USB flash installation media (正體中文)

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本頁面討論了各種將 Arch Linux 映像寫入 USB 裝置(又稱「快閃碟」、「USB 隨身碟」等)的方式。 裝載進 USB 裝置的類 LiveCD 系統(可稱之為"LiveUSB"),本質為 SquashFS 系統, 關機之後所有的變更都會消失無蹤。

若您想要將 Arch Linux 完整的裝入 USB 裝置 (即所有更改皆永遠有效),請參閱 Installing Arch Linux on a USB key

註記: 若開機方式為 UEFI,請改參考這裡的指示建立可開機 USB 隨身碟。

GNU/Linux

覆寫 USB 裝置

警告: 這會摧毀 /dev/sdx 上所有的資料,無法還原!
註記: 本方法對 UEFI 開機方式的機器無效
註記: lsblk 確認 USB 裝置沒有被掛載,並使用 /dev/sdx 而非 /dev/sdx1這是很常見的錯誤!
# dd bs=4M if=/path/to/archlinux.iso of=/dev/sdx
註記: 某些老舊韌體無法理解偽分割區之預設偏移量為 0 的 isohybrid hack。請參閱 https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/32189 一個涉及 isohybrid.pl 的修正。

如何還原 USB 裝置

ISO 映像是多功能映像,既可以燒錄至光碟也可以直接寫入至 USB 裝置,因此它並不需要包含正規的分割磁區表。

完成 Arch Linux 的安裝之後,若您想繼續如往常般使用該 USB 碟,必須清理它的前 512 位元組 (也就是 MBR 內的開機碼與非正規分割表)

# dd count=1 bs=512 if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdx

接著用 gparted 建立新的分割表(如 "msdos"),和檔案系統(如 EXT4、FAT32)。

在終端機的作法如下:

  • EXT2/3/4 (依需求調整):
# cfdisk /dev/sdx
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdx1
# e2label /dev/sdx1 USB_STICK
# cfdisk /dev/sdx
# mkfs.vfat -F32 /dev/sdx1
# dosfslabel /dev/sdx1 USB_STICK

不會覆寫 USB 裝置的方式

這個方法稍微比直接使用 dd 寫入映像的方式複雜,但裝置依然可以儲存資料。 在開始之前先確認 USB 裝置已經格式化為 FAT32、EXT2/3/4 或 Btrfs。 使用 UEFI 啟動或需跟其他作業系統互通的使用者,您應該使用 FAT32。 另外,確認您的現有系統已經安裝 syslinux 套件 (版本 4.04 以上)。

1. Extract the arch folder from the ISO to the USB drive. For UEFI motherboards follow these instructions.

2. Install the Syslinux bootloader:

警告: Be very careful where you point dd and please use the drive itself in the following commands, not the first partition. This is a very common mistake.
註記: On some distributions the mbr.bin file may be available as /usr/share/syslinux/mbr.bin.
$ cd /media/somefolder/arch/boot/syslinux    #Where somefolder is the USB drive's mount point. Do not skip this step.
# extlinux --install .                       #Type it exactly as you see it, including the dot.
# dd bs=440 conv=notrunc count=1 if=/usr/lib/syslinux/mbr.bin of=/dev/sdx
# parted /dev/sdx toggle 1 boot

3. Adjust the configuration files:

註記: While you could label the drive "ARCH_2012XX" (with the appropriate release month), perhaps an even better approach is to use the UUID (this way you can re-label it whatever you want later without having to worry about it, or you could just leave it blank). Failing to do either will get you the famous 30 seconds error.

Here's how you can replace the archisolabel=ARCH_2012XX part with your equivalent of archisodevice=/dev/disk/by-uuid/47FA-4071 for both config files at the same time, using a single command:

註記: Adjust /dev/sdx1 before running it, else it will become blank (since drive sdx doesn't exist).
$ sed -i "s|label=ARCH_2012.*|device=/dev/disk/by-uuid/$(lsblk -no UUID /dev/sdx1)|" archiso_sys{32,64}.cfg

If the syslinux package on your distribution is older than version 4.06, as a workaround for FAT32 filesystems (unnecessary for EXT4), the APPEND line from syslinux.cfg should also be replaced:

$ sed -i "s|../../|/arch|" syslinux.cfg

Mac OS X

To be able to use dd on your usb device on a Mac you have to do some special maneuvers. First of all insert your usb device, OS X will automount it, and run

 diskutil list

in Terminal.app. Figure out what your usb device is called - mine was called /dev/disk1. (Just use the `mount` command or `sudo dmesg | tail`.) Now you run

 diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk1

to unmount the partitions on the device (i.e., /dev/disk1s1) while keeping the device proper (i.e., /dev/disk1). Now we can continue in accordance with the Linux instructions above (but use bs=8192 if you are using the OS X dd, the number comes from 1024*8).

 dd if=image.iso of=/dev/disk1 bs=8192
 20480+0 records in
 20480+0 records out
 167772160 bytes transferred in 220.016918 secs (762542 bytes/sec)

it is probably a good idea to eject your drive before physical removal at this point.

 diskutil eject /dev/disk1

Windows

Image Writer (Windows 版本)

http://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/ 下載程式並執行。選擇 Arch 映像檔與 USB 隨身碟。 檔案瀏覽器會假設檔案的副檔名為 .img,若您選擇的映像檔結尾為 .iso,必須手動輸入它的檔名;副檔名的差異無關操作, 程式還是可以完整地寫入映像。點擊寫入按鈕。現在您應該可以從 USB 碟啟動並安裝 Arch Linux 了。

The Universal USB Installer

Universal USB Installer is a Live Linux USB Creator that allows you to choose from a selection of Linux Distributions to put on your USB Flash Drive.

Note: The Universal USB Installer assigns the label PENDRIVE to the usb drive which causes boot failures because Arch cannot find the installation medium at the default path /dev/disk/by-label/ARCH20130201. It is therefore recommended to use Image Writer for Windows.

Linux Live USB Creator

Warning: This method is broken on the dual architecture iso

Linux Live USB Creator can be used to create a bootable USB key for Arch either using a manually downloaded iso or automatically downloading the iso itself. It also supports automatic installation of VirtualBox on the USB key which can be used to boot Arch inside Windows. Visit home page for more info.

UNetbootin

警告: 千萬別使用 UNetbootin!This program writes over the default syslinux.cfg and breaks the loading process. Please use a different program or method.

The Flashnul Way

flashnul is an utility to verify the functionality and maintenance of Flash-Memory (USB-Flash, IDE-Flash, SecureDigital, MMC, MemoryStick, SmartMedia, XD, CompactFlash etc).

From a command prompt, invoke flashnul with -p, and determine which device index is your USB drive. For example, my output looks like this:

C:\>flashnul -p

Avaible physical drives:
Avaible logical disks:
C:\
D:\
E:\

In my case, it is drive E:

When you have determined which device is the correct one, you can write the image to your drive, by invoking flashnul with the device index, -L, and the path to your image. In my case, it would be

C:\>flashnul E: -L path\to\arch.iso

As long as you are really sure you want to write the data, type yes, then wait a bit for it to write. If you get an access denied error, close any Explorer windows you have open.

If under Vista or Win7, you should open the console as administrator, or else flashnul will fail to open the stick as a block device and will only be able to write via the drive handle windows provides

Note: Confirmed that you need to use drive letter as opposed to number. flashnul 1rc1, Windows 7 x64. -bgalakazam

The Cygwin Way

Make sure your Cygwin installation contains the dd package. Or if you do not want to install Cygwin, you can simply download dd for windows from http://www.chrysocome.net/dd.

Place your image file in your home directory, in my case it is:

C:\cygwin\home\John\

Run cygwin as administrator (required for cygwin to access hardware). To write to your USB drive use the following command:

dd if=image.iso of=\\.\[x]:

where image.iso is the path to the iso-image file within the cygwin directory and \\.\[x]: is your USB device where x is the windows designated letter, in my case "\\.\d:".

On cygwin 6.0 find out the correct partition with

cat /proc/partitions

and write the ISO image with the information from the output. Example:

Warning: This will irrevocably delete all files on your USB stick, so make sure you do not have any important files on the stick before doing this.
dd if=image.iso of=/dev/sdb

dd for Windows

A GPL licensed dd version for Windows is available at http://www.chrysocome.net/dd. The advantage of this over Cygwin is smaller download. Use it as shown in instructions for Cygwin above.

Boot the entire ISO from RAM

This method uses Syslinux and MEMDISK to load the entire ISO image in RAM, so make sure you have enough RAM to hold it. Once it's done loading and you see the graphical menu you can simply remove the USB stick and maybe even use it on a different machine to start the process all over again. It also allows booting and installing Arch from (and to) the same USB stick.

1. Format the USB stick as FAT32 and create the following folders:

X:\Boot
X:\Boot\ISOs
X:\Boot\Settings

2. Copy the ISO you'd like to boot to the "ISOs" folder (e.g. archlinux-2012.08.04-dual.iso), and extract from the latest release (e.g. syslinux-4.05.zip):

  • ./win32/syslinux.exe to the desktop, or wherever you want.
  • ./memdisk/memdisk to the "Settings" folder.

And while you're in this folder, create a syslinux.cfg file:

X:\Boot\Settings\syslinux.cfg
DEFAULT arch_iso

LABEL arch_iso
        MENU LABEL Arch Setup
        LINUX memdisk
        INITRD /Boot/ISOs/archlinux-2012.11.01-dual.iso
        APPEND iso
提示: If you want to add more distributions (Debian and Parted Magic were tested) you can edit this file. Maybe even give it a nice menu and a background image, instead of defaulting to the Arch Linux ISO. Refer to the Syslinux wiki.

3. Finally, create a *.bat file where syslinux.exe is located and run it ("Run as administrator" if you're on Vista or Windows 7):

C:\Documents and Settings\username\Desktop\install.bat
@echo off
syslinux.exe -m -a -d /Boot/Settings X:

Done.

疑難排解

註記: For the MEMDISK Method, if you get the famous 30 seconds error trying to boot the i686 version, press the Template:Keypress key over the Boot Arch Linux (i686) entry and add vmalloc=448M at the end. This only applies to the MEMDISK method. For reference: If your image is bigger than 128MiB and you have a 32-bit OS, then you have to increase the maximum memory usage of vmalloc. (*)
註記: In general, if you get the 30 seconds error due to the /dev/disk/by-label/ARCH_XXXXXX not mounting, try renaming your USB media to ARCH_XXXXXX, for example ARCH_201302, and try to boot the media once again. It should fix the error.

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