/ARCH_XXXXXX}} not mounting, try renaming your USB media to {{ic|ARCH_XXXXXX}} (e.g. {{ic|ARCH_201302}}).
+
* If you get the "30 seconds" error due to the {{ic|/dev/disk/by-label/ARCH_XXXXYY}} not mounting, try renaming your USB media to {{ic|ARCH_XXXXYY}} (e.g. {{ic|ARCH_201501}}).
  
 
== See Also ==
 
== See Also ==
  
* [http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/liveusb.xml Gentoo liveusb document]
+
* [https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/LiveUSB/HOWTO Gentoo wiki - LiveUSB/HOWTO]
 +
* [https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/How_to_create_and_use_Live_USB Fedora wiki - How to create and use Live USB]
 +
* [http://en.opensuse.org/SDB:Live_USB_stick openSUSE wiki - SDB:Live USB stick]

Latest revision as of 07:49, 6 June 2016

This page discusses various multi-platform methods on how to create an Arch Linux Installer USB drive (also referred to as "flash drive", "USB stick", "USB key", etc) for booting in BIOS and UEFI systems. The result will be a LiveUSB (LiveCD-like) system that can be used for installing Arch Linux, system maintenance or for recovery purposes, and that, because of the nature of SquashFS, will discard all changes once the computer shuts down.

If you would like to run a full install of Arch Linux from a USB drive (i.e. with persistent settings), see Installing Arch Linux on a USB key. If you would like to use your bootable Arch Linux USB stick as a rescue USB, see Change root.

BIOS and UEFI Bootable USB

Using dd

Note: This method is recommended due to its simplicity. If it does not work, switch to the alternative method #Using manual formatting below.
Warning: This will irrevocably destroy all data on /dev/sdx. To restore the USB drive as an empty, usable storage device after using the Arch ISO image, the iso9660 filesystem signature needs to be removed by running wipefs --all /dev/sdx as root, before repartitioning and reformating the USB drive.

In GNU/Linux

Tip: Find out the name of your USB drive with lsblk. Make sure that it is not mounted.

Run the following command, replacing /dev/sdx with your drive, e.g. /dev/sdb. (do not append a partition number, so do not use something like /dev/sdb1):

# dd bs=4M if=/path/to/archlinux.iso of=/dev/sdx status=progress && sync

The option status=progress above reports transfer progress every so often. Do not miss sync to complete before pulling the USB drive.

In Windows

Using Rufus

Rufus is a multi-purpose USB iso writer. Simply select the Arch Linux ISO, the USB drive you want to create the bootable Arch Linux onto and click start.

Since Rufus does not care if the drive is properly formatted or not and provides a GUI it may be the easiest and most robust tool to use.

Using USBwriter

This method does not require any workaround and is as straightforward as dd under Linux. Just download the Arch Linux ISO, and with local administrator rights use the USBwriter utility to write to your USB flash memory.

Using Cygwin

Make sure your Cygwin installation contains the dd package.

Tip: If you do not want to install Cygwin, you can download dd for Windows from here. See the next section for more information.

Place your image file in your home directory:

C:\cygwin\home\John\

Run cygwin as administrator (required for cygwin to access hardware). To write to your USB drive use the following command:

dd if=image.iso of=\\.\x: bs=4M

where image.iso is the path to the iso image file within the cygwin directory and \\.\x: is your USB flash drive where x is the windows designated letter, e.g. \\.\d:.

On Cygwin 6.0, find out the correct partition with:

cat /proc/partitions

and write the ISO image with the information from the output. Example:

Warning: This will irrevocably delete all files on your USB flash drive, so make sure you do not have any important files on the flash drive before doing this.
dd if=image.iso of=/dev/sdb bs=4M
dd for Windows
Note: Some users have an "isolinux.bin missing or corrupt" problem when booting the media with this method.

A GPL licensed dd version for Windows is available at http://www.chrysocome.net/dd. The advantage of this over Cygwin is a smaller download. Use it as shown in instructions for Cygwin above.

To begin, download the latest version of dd for Windows. Once downloaded, extract the archive's contents into Downloads or elsewhere.

Now, launch your command prompt as an administrator. Next, change directory (cd) into the Downloads directory.

If your Arch Linux ISO is elsewhere you may need to state the full path, for convenience you may wish to put the Arch Linux ISO into the same folder as the dd executable. The basic format of the command will look like this.

# dd if=archlinux-2015-XX-YY-dual.iso od=\\.\x: bs=4M
Note: The Windows drive letters are linked to a partition. To allow selecting the entire disk, dd for Windows provides the od parameter, which is used in the commands above. Note however that this parameter is specific to dd for Windows and cannot be found in other implementations of dd.
Warning: Because the od is used, all partitions on the selected disk will be destroyed. Be absolutely sure that you are directing dd to the correct drive before executing.

Simply replace the various null spots (indicated by an "x") with the correct date and correct drive letter. Here is a complete example.

# dd if=ISOs\archlinux-2015.01.01-dual.iso od=\\.\d: bs=4M

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: The following note may be invalid, the upstream documentation does not mention anything related to PhysicalDrive. (Discuss in Talk:USB flash installation media#)
Note: Alternatively, replace the drive letter with \\.\PhysicalDriveX, where X is the physical drive number (starts from 0). Example:
# dd if=ISOs\archlinux-2015.01.01-dual.iso of=\\.\PhysicalDrive1 bs=4M

You can find out the physical drive number by typing wmic diskdrive list brief at the command prompt or with dd --list

Any Explorer window must be closed or dd will report an error.

In Mac OS X

To be able to use dd on your USB device on a Mac you have to do some special maneuvers. First of all insert your usb device, OS X will automount it, and in Terminal.app run:

$ diskutil list

Figure out what your USB device is called with mount or sudo dmesg | tail (e.g. /dev/disk2) and unmount the partitions on the device (i.e., /dev/disk2s1) while keeping the device proper (i.e., /dev/disk2):

$ diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk2

Now we can continue in accordance with the instructions above (but, if you are using the OS X dd, use /dev/rdisk instead of /dev/disk, and use bs=1m. rdisk means "raw disk" and is much faster on OS X, and bs=1m indicates a 1 MB block size).

# dd if=image.iso of=/dev/rdisk2 bs=1m
20480+0 records in
20480+0 records out
167772160 bytes transferred in 220.016918 secs (762542 bytes/sec)

It is probably a good idea to eject your drive before physical removal at this point:

$ diskutil eject /dev/disk2

Using manual formatting

In GNU/Linux

This method is more complicated than writing the image directly with dd, but it does keep the flash drive usable for data storage (that is, the ISO is installed in a specific partition within the already partitioned device without altering other partitions).

Note: Here, we will denote the targeted partition as /dev/sdXn. In any of the following commands, adjust X and n according to your system.
  • Make sure that the latest syslinux package (version 6.02 or newer) is installed on the system.
  • If not done yet, create the partition table and/or partition on the device before continuing. The partition /dev/sdXn must be formatted to FAT32.
  • Mount the ISO image, mount the FAT32 filesystem located in the USB flash device, and copy the contents of the ISO image to it. Then unmount the ISO image, but keep the FAT32 partition mounted (this will be used in subsequent steps). Eg:
# mkdir -p /mnt/{iso,usb}
# mount -o loop archlinux-2016.04.01-dual.iso /mnt/iso
# mount /dev/sdXn /mnt/usb
# cp -a /mnt/iso/* /mnt/usb
# sync
# umount /mnt/iso
  • Note: The following step is not required when using Archboot instead of Archiso.
    To boot either a label or an UUID to select the partition to boot from is required. By default the label ARCH_2016XX (with the appropriate release month) is used. Thus, the partition’s label has to be set accordingly, for example using gparted. Alternatively, you can change this behaviour by altering the lines ending by archisolabel=ARCH_2016XX in files /mnt/usb/arch/boot/syslinux/archiso_sys32.cfg and archiso_sys64.cfg, as well as /mnt/usb/loader/entries/archiso-x86_64.conf or similar for a 32-bit ISO (the last being useful only, if you want to boot the USB flash device from an EFI system). To use an UUID instead, replace those portions of lines with archisodevice=/dev/disk/by-uuid/YOUR-UUID. The UUID can be retrieved with blkid -o value -s UUID /dev/sdXn.
Warning: Mismatching labels or wrong UUID prevents booting from the created medium.
  • Syslinux is already preinstalled in /mnt/usb/arch/boot/syslinux. Install it completely to that folder by following Syslinux#Manual install. Instructions are reproduced here for convenience.
    • Overwrite the existing syslinux modules (*.c32 files) present in the USB (from the ISO) with the ones from the syslinux package. This is necessary to avoid boot failure because of a possible version mismatch.
    • Run:
# extlinux --install /mnt/usb/arch/boot/syslinux
    • Unmount the partition (umount /mnt/usb) and install the MBR or GPT partition table to the USB device as described in the page mentioned.
  • Mark the partition as active (or “bootable”).

In Windows

Note:
  • For manual formatting, do not use any Bootable USB Creator utility for creating the UEFI bootable USB. For manual formatting, do not use dd for Windows to dd the ISO to the USB drive either.
  • In the below commands, X: is assumed to be the USB flash drive in Windows.
  • Windows uses backward slash \ as path-separator, so the same is used in the below commands.
  • All commands should be run in Windows command prompt as administrator.
  • > denotes the Windows command prompt.
  • Partition and format the USB drive using Rufus USB partitioner. Select partition scheme option as MBR for BIOS and UEFI and File system as FAT32. Uncheck "Create a bootable disk using ISO image" and "Create extended label and icon files" options.
  • Change the Volume Label of the USB flash drive X: to match the LABEL mentioned in the archisolabel= part in <ISO>\loader\entries\archiso-x86_64.conf. This step is required for Official ISO (Archiso) but not required for Archboot. This step can be also performed using Rufus, during the prior "partition and format" step.
  • Extract the ISO (similar to extracting ZIP archive) to the USB flash drive (using 7-Zip.
  • Run the following command (in Windows cmd prompt, as admin):
Note: Use X:\boot\syslinux\ for Archboot iso.
> cd bios\
> for /r %Y in (*.c32) do copy "%Y" "X:\arch\boot\syslinux\" /y
> copy mbr\*.bin X:\arch\boot\syslinux\ /y
  • Install Syslinux to the USB by running (use win64\syslinux64.exe for x64 Windows):
Note: Use -d /boot/syslinux for Archboot iso.
> cd bios\
> win32\syslinux.exe -d /arch/boot/syslinux -i -a -m X:
Note:
  • The above step installs Syslinux's ldlinux.sys to the VBR of the USB partition, sets the partition as "active/boot" in the MBR partition table and writes the MBR boot code to the 1st 440-byte boot code region of the USB.
  • The -d switch expects a path with forward slash path-separator like in *unix systems.

Other Methods for BIOS systems

In GNU/Linux

Using a multiboot USB drive

This allows booting multiple ISOs from a single USB device, including the archiso. Updating an existing USB drive to a more recent ISO is simpler than for most other methods. See Multiboot USB drive.

Using GNOME Disk Utility

Linux distributions running GNOME can easily make a live CD through nautilus and gnome-disk-utility. Simply right-click on the .iso file, and select "Open With Disk Image Writer." When GNOME Disk Utility opens, specify the flash drive from the "Destination" drop-down menu and click "Start Restoring."

Making an USB-ZIP drive

For some old BIOS systems, only booting from USB-ZIP drives is supported. This method allows you to still boot from a USB-HDD drive.

Warning: This will destroy all information on your USB flash drive!
  • Download syslinux and mtools from the official repositories.
  • Find your usb drive with lsblk.
  • Type mkdiskimage -4 /dev/sdx 0 64 32 (replace x with the letter of your drive). This will take a while.

From here continue with the manual formatting method. The partition will be /dev/sdx4 due to the way ZIP drives work.

Note: Do not format the drive as FAT32 keep it as FAT16.

Using UNetbootin

UNetbootin can be used on any Linux distribution or Windows to copy your iso to a USB device. However, Unetbootin overwrites syslinux.cfg, so it creates a USB device that does not boot properly. For this reason, Unetbootin is not recommended -- please use dd or one of the other methods discussed in this topic.

Warning: UNetbootin writes over the default syslinux.cfg; this must be restored before the USB device will boot properly.

Edit syslinux.cfg:

sysconfig.cfg
default menu.c32
prompt 0
menu title Archlinux Installer
timeout 100

label unetbootindefault
menu label Archlinux_x86_64
kernel /arch/boot/x86_64/vmlinuz
append initrd=/arch/boot/x86_64/archiso.img archisodevice=/dev/sdx1 ../../

label ubnentry0
menu label Archlinux_i686
kernel /arch/boot/i686/vmlinuz
append initrd=/arch/boot/i686/archiso.img archisodevice=/dev/sdx1 ../../

In /dev/sdx1 you must replace x with the first free letter after the last letter in use on the system where you are installing Arch Linux (e.g. if you have two hard drives, use c.). You can make this change during the first phase of boot by pressing Tab when the menu is shown.

In Windows

Win32 Disk Imager

Warning: This will destroy all information on your USB flash drive!

First, download the program from here. Next, extract the archive and run the executable. Now, select the Arch Linux ISO under the Image File section and the USB flash device letter (for example, [D:\]) under the Device section. Finally, click Write when ready.

Note: After installation, you may need to restore the USB flash drive following a process as outlined here.

USBWriter for Windows

Download the program from http://sourceforge.net/projects/usbwriter/ and run it. Select the arch image file, the target USB stick, and click on the write button. Now you should be able to boot from the usb stick and install Arch Linux from it.

The Flashnul way

flashnul is an utility to verify the functionality and maintenance of Flash-Memory (USB-Flash, IDE-Flash, SecureDigital, MMC, MemoryStick, SmartMedia, XD, CompactFlash etc).

From a command prompt, invoke flashnul with -p, and determine which device index is your USB drive, e.g.:

C:\>flashnul -p
Avaible physical drives:
Avaible logical disks:
C:\
D:\
E:\

When you have determined which device is the correct one, you can write the image to your drive, by invoking flashnul with the device index, -L, and the path to your image, e.g:

C:\>flashnul E: -L path\to\arch.iso

As long as you are really sure you want to write the data, type yes, then wait a bit for it to write. If you get an access denied error, close any Explorer windows you have open.

If under Vista or Win7, you should open the console as administrator, or else flashnul will fail to open the stick as a block device and will only be able to write via the drive handle windows provides

Note: Confirmed that you need to use drive letter as opposed to number. flashnul 1rc1, Windows 7 x64.

Loading the installation media from RAM

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with Multiboot USB drive#Using Syslinux and memdisk.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: This is the same method, only Syslinux is installed from Windows. Considering that multiboot USB drive can be used to boot an installation media and it is already linked from the Related articles box at the top, maybe this section should be merged there? (Discuss in Talk:USB flash installation media#)

This method uses Syslinux and a Ramdisk (MEMDISK) to load the entire Arch Linux ISO image into RAM. Since this will be running entirely from system memory, you will need to make sure the system you will be installing this on has an adequate amount. A minimum amount of RAM between 500 MB and 1 GB should suffice for a MEMDISK based, Arch Linux install.

For more information on Arch Linux system requirements as well as those for MEMDISK see the Beginners' guide and here[dead link 2014-12-01]. For reference, here is the preceding forum thread.

Tip: Once the installer has completed loading you can simply remove the USB stick and even use it on a different machine to start the process all over again. Utilizing MEMDISK also allows booting and installing Arch Linux to and from the same USB flash drive.
Preparing the USB flash drive

Begin by formatting the USB flash drive as FAT32. Then create the following folders on the newly formatted drive.

  • Boot
    • Boot/ISOs
    • Boot/Settings
Copy the needed files to the USB flash drive

Next copy the ISO that you would like to boot to the Boot/ISOs folder. After that, extract from the following files from the latest release of syslinux from here and copy them into the following folders.

  • ./win32/syslinux.exe to the Desktop or Downloads folder on your system.
  • ./memdisk/memdisk to the Settings folder on your USB flash drive.
Create the configuration file

After copying the needed files, navigate to the USB flash drive, /boot/Settings and create a syslinux.cfg file.

Warning: On the INITRD line, be sure to use the name of the ISO file that you copied to your ISOs folder!
/Boot/Settings/syslinux.cfg
DEFAULT arch_iso

LABEL arch_iso
        MENU LABEL Arch Setup
        LINUX memdisk
        INITRD /Boot/ISOs/archlinux-2015.01.01-dual.iso
        APPEND iso

For more information on Syslinux see the Arch Wiki article.

Final steps

Finally, create a *.bat file where syslinux.exe is located and run it ("Run as administrator" if you are on Vista or Windows 7):

C:\Documents and Settings\username\Desktop\install.bat
@echo off
syslinux.exe -m -a -d /Boot/Settings X:

Troubleshooting

  • For the MEMDISK Method, if you get the famous "30 seconds" error trying to boot the i686 version, press the Tab key over the Boot Arch Linux (i686) entry and add vmalloc=448M at the end. For reference: If your image is bigger than 128MiB and you have a 32-bit OS, then you have to increase the maximum memory usage of vmalloc. [1]
  • If you get the "30 seconds" error due to the /dev/disk/by-label/ARCH_XXXXYY not mounting, try renaming your USB media to ARCH_XXXXYY (e.g. ARCH_201501).

See Also