Difference between revisions of "Umask"

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==Setting the UMASK==
 
==Setting the UMASK==
You can setup the umask value in /etc/bashrc or /etc/profile for all users. By default, most Linux distros set it to 0022 (022) or 0002 (002).
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You can setup the umask value in {{ic|/etc/bashrc}} or {{ic|/etc/profile}} for all users. By default, most Linux distros set it to {{ic|0022}} ({{ic|022}}) or {{ic|0002}} ({{ic|002}}).
  
Open /etc/profile (global) or ~/.bashrc file
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Open {{ic|/etc/profile}} (global) or {{ic|~/.bashrc}} file
 
  # vi /etc/profile
 
  # vi /etc/profile
 
or
 
or
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Save and close the file. Changes will take effect after next login.
 
Save and close the file. Changes will take effect after next login.
  
But what is 0022 and 0002?
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But what is {{ic|0022}} and {{ic|0002}}?
  
The default umask 0002 is used for regular users. With this mask, default directory permissions are 775, and default file permissions are 664.
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The default umask {{ic|0002}} is used for regular users. With this mask, default directory permissions are {{ic|775}}, and default file permissions are {{ic|664}}.
  
The default umask for the root user is 0022, and as a result, default directory permissions are 755, and default file permissions are 644.
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The default umask for the root user is {{ic|0022}}, and as a result, default directory permissions are {{ic|755}}, and default file permissions are {{ic|644}}.
  
For directories, the base permissions are 0777 (rwxrwxrwx) and for files they are 0666 (rw-rw-rw).
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For directories, the base permissions are {{ic|0777}} ({{ic|rwxrwxrwx}}) and for files they are {{ic|0666}} ({{ic|rw-rw-rw}}).
  
To calculate directory permissions for a umask value of 022 (root user):
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To calculate directory permissions for a umask value of {{ic|022}} (root user):
 
  Default permission: 777
 
  Default permission: 777
 
  Subtract umask value: 022 (-)
 
  Subtract umask value: 022 (-)
 
  Directory permission: 755
 
  Directory permission: 755
  
To calculate file permissions for a umask value of 022 (root user):
+
To calculate file permissions for a umask value of {{ic|022}} (root user):
 
  Default permission: 666
 
  Default permission: 666
 
  Subtract umask value: 022 (-)
 
  Subtract umask value: 022 (-)
 
  File permission: 644
 
  File permission: 644
  
The following example explains the steps needed to set a umask value that will result in permission values 700 for directories and 600 for user files. The idea very simply is that only the user will be allowed to read or write the file, or to access the contents of the directory.
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The following example explains the steps needed to set a umask value that will result in permission values {{ic|700}} for directories and {{ic|600}} for user files. The idea very simply is that only the user will be allowed to read or write the file, or to access the contents of the directory.
 
  Default permissions: 777 / 666
 
  Default permissions: 777 / 666
 
  Subtract umask value: 077 (-)
 
  Subtract umask value: 077 (-)
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  0027 all read none
 
  0027 all read none
  
For more information, see 'man bash' and 'help umask'.
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For more information, see {{ic|man bash}} and {{ic|man umask}}.
  
 
== See Also ==
 
== See Also ==
 
http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/understanding-linux-unix-umask-value-usage.html (the source of this article)
 
http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/understanding-linux-unix-umask-value-usage.html (the source of this article)

Revision as of 23:13, 12 August 2013

The user file-creation mode mask (umask) is used to determine the file permission for newly created files. It can be used to control the default file permission for new files. It is a four-digit octal number.

Setting the UMASK

You can setup the umask value in /etc/bashrc or /etc/profile for all users. By default, most Linux distros set it to 0022 (022) or 0002 (002).

Open /etc/profile (global) or ~/.bashrc file

# vi /etc/profile

or

$ vi ~/.bashrc

Append/modify the following line to setup a new umask:

umask 022

Save and close the file. Changes will take effect after next login.

But what is 0022 and 0002?

The default umask 0002 is used for regular users. With this mask, default directory permissions are 775, and default file permissions are 664.

The default umask for the root user is 0022, and as a result, default directory permissions are 755, and default file permissions are 644.

For directories, the base permissions are 0777 (rwxrwxrwx) and for files they are 0666 (rw-rw-rw).

To calculate directory permissions for a umask value of 022 (root user):

Default permission: 777
Subtract umask value: 022 (-)
Directory permission: 755

To calculate file permissions for a umask value of 022 (root user):

Default permission: 666
Subtract umask value: 022 (-)
File permission: 644

The following example explains the steps needed to set a umask value that will result in permission values 700 for directories and 600 for user files. The idea very simply is that only the user will be allowed to read or write the file, or to access the contents of the directory.

Default permissions: 777 / 666
Subtract umask value: 077 (-)
Resulting permissions: 700 / 600
$ umask 077
$ touch file.txt
$ mkdir directory
$ ls -ld file.txt directory

Output:

drwx------ 2 vivek vivek 4096 2007-02-01 02:21 directory
-rw------- 1 vivek vivek    0 2007-02-01 02:21 file.txt
Sample umask values and permissions
umask value 	User 	Group 	Others
0000 		all 	all 	all
0007 		all 	all 	none
0027 		all 	read 	none

For more information, see man bash and man umask.

See Also

http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/understanding-linux-unix-umask-value-usage.html (the source of this article)