Difference between revisions of "USB storage devices"

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[[ru:USB Storage Devices]]
 
[[ru:USB Storage Devices]]
 
This document describes how to use the popular USB memory sticks with Linux. However, it is also valid for other devices such as digital cameras that act as if they were just a USB storage device.
 
This document describes how to use the popular USB memory sticks with Linux. However, it is also valid for other devices such as digital cameras that act as if they were just a USB storage device.
 
== Mounting USB devices ==
 
  
 
If you have an up-to-date system with the standard Arch kernel and a modern [[Desktop environment]] your device should just show up on your desktop, with no need to open a console.
 
If you have an up-to-date system with the standard Arch kernel and a modern [[Desktop environment]] your device should just show up on your desktop, with no need to open a console.
  
Otherwise see sections below.
+
== Auto-mounting with udisks ==
 
+
=== Auto-mounting with udev ===
+
 
+
{{Deletion|Conflicts with [[Udev#Udisks]] (first sentence). See [[Talk:USB Storage Devices#Auto-mounting with udev]] for details.|Talk:USB Storage Devices#Auto-mounting with udev}}
+
 
+
See [[Udev#Auto mounting USB devices|Udev:Auto mounting USB devices]].
+
 
+
A lightweight solution to automount drives using udev, '''for single-user systems''', is the following: create a file named {{ic|/etc/udev/rules.d/automount.rules}} with the following content:
+
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
# ignore sda*
+
KERNEL!="sd[b-z]*", GOTO="end"
+
 
+
# run the script
+
ACTION=="add", ENV{ID_BUS}=="usb", ENV{DEVTYPE}=="partition", RUN+="domount %N"
+
 
+
# exit
+
LABEL="end"
+
</nowiki>}}
+
and a file (executable by root) named {{ic|/usr/lib/udev/domount}} with  (set the variables on top to the correct values):
+
 
+
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
#!/bin/sh
+
 
+
#edit the following variables to suit your needs
+
MYUID=1000              # your user uid
+
MYGID=100              # your user gid
+
MYLOGIN=al              # your login
+
TERM=lxterminal        # your terminal emulator
+
MYSHELL=zsh            # your shell
+
export DISPLAY=:0      # your X display
+
 
+
 
+
TMPFILE=/run/automount.$RANDOM
+
DIR=$(grep -v '#' /etc/fstab | grep $* | awk '{print $2;}')
+
if [ -z "$DIR" ]; then
+
    LABEL=$(lsblk -no LABEL $*)
+
    if [ -z "$LABEL" ]; then
+
        UUID=$(lsblk -no UUID $*)
+
        if [ -z "$UUID" ]; then
+
            DIR=/run/media/"unknown"
+
        else
+
            DIR=/run/media/"$UUID"
+
        fi
+
    else
+
        DIR=/run/media/"$LABEL"
+
    fi
+
fi
+
mkdir -p $DIR
+
 
+
cat > $TMPFILE << EOF
+
#!/bin/sh
+
echo "$* was mounted on $DIR. "
+
cd $DIR
+
$MYSHELL
+
EOF
+
chmod a+x $TMPFILE
+
 
+
/bin/mount -o uid=$MYUID,gid=$MYGID $* $DIR
+
su $MYLOGIN -c "$TERM -t 'Terminal - $* mounted on $DIR' -e $TMPFILE"
+
/bin/umount $DIR
+
 
+
sleep 1; rm -f $TMPFILE
+
</nowiki>}}
+
 
+
When a drive is inserted, it will be mounted, and a Terminal will pop-up. To umount the device, simply press Control+D in the terminal window. The mountpoint is looked for in {{ic|/etc/fstab}} or, if absent, generated from the label of the partition.
+
 
+
If the terminal doesn't appear as expected, that may because wrong options are used. For example, in XFCE4, we use "Terminal -T ''title'' -e ''script-file'' instead"
+
 
+
=== Auto-mounting with udev and systemd ===
+
 
+
The above solution does not work, since the RUN directive is for only short processes, and udev enforces this; Scripts will be killed shortly after starting.
+
Instead, the following solution based on the previous one uses [[systemd]], [[udev]] and [[screen]] to create a more elegant solution.
+
 
+
First, we create a systemd service template ({{ic|/etc/systemd/system/automount@.service}}):
+
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
[Unit]
+
Description=Automount removable storage
+
 
+
[Service]
+
Type=forking
+
ExecStart=/usr/lib/udev/domount %I
+
</nowiki>}}
+
 
+
We also create a udev rule in {{ic|/etc/udev/rules.d/automount.rules}} very similar to the previous solution.
+
 
+
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
# ignore sda*
+
KERNEL!="sd[b-z]*", GOTO="end"
+
# Also allow SD cards
+
KERNEL=="mmcblk[0-9]p[0-9]", GOTO="MMC"
+
 
+
# USB: run the script
+
LABEL="USB"
+
ACTION=="add", ENV{ID_BUS}=="usb", ENV{DEVTYPE}=="partition", RUN+="/usr/bin/systemctl start automount@%N.service", GOTO="end"
+
ACTION=="add", ENV{ID_BUS}=="ata", ENV{DEVTYPE}=="partition", RUN+="/usr/bin/systemctl start automount@%N.service", GOTO="end"
+
 
+
LABEL="MMC"
+
ACTION=="add", ENV{DEVTYPE}=="partition", RUN+="/usr/bin/systemctl start automount@%N.service", GOTO="end"
+
 
+
# exit
+
LABEL="end"
+
</nowiki>}}
+
 
+
The juice of the solution is placed in {{ic|/usr/lib/udev/domount}}:
+
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
#!/bin/sh
+
 
+
#edit the following variables to suit your needs
+
MYUID=1000              # your user uid
+
MYGID=100              # your user gid
+
MYLOGIN="ME"            # your login
+
 
+
 
+
USERSCRIPT="/usr/lib/udev/domount_user";
+
 
+
BASE='/media'
+
DIR=`basename $*`;
+
i=0;
+
while [ -d "$BASE/$DIR" ]; do
+
  DIR="`basename $*`.$i";
+
  i=$((i+1));
+
done
+
 
+
mkdir -p "$BASE/$DIR" && /bin/mount -o uid=$MYUID,gid=$MYGID "$*" "$BASE/$DIR"
+
 
+
if [ -z "`su $MYLOGIN -c 'screen -ls | grep AUTOMOUNT'`" ]; then
+
  su $MYLOGIN -c "screen -dm -S AUTOMOUNT -t $DIR $USERSCRIPT $* $BASE $DIR";
+
  exit;
+
fi
+
su $MYLOGIN -c "screen -S AUTOMOUNT -X screen -t $DIR $USERSCRIPT $* $BASE $DIR";
+
</nowiki>}}
+
 
+
and in {{ic|/usr/lib/udev/domount_user}}:
+
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
#!/bin/sh
+
DEV="$1";
+
BASE="$2";
+
DIR="$3";
+
 
+
echo "$DEV mounted on $BASE/$DIR"
+
echo "Contents:"
+
ls --color=auto "$BASE/$DIR"
+
echo -e "\n------------------------------------\nExit shell to unmount when finished.";
+
while true; do
+
  d=$HOME;
+
  cd $BASE/$DIR
+
  bash
+
  cd $dir;
+
 
+
  echo "------------------------------------"
+
  lsof | grep $BASE/$DIR;
+
  if [ $? -eq 1 ]; then
+
    break;
+
  else
+
    echo "------------------------------------";
+
    echo "The above processes will block the unmount. Please end them.";
+
  fi
+
done
+
 
+
sudo /bin/umount "$BASE/$DIR" && sudo rmdir "$BASE/$DIR";
+
</nowiki>}}
+
  
To access the screen session which controls the mounted partitions, simply run
+
This is the easiest and most frequently used method. It is used by many [[Desktop environment|desktop environments]], but can be used separately too. See [[Udisks]] for details.
$ screen -d -r AUTOMOUNT
+
I would suggest putting this in a command key shortcut, for example with [[xbindkeys]] to run in a terminal.
+
  
=== Manual mounting ===
+
== Manual mounting ==
  
 
{{Note|Before you decide that Arch Linux does not mount your USB device, be sure to check all available ports. Some ports might not share the same controller, preventing you from mounting the device.}}
 
{{Note|Before you decide that Arch Linux does not mount your USB device, be sure to check all available ports. Some ports might not share the same controller, preventing you from mounting the device.}}
  
==== Getting a kernel that supports usb_storage ====
+
=== Getting a kernel that supports usb_storage ===
  
 
If you do not use a custom-made kernel, you are ready to go, for all Arch Linux stock kernels are properly configured. If you do use a custom-made kernel, ensure it is compiled with SCSI-Support, SCSI-Disk-Support and usb_storage. If you use the latest [[udev]], you may just plug your device in and the system will automatically load all necessary kernel modules. Older releases of udev would need hotplug installed too. Otherwise, you can do the same thing manually:
 
If you do not use a custom-made kernel, you are ready to go, for all Arch Linux stock kernels are properly configured. If you do use a custom-made kernel, ensure it is compiled with SCSI-Support, SCSI-Disk-Support and usb_storage. If you use the latest [[udev]], you may just plug your device in and the system will automatically load all necessary kernel modules. Older releases of udev would need hotplug installed too. Otherwise, you can do the same thing manually:
Line 187: Line 22:
 
  # modprobe sd_mod      (only for non SCSI kernels)
 
  # modprobe sd_mod      (only for non SCSI kernels)
  
==== Identifying device ====
+
{{Tip|In case of manually loading modules, you may also need to load the {{ic|sg}} module (SCSI generic driver).}}
 +
 
 +
=== Identifying device ===
  
 
First thing one need to access storage device is it's identifier assigned by kernel. See [[fstab#Identifying filesystems]] for details.
 
First thing one need to access storage device is it's identifier assigned by kernel. See [[fstab#Identifying filesystems]] for details.
Line 193: Line 30:
 
{{Tip|To see which device is your USB device, you can compare the output of {{ic|lsblk -f}} (explained in the linked article) when the USB device is connected and when it is unconnected.}}
 
{{Tip|To see which device is your USB device, you can compare the output of {{ic|lsblk -f}} (explained in the linked article) when the USB device is connected and when it is unconnected.}}
  
==== Mounting USB memory ====
+
=== Mounting USB memory ===
  
 
{{Merge|fstab#Writing to FAT32 as Normal User|This section assumes that the partition on USB storage uses FAT32 or NTFS filesystem, so we have two sections covering the same topic. Either merge everything here or in the linked section.}}
 
{{Merge|fstab#Writing to FAT32 as Normal User|This section assumes that the partition on USB storage uses FAT32 or NTFS filesystem, so we have two sections covering the same topic. Either merge everything here or in the linked section.}}
Line 200: Line 37:
 
  # mkdir /mnt/usbstick
 
  # mkdir /mnt/usbstick
  
===== As root =====
+
==== As root ====
  
 
Mount the device as root with this command (do not forget to replace '''device_node''' by the path you found):
 
Mount the device as root with this command (do not forget to replace '''device_node''' by the path you found):
Line 211: Line 48:
 
{{Note|If mounting your stick does not work you can try to repartition it, see [[Format a device]].}}
 
{{Note|If mounting your stick does not work you can try to repartition it, see [[Format a device]].}}
  
===== As normal user with mount =====
+
==== As normal user with mount ====
  
 
If you want non-root users to be able to write to the USB stick, you can issue the following command:
 
If you want non-root users to be able to write to the USB stick, you can issue the following command:
Line 217: Line 54:
 
  # mount -o gid=users,fmask=113,dmask=002 /dev/sda1 /mnt/usbstick
 
  # mount -o gid=users,fmask=113,dmask=002 /dev/sda1 /mnt/usbstick
  
===== As normal user with fstab =====
+
==== As normal user with fstab ====
  
 
If you want non-root users to be able to mount a USB memory stick via [[fstab]], add the following line to your {{ic|/etc/fstab}} file:
 
If you want non-root users to be able to mount a USB memory stick via [[fstab]], add the following line to your {{ic|/etc/fstab}} file:
Line 233: Line 70:
 
  $ umount /mnt/usbstick
 
  $ umount /mnt/usbstick
  
== Troubleshooting ==
+
== Unmounting devices mounted with udev or systemd/udev ==
  
=== Poor copy performance to USB pendrive  ===
+
Create an executable file (e.g. {{ic|/usr/local/bin/unmount.sh}}):
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
#!/bin/sh
  
{{Merge|Maximizing Performance}}
+
# Global variables
 +
TITLE="Unmount Utility"
 +
COLUMNS=3 # TARGET,SOURCE,FSTYPE
 +
#IFS=$'\n'
  
{{Expansion|provide better description, or at least some reference}}
+
# Populate list of unmountable devices
 +
deviceList=($(findmnt -Do TARGET,SOURCE,FSTYPE | grep -e "sd[b-z]"))
 +
deviceCount=$((${#deviceList[@]} / $COLUMNS))
  
If you experienced slow copy speed to pendrive (mainly in KDE), then append these three lines in a [[systemd]] tmpfile:
+
# Start of program output
 +
echo $TITLE
  
{{hc|/etc/tmpfiles.d/local.conf|
+
# Display list of devices that can be unmounted
w /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled - - - - madvise
+
for ((device=0; device<${#deviceList[@]}; device+=COLUMNS))
w /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/defrag - - - - madvise
+
do
w /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/khugepaged/defrag - - - - 0
+
  printf "%4s)  %-25s%-13s%-10s\n"\
}}
+
    "$(($device / $COLUMNS))"\
 +
    "${deviceList[$device]}"\
 +
    "${deviceList[$(($device + 1))]}"\
 +
    "${deviceList[$(($device + 2))]}"
 +
done
 +
 
 +
printf "%4s)  Exit\n" "x"
 +
 
 +
# Get input from user
 +
read -p "Choose a menu option: " input
 +
 
 +
# Input validation
 +
if [ "$input" = "X" ] || [ "$input" = "x" ]
 +
then
 +
  echo "Exiting"
 +
  exit 0
 +
fi
 +
 
 +
if (( $input>=0 )) && (( $input<$deviceCount ))
 +
then
 +
  echo "Unmounting: ${deviceList[$(($input * $deviceCount))]}"
 +
  sudo umount "${deviceList[$(($input * $deviceCount))]}"
 +
  exit 0
 +
else
 +
  echo "Invalid menu choice"
 +
  exit 1
 +
fi
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
See also [[Maximizing Performance#Tuning kernel parameters]].
+
{{Note|This script requires that you have sudo installed and that you have sudo rights.}}

Revision as of 18:53, 5 December 2013

This document describes how to use the popular USB memory sticks with Linux. However, it is also valid for other devices such as digital cameras that act as if they were just a USB storage device.

If you have an up-to-date system with the standard Arch kernel and a modern Desktop environment your device should just show up on your desktop, with no need to open a console.

Auto-mounting with udisks

This is the easiest and most frequently used method. It is used by many desktop environments, but can be used separately too. See Udisks for details.

Manual mounting

Note: Before you decide that Arch Linux does not mount your USB device, be sure to check all available ports. Some ports might not share the same controller, preventing you from mounting the device.

Getting a kernel that supports usb_storage

If you do not use a custom-made kernel, you are ready to go, for all Arch Linux stock kernels are properly configured. If you do use a custom-made kernel, ensure it is compiled with SCSI-Support, SCSI-Disk-Support and usb_storage. If you use the latest udev, you may just plug your device in and the system will automatically load all necessary kernel modules. Older releases of udev would need hotplug installed too. Otherwise, you can do the same thing manually:

# modprobe usb-storage
# modprobe sd_mod      (only for non SCSI kernels)
Tip: In case of manually loading modules, you may also need to load the sg module (SCSI generic driver).

Identifying device

First thing one need to access storage device is it's identifier assigned by kernel. See fstab#Identifying filesystems for details.

Tip: To see which device is your USB device, you can compare the output of lsblk -f (explained in the linked article) when the USB device is connected and when it is unconnected.

Mounting USB memory

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with fstab#Writing to FAT32 as Normal User.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: This section assumes that the partition on USB storage uses FAT32 or NTFS filesystem, so we have two sections covering the same topic. Either merge everything here or in the linked section. (Discuss in Talk:USB storage devices#)

You need to create the directory in which you are going to mount the device:

# mkdir /mnt/usbstick

As root

Mount the device as root with this command (do not forget to replace device_node by the path you found):

# mount device_node /mnt/usbstick

or

# mount -U UUID /mnt/usbstick

If mount does not recognize the format of the device you can try to use the -t argument, see man mount for details.

Note: If mounting your stick does not work you can try to repartition it, see Format a device.

As normal user with mount

If you want non-root users to be able to write to the USB stick, you can issue the following command:

# mount -o gid=users,fmask=113,dmask=002 /dev/sda1 /mnt/usbstick

As normal user with fstab

If you want non-root users to be able to mount a USB memory stick via fstab, add the following line to your /etc/fstab file:

/dev/sda1 /mnt/usbstick vfat user,noauto,noatime,flush 0 0

or better:

UUID=E8F1-5438 /mnt/usbstick vfat user,noauto,noatime,flush 0 0

(see description of user and other options in the main article)

Note: Where /dev/sda1 is replaced with the path to your own usbstick, see Mounting USB memory.

Now, any user can mount it with:

$ mount /mnt/usbstick

And unmount it with:

$ umount /mnt/usbstick

Unmounting devices mounted with udev or systemd/udev

Create an executable file (e.g. /usr/local/bin/unmount.sh):

#!/bin/sh

# Global variables
TITLE="Unmount Utility"
COLUMNS=3 # TARGET,SOURCE,FSTYPE
#IFS=$'\n'

# Populate list of unmountable devices
deviceList=($(findmnt -Do TARGET,SOURCE,FSTYPE | grep -e "sd[b-z]"))
deviceCount=$((${#deviceList[@]} / $COLUMNS))

# Start of program output
echo $TITLE

# Display list of devices that can be unmounted
for ((device=0; device<${#deviceList[@]}; device+=COLUMNS))
do
  printf "%4s)   %-25s%-13s%-10s\n"\
    "$(($device / $COLUMNS))"\
    "${deviceList[$device]}"\
    "${deviceList[$(($device + 1))]}"\
    "${deviceList[$(($device + 2))]}"
done

printf "%4s)   Exit\n" "x"

# Get input from user
read -p "Choose a menu option: " input

# Input validation
if [ "$input" = "X" ] || [ "$input" = "x" ]
then
  echo "Exiting"
  exit 0
fi

if (( $input>=0 )) && (( $input<$deviceCount ))
then
  echo "Unmounting: ${deviceList[$(($input * $deviceCount))]}"
  sudo umount "${deviceList[$(($input * $deviceCount))]}"
  exit 0
else
  echo "Invalid menu choice"
  exit 1
fi
Note: This script requires that you have sudo installed and that you have sudo rights.