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== How to write good ==
# Correct spelling is esential.
# Verbs always has to agree with their subjects.
# Avoid run-on sentences they are hard to read.
# About those fragments.
# Remember to not ever split an infinitive.
# Parentheses are (usually) not necessary.
# Do not end a sentence with a preposition. This is something the reader will not put up with.
# Use the apostrophe in it's proper place and omit it when its not needed.
# The passive voice is to be avoided.
# Proofread your writing to see if you any words out.
=X Logical Font Description=
Two different font systems are used by X11: the older X Logical Font Description (XLFD) and the newer X FreeType (Xft) systems.
XLFD was originally designed for bitmap fonts and support for scalable fonts (Type1, TrueType and OpenType) was added later.  XLFD does not support anti‑aliasing and sub‑pixel rasterization.  Xft uses the FreeType and Fontconfig libraries and may be more suitable when the smooth appearance of fonts is desired.
==Font Names==
Font names are complex when using XLFD:
The name contains fourteen elements, each element field preceded by a hyphen, '-'.  Not all elements are required to be present in a font name and the field may be empty.  Names can be simplified for the user by the wildcards '*' and '?'.  Note that quotes are needed to prevent the shell from interpreting the wildcards when a filename is used on the command-line.
    xterm -fn "*-fixed-medium-r-s*-*-13-120-75-*-iso8859-1"
Names can be simplified even more by using aliases:
    xterm -fn fixed
Two nearly indispensible utilities for working with XLFD names are 'xfontsel' [xorg-xfontsel] and 'xlsfonts' [xorg-xlsfonts].  Xfontsel uses dropdown menus for selecting parts of a font name and previews the font selected.  Xlsfonts can list fonts by name, with selectable degrees of detail, and can show how wildcards and aliases will be interpreted by the XLFD system:
    $ xlsfonts -fn "*-fixed-medium-r-*-13-120-75-*-iso8859-1"
    $ xlsfonts -ll -fn fixed
===Font name elements===
The following table provides a description of the font name fields with some tips on their use.  The elements are listed in the same order as they appear in a font name.
{| class="wikitable" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="1"
| FOUNDRY || The supplier of the font.
This is useful when two different fonts share the same FAMILY_NAME, as with "Courier".
| FAMILY_NAME || The typeface name.  Usually, fonts with the same family name are designed to be visually similar.
| WEIGHT_NAME || The degree of blackness of the glyphs.  Somewhat ambiguous, common values are "bold" and "medium".
| SLANT || Common values are "r" for Roman or upright, and "i" and "o" for the slanted italic and oblique typefaces.
| SETWIDTH_NAME || Values are set by the designer, examples are "normal", "narrow" or "condensed"
| ADD_STYLE || Often an empty field, values may be supplied by the foundry.
| PIXEL_SIZE || The body size of a font for a particular POINT_SIZE and RESOLUTION_Y.
Changes the height of a font independent of the point size for which the font was designed.
| POINT_SIZE || The body heighth for which the font was designed; values are expressed as tenths of a point (one point is nominally one seventy-secondth of an inch).
Used by the X server, with RESOLUTION_Y, to maintain constant text height on the display.
| RESOLUTION_X || The horizontal resolution, as an integer-string, for which the font was designed.  For scalable fonts this is zero, bitmap fonts usually use '75' or '100'.  The values are expressed as pixels or dpi.
| RESOLUTION_Y || The vertical resolution for which the font was designed.  Similar to RESOLUTION_X, proportional fonts set this value to zero.
| SPACING || 'p' – For proportional fonts
'm' – Monospace; all the glyphs have the same logical width.
'c' – Character cell; each glyph occupies a "frame" and the frames all have equal width.  This is typewriter spacing.
Some older applications may leave glyph fragments when the display is refreshed when using fonts with the 'm' spacing.  For these apps, try using a font with 'c' spacing.
| AVERAGE_WIDTH || Arithmetic mean of the widths of all glyphs.  Zero is used for proportional fonts.
| CHARSET_REGISTRY || Always paired with the next field, this names the registration authority for the character encoding used.
| CHARSET_ENCODING || An identifier for the character set encoding.
==Font Installation==

Revision as of 11:33, 16 January 2013