Unity (简体中文)

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Summary help replacing me
This article discusses how to install and use Unity. Unity is a shell interface for the GNOME desktop environment. This article covers how to get Unity on your system and how to configure it to fit your needs.
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Unity is an alternative shell for the GNOME desktop environment, developed by Canonical in its Ayatana project. It consists of several components including the Launcher, Dash, lenses, Panel, indicators, Notify OSD and Overlay Scrollbar. Unity used to available in two implementations: 'Unity' is the 3D accelerated version, which uses Compiz window manager and Nux toolkit; and 'Unity 2D' is a lighter alternative, which uses Metacity window manager and Qt toolkit. Unity 2D is already dropped by Canonical from Ubuntu 12.10. Instead a version powered by Gallium3D llvmpipe alternative is used.

安装

有两种途径可供选择:

  • 从源码编译安装
  • 添加软件源安装

源码安装

All of the pkgbuilds can be browsed in Github repository, where Unity-For-Arch provides a minimal working Unity shell, Unity-For-Arch-Extra provides some additoinal applications including lightdm-ubuntu(lightdm with ubuntu patch), light-themes, ubuntu-tweak(a popular ubuntu tweak tool) and so on.

最简安装Unity桌面环境:

1. 'cd' to a directory that you want to keep the sources in and then run:

$ git clone https://github.com/chenxiaolong/Unity-for-Arch.git

Where git is required.

2 Open the README file and build packages according to the order listed. Basically run:

$ cd packagename
$ rm -rvf # Clears out any files from a previous build
$ makepkg -sci # '-s' means install needed dependencies, '-c' means clear left files after build and '-i' means install the package after it is built.

3. Log out and log into the Unity session.

To use lightdm to start Unity, almost the same steps need to be followed to instal lightdm-ubuntu and lightdm-unity-greeter from Unity-For-Arch-Extra. And lightdm needs to be added to autostart daemons. For Systemd users, check wiki article about Systemd.

Tip: To make this procedure automatic, a script can be used.

软件源

已编译好的二进制包可以在unity.humbug.inunity.xe-xe.org下载到。

在这里,以 unity.xe-xe.org 为例安装Unity。添加以下内容到 /etc/pacman.conf

[unity]
Server = http://unity.xe-xe.org/$arch

[unity-extra]
Server = http://unity.xe-xe.org/extra/$arch


执行以下命令:

$ pacman -Suy
$ pacman -S $(pacman -Slq unity)

Template:建议

警告: 请记住这些软件是 非官方 的,并且不是由Arch Linux的开发者维护的。
警告: 几乎所有和Unity相关的AUR里的软件包都过期了。请一定不要把那些过期的软件包和软件源里的混在一起。

Update

For Unity repository, the update is the same as packages from official repositories.

Otherwise:

1. 'cd' into the 'Unity-for-Arch' directory where it was originally cloned

2. pull all of changes from github repository:

$ git pull

3. Check if packages need to be updated:

$ ./What_can_I_update\?.py

4. If any packages need to be updated, just build them like mentioned above in from source section.

Note: Sometimes if certain crucial package is updated, those package which depend on it will also need to be recompiled though they won't be reported. For example, Unity is often required to be recompiled if nux gets updated

Trouble Shooting

Unity stops working after update

Try to run:

$ compiz.reset

and Log out and log into the Unity session.

If it still doesn't work, report an issue on github or discuss it on Arch forum.

Window decoration doesn't work properly

Try to install gnome-tweak-tool to adjust the theme.

Window decoration can't use certain theme

Install metacity-ubuntu instead of metacity.

Some gtk themes look ugly after update to Gnome 3.6

It also happens for unity default theme light-themes. Put

GtkLabel {
background-color: @transparent;
}

in .config/gtk3.0/gtk.css

Newly opened window is always placed at (0,0) on the screen

Metacity-ubuntu needs to be used instead of metacity. Metacity-ubuntu is now included in Unity-for-Arch again.

Window's titlebar still exists when maximized

Metacity-ubuntu needs to be used instead of metacity.

Known Issues

Ubuntu 12.10 new feature Webapps doesn't work properly

Indicator messages doesn't work properly

It doesn't show any menus currently.