User talk:Scdbackup

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About the changes on the wiki

Hello. I appreciate your great interest and I agree with some of your requests, especially on clarity. Do not use the main page for experience any changes, because it is a reference page for the entire community. You have to follow a path, discuss the changes, what to change and how to change, apply a "template" to signal to the whole community of possible changes etc. .. Also, any changes must be described on the main page, and in the event of major changes effettualri step by step. Other users can't understand all the changes made. This procedure may seem slow, but considering that it is not a personal wiki, but Community. good weekend.Veleno (talk) 11:00, 27 July 2013 (UTC)

It is well understood that i need approval. Especially since i am an interested party in the field of optical media. The proposed changes are listed at the talk page. What kind of approval do i have to wait for ?
How do i apply a "template" ? (I guess it is a way to expose an implemented proposal for approval.)
Your proposed changes are wide margin, reflecting a possible reorganization of the entire page. You rightly point out that there are gaps and that it can improve the whole. I answered you on the talk. I think you can from your proposal to amend the best across the page, for example, by combining the relative sections of CD and DVD in one section. does not exist a body that approves, you expect a few days, if no one dissenting opinions, you can operate to change. What you propose is not a small change, but I think a broader change that, in my opinion, it should be well organized. that's all. I apply a template that links to the discussion. ;) Veleno (talk) 11:37, 27 July 2013 (UTC)

Test area


<!ex CD burning , replacing section 1>

The burning process of optical disc drives consists of creating an image (ISO 9660,TOC/CUE/BIN) and write it to disk. For this purpose, there are several tools that can create images and burn them.

Install burning utilities

<! ex Install programs for ISO 9660 and burning of CD, DVD, or BD - replacing section 1.1>

You need at least one program for creation of image filesystems and one program that is able to burn data onto your desired media type.

Available programs for image creation are:

  • genisoimage from package cdrkit
  • isomaster from package isomaster (with gtk2 GUI)
  • mkisofs from package cdrtools
  • xorriso and xorrisofs from package libisoburn
  • cdrao from cdrdao for TOC/BIN/CUE image

The traditional choice is genisoimage for ISO 9660 and cdrao for TOC/BIN/CUE

Available programs for burning are:

  • cdrdao from package cdrdao (CD only, .cue files only)
  • cdrecord from package cdrtools
  • cdrskin from package libburn
  • growisofs from package dvd+rw-tools (DVD and BD only)
  • wodim from package cdrkit (CD only, DVD deprecated)
  • xorriso and xorrecord from package libisoburn

The traditional choices are wodim for CD and growisofs for DVD and Blu-ray Disk. For growisofs and BD-R see the bug workaround below. For writing cue/bin files to CD, install the cdrdao package.

The free GUI programs for CD, DVD, and BD burning depend on at least one of the above packages.

The programs genisoimage, mkisofs, and xorrisofs all three support the genisoimage options which are shown in this document.

The programs cdrecord, cdrskin, and wodim all three support the shown wodim options. Program xorrecord supports those which do not deal with audio CD.


The installed files of packages cdrkit and cdrtools are in conflict. If you want to install cdrtools, make sure that you build a package using makepkg and install with pacman. Pacman wrappers may resolve to cdrkit instead.

Learning the name of your optical drive

(replacing section 3)

For the remainder of this section the name of your recording device is assumed to be /dev/cdrw.

Check this by

$ wodim dev=/dev/cdrw -checkdrive

which should report "Vendor_info" and "Identification" of the drive. The next guess could be /dev/sr0.

If no drive is found, check whether any /dev/sr* exist and whether they offer rw-permission to you or your group. If no /dev/sr* exists then try

$ modprobe sr_mod

>>> point GUI users to the GUI programs which should handle the following details on their own

Erasing CD-RW and DVD-RW

(replacing sections 4 and 19)

Used CD-RW media need to be erased before you can write over the previously recorded data. This is done by

 $ wodim -v dev=/dev/cdrw blank=fast

Unformatted DVD-RW media need the same treatment before re-use. But fast blanking deprives them of the capability for multi-session and recording of streams of unpredicted length. So one should apply

 $ dvd+rw-format -blank=full /dev/cdrw

dvd+rw-format is part of package dvd+rw-tools. Alternative commands are

 $ cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrw blank=all
 $ cdrskin -v dev=/dev/cdrw blank=all
 $ xorriso -outdev /dev/cdrw -blank as_needed

Formatted DVD-RW media can be overwritten without such erasure. So consider to apply once in their life time

 $ dvd+rw-format -force /dev/cdrw

Alternative commands are

 $ cdrskin -v dev=/dev/cdrw blank=format_overwrite
 $ xorriso -outdev /dev/cdrw -format as_needed

All other media are either write-once (CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R, BD-R) or are overwritable without the need for erasing (DVD-RAM, DVD+RW, BD-RE).

Burning an ISO image

(replacing section 5)

To burn a readily prepared ISO image run on CD:

$ wodim -v -sao dev=/dev/cdrw isoimage.iso

and on DVD or BD:

$ growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/cdrw=isoimage.iso

The programs cdrecord, cdrskin, and xorrecord may be used on all kinds of media with the options shown with wodim.

Verify the burnt ISO image

(replacing section 6)

You can verify the integrity of the burnt medium to make sure it contains no errors. Always eject the medium and reinsert it before verifying. The kernel will learn about the new content only by that reinsertion.

First calculate the md5sum of the original ISO image:

$ md5sum isoimage.iso
 e5643e18e05f5646046bb2e4236986d8 isoimage.iso

Next calculate the md5sum of the ISO filesystem on the medium. Although some media types deliver exactly the same amount of data as have been submitted to the burn program, many others append trailing garbage when being read. So you should restrict reading to the size of the ISO image.

$ blocks=$(expr $(ls -l isoimage.iso | awk '{print $5}') / 2048)
$ dd if=/dev/cdrw bs=2048 count=$blocks | md5sum
 43992+0 records in
 43992+0 records out
 90095616 bytes (90 MB) copied, 0.359539 s, 251 MB/s
 e5643e18e05f5646046bb2e4236986d8  -

Reading an ISO image from a CD, DVD, or BD

(replacing section 9)

The procedure for copying an ISO image to disk is fundamentally the same as with verifying.

Unless it is a factory presses ROM medium you will have to determine the size of the ISO filesystem before copying it.

On a machine with little endian CPU do

 $ blocks=$(dd bs=1 skip=$(expr 32768 + 80) count=4 if=isoimage.iso | \
   od -l | head -1 | awk '{print $2}')

on big endian CPU

 $ blocks=$(dd bs=1 skip=$(expr 32768 + 84) count=4 if=isoimage.iso | \
   od -l | head -1 | awk '{print $2}')

(It is a wasteful luxury of ISO 9660 to provide both forms.)

Then copy the detemined amount of data from medium to hard disk

 $ dd if=/dev/cdrw of=copied_isoimage.iso bs=2048 count=$blocks