Difference between revisions of "Unity (简体中文)"

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[[Category:Desktop environments (简体中文)]]
 
[[en:Unity]]
 
[[en:Unity]]
 
[[it:Notify OSD]]
 
[[it:Notify OSD]]
[[Category:Desktop environments (简体中文)]]
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[[ja:Unity]]
{{Article summary start|Summary}}
+
{{Related articles start (简体中文)}}
{{Article summary text|This article discusses how to install and use Unity. Unity is a shell interface for the GNOME desktop environment. This article covers how to get Unity on your system and how to configure it to fit your needs.}}
+
{{Related|GNOME}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
+
{{Related articles end}}
{{Article summary wiki|GNOME}}
+
 
{{Article summary end}}
+
 
{{TranslationStatus (简体中文)|Unity|2012-11-08|234364}}
 
{{TranslationStatus (简体中文)|Unity|2012-11-08|234364}}
 
{{Translateme (简体中文)}}
 
{{Translateme (简体中文)}}
 
[http://unity.ubuntu.com/ Unity] is an alternative shell for the GNOME desktop environment, developed by Canonical in its Ayatana project. It consists of several components including the Launcher, Dash, lenses, Panel, indicators, Notify OSD and Overlay Scrollbar. Unity used to available in two implementations: 'Unity' is the 3D accelerated version, which uses Compiz window manager and Nux toolkit; and 'Unity 2D' is a lighter alternative, which uses Metacity window manager and Qt toolkit. Unity 2D is already dropped by Canonical from Ubuntu 12.10. Instead a version powered by Gallium3D llvmpipe alternative is used.
 
[http://unity.ubuntu.com/ Unity] is an alternative shell for the GNOME desktop environment, developed by Canonical in its Ayatana project. It consists of several components including the Launcher, Dash, lenses, Panel, indicators, Notify OSD and Overlay Scrollbar. Unity used to available in two implementations: 'Unity' is the 3D accelerated version, which uses Compiz window manager and Nux toolkit; and 'Unity 2D' is a lighter alternative, which uses Metacity window manager and Qt toolkit. Unity 2D is already dropped by Canonical from Ubuntu 12.10. Instead a version powered by Gallium3D llvmpipe alternative is used.
  
== Installation ==
+
== 安装 ==
There are two ways to install Unity on Archlinux:
+
有两种途径可供选择:
*'''from source code'''  
+
*'''从源码编译安装'''  
*'''from repository'''
+
*'''添加软件源安装'''
=== From source ===
+
=== 源码安装 ===
 
All of the pkgbuilds can be browsed in [https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch Github repository], where [https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch Unity-For-Arch] provides a minimal working Unity shell, [https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch-Extra Unity-For-Arch-Extra] provides some additoinal applications including '''lightdm-ubuntu'''(lightdm with ubuntu patch), '''light-themes''', '''ubuntu-tweak'''(a popular ubuntu tweak tool) and so on.
 
All of the pkgbuilds can be browsed in [https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch Github repository], where [https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch Unity-For-Arch] provides a minimal working Unity shell, [https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch-Extra Unity-For-Arch-Extra] provides some additoinal applications including '''lightdm-ubuntu'''(lightdm with ubuntu patch), '''light-themes''', '''ubuntu-tweak'''(a popular ubuntu tweak tool) and so on.
  
To install minimal Unity shell:
+
最简安装Unity桌面环境:
  
1. 'cd' to a directory that you want to keep the sources in and then run:
+
1. 'cd' 进一个你想要保存源码的目录,然后运行:
 
{{bc|$ git clone https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch.git}}
 
{{bc|$ git clone https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch.git}}
 
Where {{Pkg|git}} is required.
 
Where {{Pkg|git}} is required.
  
2 Open the README file and build packages according to the order listed. Basically run:
+
2. 打开README文件,按照上面的指示编译。基本上是这样的:
 
{{bc|$ cd packagename
 
{{bc|$ cd packagename
$ rm -rvf # Clears out any files from a previous build
+
$ rm -rvf # 清理之前的编译文件
$ makepkg -sci # '-s' means install needed dependencies, '-c' means clear left files after build and '-i' means install the package after it is built.
+
$ makepkg -sci # '-s' 意思是安装需要的依赖, '-c' 意思是编译完成后清理无关文件, '-i' 意思是编译完成后安装软件包
 
}}
 
}}
3. Log out and log into the Unity session.
+
3. 注销再登陆进Unity环境。
  
To use lightdm to start Unity, almost the same steps need to be followed to instal '''lightdm-ubuntu''' and '''lightdm-unity-greeter''' from [https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch-Extra Unity-For-Arch-Extra]. And lightdm needs to be added to autostart daemons. For Systemd users, check [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Systemd wiki article about Systemd].
+
如想使用lightdm启动Unity,请从[https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch-Extra Unity-For-Arch-Extra]安装 '''lightdm-ubuntu''' and '''lightdm-unity-greeter''' ,步骤基本和上面一致。 然后将lightdm加入自启动守护进程。使用Systemd的用户可以查看 [[Systemd_(简体中文)|关于Systemd的文章]].
  
{{Tip|To make this procedure automatic, [https://gist.github.com/3906721 a script] can be used.}}
+
{{Note|可以使用 [https://gist.github.com/3906721 这个脚本] 来使安装自动化。}}
 +
 
 +
=== 软件源 ===
 +
已编译好的二进制包可以在[http://unity.humbug.in/ unity.humbug.in] 和 [http://unity.xe-xe.org/ unity.xe-xe.org]下载到。
 +
 
 +
在这里,以 '''unity.xe-xe.org''' 为例安装Unity。添加以下内容到 {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}
  
=== From repository ===
 
Compiled packages are also available at [http://unity.humbug.in/ unity.humbug.in] and [http://unity.xe-xe.org/ unity.xe-xe.org].
 
Take '''unity.xe-xe.org''' as an example, to install the packages,
 
add
 
 
{{bc|
 
{{bc|
 
[unity]
 
[unity]
Line 46: Line 47:
 
Server = http://unity.xe-xe.org/extra/$arch
 
Server = http://unity.xe-xe.org/extra/$arch
 
}}
 
}}
to {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}
 
  
Run:
+
 
 +
执行以下命令:
 
{{bc|
 
{{bc|
 
$ pacman -Suy
 
$ pacman -Suy
 
$ pacman -S $(pacman -Slq unity)}}
 
$ pacman -S $(pacman -Slq unity)}}
  
{{Tip| There are many ubuntu-patched packages that replace original Arch packages.
+
 
 +
 
 +
使用另一个源 '''mooos.org''' 安装Unity。添加以下内容到 {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}:
 +
 
 +
{{bc|
 +
[moo]
 +
SigLevel = Optional TrustAll
 +
Server = http://mooos.org/repos/moo/$arch
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
执行以下命令:
 +
{{bc|
 +
$ sudo pacman -S unity
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
重启系统,使用 Ubuntu 会话:
 +
 
 +
sudo reboot
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Note|There are many ubuntu-patched packages that replace original Arch packages.
 
       Also it is recommended to use freetype2-ubuntu and libxft-ubuntu from AUR.}}
 
       Also it is recommended to use freetype2-ubuntu and libxft-ubuntu from AUR.}}
  
{{Warning|Remember you're installing '''unofficial''' packages that are unsupported by the Arch Linux developers.}}
+
{{警告|请记住这些软件是 '''非官方''' 的,并且不是由Arch Linux的开发者维护的。}}
{{Warning|Almost all of the packages related to Unity in AUR are outdated. Don't mix those packages with those from the repository.}}
+
{{警告|几乎所有和Unity相关的AUR里的软件包都过期了。请一定不要把那些过期的软件包和软件源里的混在一起。}}
  
==Update==
+
==更新==
For Unity repository, the update is the same as packages from official repositories.
+
软件源里的Unity更新方法和Arch官方源的更新一样。
  
Otherwise:
+
如果是源码安装:
  
 
1. 'cd' into the 'Unity-for-Arch' directory where it was originally cloned
 
1. 'cd' into the 'Unity-for-Arch' directory where it was originally cloned
  
2. pull all of changes from github repository:
+
2. 从github获取更新文件:
 
{{bc|$ git pull}}
 
{{bc|$ git pull}}
3. Check if packages need to be updated:
+
3. 检查是否需要更新:
 
{{bc|$ ./What_can_I_update\?.py}}
 
{{bc|$ ./What_can_I_update\?.py}}
4. If any packages need to be updated, just build them like mentioned above in '''from source''' section.
+
4. 如果需要更新,请按照上面 '''源码安装 ''' 部分的说明。
  
{{Note| Sometimes if certain crucial package is updated, those package which depend on it will also need to be recompiled though they won't be reported. For example, '''Unity''' is often required to be recompiled if '''nux''' gets updated}}
+
{{注意| 有的时候如果一个关键性的软件包更新,会导致依赖于它的软件包需要重新编译。 比如,如果 '''nux''' 有更新,那么 '''Unity''' 一般会被要求重新编译。}}
  
==Trouble Shooting==
+
==疑难问题==
===Unity stops working after update===
+
===Unity在更新后不工作===
Try to run:
+
尝试运行:
 
{{bc|$ compiz.reset}}
 
{{bc|$ compiz.reset}}
and Log out and log into the Unity session.
+
然后注销再登陆进Unity。
 +
 
 +
如果问题仍然存在,请在[https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch/issues?state=open github]报告问题 或者 在[https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=125423&p=1 Arch论坛]讨论。
  
If it still doesn't work, report an issue on [https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch/issues?state=open github] or discuss it on [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=125423&p=1 Arch forum].
+
===窗口装饰显示不正常===
 +
试着安装 {{Pkg|gnome-tweak-tool}} 来调整主题。
  
===Window decoration doesn't work properly===
+
===窗口装饰不能使用某个特定的主题===
Try to install {{Pkg|gnome-tweak-tool}} to adjust the theme.
+
请安装 metacity-ubuntu 而不是 metacity.
  
===Window decoration can't use certain theme===
+
===在更新到Gnome 3.6后某些gtk主题看起来不正常===
Install metacity-ubuntu instead of metacity.
+
  
===Some gtk themes look ugly after update to Gnome 3.6===
+
Unity的默认主题light-themes也会这样,请添加
It also happens for unity default theme light-themes. Put
+
 
{{bc|
 
{{bc|
 
GtkLabel {
 
GtkLabel {
Line 95: Line 117:
 
}
 
}
 
}}
 
}}
in {{ic|.config/gtk3.0/gtk.css}}
+
{{ic|.config/gtk3.0/gtk.css}}
  
===Newly opened window is always placed at (0,0) on the screen===
+
===新开的窗口总会被放到屏幕左上角===
'''Metacity-ubuntu''' needs to be used instead of {{Pkg|metacity}}. '''Metacity-ubuntu''' is now included in [https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch Unity-for-Arch] again.
+
请使用 '''Metacity-ubuntu''' 而不是 {{Pkg|metacity}}'''Metacity-ubuntu''' 现已被包括进 [https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch Unity-for-Arch]
  
===Window's titlebar still exists when maximized===
+
===窗口最大化后标题栏依然存在===
'''Metacity-ubuntu''' needs to be used instead of {{Pkg|metacity}}.
+
请使用 '''Metacity-ubuntu''' 而不是 {{Pkg|metacity}}
  
==Known Issues==
+
==已知问题==
===Ubuntu 12.10 new feature ''Webapps'' doesn't work properly===
+
===Ubuntu 12.10 新特性 ''Webapps'' 不正常===
===''Indicator messages'' doesn't work properly===
+
===''Indicator messages'' 不正常===
 
It doesn't show any menus currently.
 
It doesn't show any menus currently.

Latest revision as of 13:08, 28 February 2016

相关文章

翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 Unity翻译,最后翻译时间:2012-11-08,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png本页面需要更新翻译,内容可能已经与英文脱节。要贡献翻译,请访问简体中文翻译组Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png

附注: please use the first argument of the template to provide more detailed indications.

Unity is an alternative shell for the GNOME desktop environment, developed by Canonical in its Ayatana project. It consists of several components including the Launcher, Dash, lenses, Panel, indicators, Notify OSD and Overlay Scrollbar. Unity used to available in two implementations: 'Unity' is the 3D accelerated version, which uses Compiz window manager and Nux toolkit; and 'Unity 2D' is a lighter alternative, which uses Metacity window manager and Qt toolkit. Unity 2D is already dropped by Canonical from Ubuntu 12.10. Instead a version powered by Gallium3D llvmpipe alternative is used.

安装

有两种途径可供选择:

  • 从源码编译安装
  • 添加软件源安装

源码安装

All of the pkgbuilds can be browsed in Github repository, where Unity-For-Arch provides a minimal working Unity shell, Unity-For-Arch-Extra provides some additoinal applications including lightdm-ubuntu(lightdm with ubuntu patch), light-themes, ubuntu-tweak(a popular ubuntu tweak tool) and so on.

最简安装Unity桌面环境:

1. 'cd' 进一个你想要保存源码的目录,然后运行:

$ git clone https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch.git

Where git is required.

2. 打开README文件,按照上面的指示编译。基本上是这样的:

$ cd packagename
$ rm -rvf # 清理之前的编译文件
$ makepkg -sci # '-s' 意思是安装需要的依赖, '-c' 意思是编译完成后清理无关文件, '-i' 意思是编译完成后安装软件包

3. 注销再登陆进Unity环境。

如想使用lightdm启动Unity,请从Unity-For-Arch-Extra安装 lightdm-ubuntu and lightdm-unity-greeter ,步骤基本和上面一致。 然后将lightdm加入自启动守护进程。使用Systemd的用户可以查看 关于Systemd的文章.

Note: 可以使用 这个脚本 来使安装自动化。

软件源

已编译好的二进制包可以在unity.humbug.inunity.xe-xe.org下载到。

在这里,以 unity.xe-xe.org 为例安装Unity。添加以下内容到 /etc/pacman.conf

[unity]
Server = http://unity.xe-xe.org/$arch

[unity-extra]
Server = http://unity.xe-xe.org/extra/$arch


执行以下命令:

$ pacman -Suy
$ pacman -S $(pacman -Slq unity)


使用另一个源 mooos.org 安装Unity。添加以下内容到 /etc/pacman.conf

[moo]
SigLevel = Optional TrustAll
Server = http://mooos.org/repos/moo/$arch

执行以下命令:

$ sudo pacman -S unity

重启系统,使用 Ubuntu 会话:

sudo reboot


Note: There are many ubuntu-patched packages that replace original Arch packages. Also it is recommended to use freetype2-ubuntu and libxft-ubuntu from AUR.
警告: 请记住这些软件是 非官方 的,并且不是由Arch Linux的开发者维护的。
警告: 几乎所有和Unity相关的AUR里的软件包都过期了。请一定不要把那些过期的软件包和软件源里的混在一起。

更新

软件源里的Unity更新方法和Arch官方源的更新一样。

如果是源码安装:

1. 'cd' into the 'Unity-for-Arch' directory where it was originally cloned

2. 从github获取更新文件:

$ git pull

3. 检查是否需要更新:

$ ./What_can_I_update\?.py

4. 如果需要更新,请按照上面 源码安装 部分的说明。

注意: 有的时候如果一个关键性的软件包更新,会导致依赖于它的软件包需要重新编译。 比如,如果 nux 有更新,那么 Unity 一般会被要求重新编译。

疑难问题

Unity在更新后不工作

尝试运行:

$ compiz.reset

然后注销再登陆进Unity。

如果问题仍然存在,请在github报告问题 或者 在Arch论坛讨论。

窗口装饰显示不正常

试着安装 gnome-tweak-tool 来调整主题。

窗口装饰不能使用某个特定的主题

请安装 metacity-ubuntu 而不是 metacity.

在更新到Gnome 3.6后某些gtk主题看起来不正常

Unity的默认主题light-themes也会这样,请添加

GtkLabel {
background-color: @transparent;
}

.config/gtk3.0/gtk.css

新开的窗口总会被放到屏幕左上角

请使用 Metacity-ubuntu 而不是 metacityMetacity-ubuntu 现已被包括进 Unity-for-Arch

窗口最大化后标题栏依然存在

请使用 Metacity-ubuntu 而不是 metacity

已知问题

Ubuntu 12.10 新特性 Webapps 不正常

Indicator messages 不正常

It doesn't show any menus currently.