Difference between revisions of "VCS package guidelines (简体中文)"

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{{i18n_links_start}}
 
{{i18n_entry|English|Arch CVS %26 SVN PKGBUILD guidelines}}
 
{{i18n_entry|正體中文|Arch CVS %26 SVN PKGBUILD 編寫指南}}
 
{{i18n_entry|简体中文|Arch CVS %26 SVN %26 GIT PKGBUILD 编写指南}}
 
{{i18n_links_end}}
 
 
 
[[Category:简体中文]]
 
[[Category:简体中文]]
 +
[[en:VCS PKGBUILD Guidelines]]
 +
[[it:VCS PKGBUILD Guidelines]]
 +
[[zh-TW:VCS PKGBUILD Guidelines]]
 +
{{Package Guidelines}}
 +
{{Translateme (简体中文)}}
 +
[[Wikipedia:Revision_control|Version control systems]] can be used for retrieval of source code for both usual statically versioned packages and latest (trunk) version of packages. This article covers both cases.
  
==用 makepkg 打包 CVS, SVN & GIT 文件==
+
== Prototypes ==
 +
The [[ABS]] package provides prototypes for [[cvs]], [[svn]], [[git]], [[mercurial]], and [[Wikipedia:darcs|darcs]] [[PKGBUILD]]s. When {{Pkg|abs}} is installed, you can find them in {{ic|/usr/share/pacman}}. Latest versions can be found in the [https://projects.archlinux.org/abs.git/tree/prototypes prototypes directory in the ABS Git repository].
  
事实上,这个工作非常简单,您不需要什么特殊的知识。当然,您对CVS和SVN的知识懂得越多越好。很多人在 PKGBUILD 文件里面引入了不必要(译注:这个词是译者加的,在尽量不影响理解的前提下,译者可能会不自觉的使用自己的语言,后面不再声明)的自定义变量,这样会使工作变得复杂。这些看起来很复杂的语句并不是''必须的'',但是对于使语法结构清洗,是很有帮助的。
+
== Guidelines ==
 +
* Properly suffix {{Ic|pkgname}} with {{Ic|-cvs}}, {{Ic|-svn}}, {{Ic|-hg}}, {{Ic|-darcs}}, {{Ic|-bzr}}, {{Ic|-git}} etc. If the package tracks a moving development trunk it should be given a suffix. If the package fetches a release from a VCS tag then it should not be given a suffix. Use this rule of thumb: if the output of the package depends on the time at which it was compiled, append a suffix; otherwise do not.
  
===一些小提示===
+
* A VCS package may be updated as and when needed to adopt changes to the build system, including ammendments to dependencies, URL, sources, etc. If the revision number remains the same after such an update, but produces a resulting binary which is different, increasing the {{Ic|pkgrel}} is mandatory. If both the revision number and the resulting binary remain the same, {{Ic|pkgrel}} should be kept intact. There is no need to update the VCS package just to accommodate a revision bump, but one may choose to do so.
  
* 在可行的情况下,请给 <code>pkgname</code> 加上 <code>-cvs</code> 或者 <code>-svn</code> 或者 <code>-git</code> 这样的后缀 - 这样可以防止和非devel版本的包名混淆,比如 fluxbox-svn , fvwm-cvs 对 fluxbox , fvwm.
+
* When [[makepkg]] is run, by default it will check for newer revisions and then update the {{Ic|pkgver}} in the PKGBUILDLook at {{Ic|--holdver}} in [https://www.archlinux.org/pacman/makepkg.8.html man makepkg] if you want otherwise.  {{Ic|--holdver}} only works for cvs and svn, which allow checkout of older revisions.
* 您还必须小心处理 pacman 的冲突(依赖关系冲突)。比如 fluxbox-svn will 与 fluxbox 冲突。这样您就需要使用 <tt>conflicts=</tt> 字段(field)
+
  conflicts=('fluxbox')
+
: 您还应该使用 <tt>provides=</tt> 字段,以便让需要 fluxbox (作者这里用fluxbox来举例)的包知道 fluxbox-svn 就是 fluxbox
+
provides=('fluxbox')
+
: 您最好不要使用(your should avoid using) <tt>replaces=</tt> ,它可能会产生不必要的麻烦
+
*When using/defining the cvsroot use anonymous<b>:</b>@ rather than anonymous@ to avoid having to press enter to give blank password ''OR'' anonymous<b>:password</b>@ - if a password is required.
+
* cvs and svn PKGBUILDs may not require a source or md5sum array but these fields '''must''' be included in the PKGBUILD if you wish to submit it to the AUR, otherwise the pkg will be rejectedThey may be left blank though.
+
<pre>source=()
+
md5sums=()</pre>
+
* 使用 CVS/SVN/GIT 的时候,我们极少用到 pkgrel 字段,因为源文件时有改动,所以我们通常用 pkgver 来标记改动(假定我们用 pkgver 来保存日期)(英文原文:It is rarely necessary to use the pkgrel field when building CVS/SVN/GIT pkgs - any changes to the pkg will often be on another day and so are usually accounted for by a change in pkgver (assuming pkgver is used to hold a date format),英语不到家,有人会翻译的mail:fluke at sfcube.net)
+
* 不要忘记把 svn 或者 cvs 包含在 <code>makedepends=</code> 里面,如果必须的话(译注:如果你要从 svn checkout 源码包,自然要要保证你有 svn 客户端)
+
* 为了保证 check out(译注:cvs和svn的术语,就不翻译了) 下来的 code 的完整性,我们建立一个独立的 build 目录,比如你已经在 $startdir 把代码 ckeck out 到了 src/$_cvsmod 目录你可以:
+
<pre>  mkdir src/$_cvsmod-build
+
  
  cd src/$_cvsmod-build
+
* Check for package conflicts. For example ''fluxbox-svn'' will conflict with ''fluxbox''. In this case, you need to use {{Ic|1=conflicts=('fluxbox')}}.
  ../$_cvsmod/configure</pre>
+
''万一'' 这种方法失败了,你可以尝试:
+
<pre> cp -r src/$_cvsmod src/$_cvsmod-build
+
  cd src/$_cvsmod-build</pre>
+
  
* AUR的介绍中说最重要的是不要使用 backtick 扩展去创建 pkg 变量(With the introduction of the AUR it is most important to avoid using backtick execution to create pkg variables)
+
* Use the {{Ic|provides}} field so that packages that require the non-VCS package can be installed ({{Ic|1=provides=('fluxbox')}}).
** 对于 cvs 包 您应该避免 <code>pkgver=`date +%y%m%d`</code> - (译注:this also inteferes with the functionality of the AUR.,这句话不好翻译,我不知道inteferes什么意思) 作为替代的方案,还可以用日期格式的 $pkgver 变量,并且使用 cvs -D 去获取从那个日期起的代码 (看下面)
+
** 对于 svn 您可以使用修正号(revision number)。下面是一种简易的获取修正号的方法:
+
svn log $_svntrunk --limit 1 | grep -m 1 -o "r.*" | cut -d \| -f 1 | sed s@r@@g
+
这条命令从 svn repo (译注:就是 svn 的源)最近额记录里面取得修正号--修正号的前面带有''r''字母。下面的来自于 fluxbox 的 svn 记录,修正号就在左上角,r4084。
+
<pre>
+
------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
r4084 | mathias | 2005-07-20 19:29:01 +0100 (Wed, 20 Jul 2005) | 16 lines
+
  
Changed some *Focus options, just to make some things a bit more clear.
+
* You should AVOID using {{Ic|1=replaces=...}} as it generally causes unnecessary problems.
the "Sloppy" was always a bit .. unprecise.
+
</pre>
+
  
===CVS PKGBUILD 样例===
+
* When using/defining the cvsroot, use {{Ic|anonymous:@}} rather than {{Ic|anonymous@}} to avoid a password prompt and having to enter a blank password ''OR'' use {{Ic|anonymous:password@}} if a password is required.
  
这里用一个 bmp-cvs 的 PKGBUILD 来说明上面的一些技巧(一些小提示)
+
* Don't forget to include the appropriate VCS tool (cvs, subversion, git, ...) in {{Ic|1=makedepends=...}}.
  
<pre># Contributor:  Lukas Sabota <punkrockguy318@comcast.net>
+
* To preserve the integrity of the checked-out code consider copying the original build directory if you have to make edits. For example, having checked out source code to {{ic|src/$_cvsmod}} from {{ic|$startdir}} you can use:
# Contributor: dibblethewrecker dibblethewrecker.at.jiwe.dot.org
+
pkgname=bmp-cvs
+
pkgver=20050728
+
pkgrel=1
+
pkgdesc="BeepMP is a multimedia player that uses the WinAmp 2.x UI, GTK2, and is based on XMMS. This will checkout and package the latest CVS version."
+
url="http://beepmp.sourceforge.net/"
+
license=
+
depends=('gtk2' 'libvorbis' 'alsa-lib' 'audiofile' 'libglade' 'id3lib' 'x-server')
+
provides=('bmp')
+
conflicts=('bmp')
+
makedepends=('cvs')
+
install=$pkgname.install
+
  
_cvsroot=":pserver:anonymous:@cvs.sourceforge.net:/cvsroot/beepmp"
+
mkdir src/$_cvsmod-build
_cvsmod="bmp"
+
 +
cd src/$_cvsmod-build
 +
../$_cvsmod/configure
  
build() {
+
or:
  cd $startdir/src
+
  msg "Connecting to $_cvsmod.sourceforge.net CVS server...."
+
  cvs -z3 -d $_cvsroot co -D $pkgver -f $_cvsmod
+
  cd $_cvsmod
+
  ./autogen.sh
+
  
  msg "CVS checkout done or server timeout"
+
cp -r src/$_cvsmod src/$_cvsmod-build
  msg "Starting make..."
+
cd src/$_cvsmod-build
  
  cp -r ../$_cvsmod ../$_cvsmod-build
+
* With the introduction of the [[AUR]], it is most important to avoid using backtick execution to create package variables. makepkg will automatically bump the {{Ic|pkgver}} anyway when building the package (unless {{Ic|--holdver}} is used).
  cd ../$_cvsmod-build
+
  
  ./configure --prefix=/usr
+
== Tips ==
  make || return 1
+
* You should make sure that there are no VCS directories and files left over in your package. If there are, you may want to remove them, by adding a command similar to this one at the end of the the package() script:
  make DESTDIR=$startdir/pkg install || return 1
+
  
  mkdir -p $startdir/pkg/usr/share/xmms/Skins
+
rm -rf $(find "$pkgdir" -type d -name ".svn")
  mv $startdir/pkg/usr/share/bmp/Skins/* $startdir/pkg/usr/share/xmms/Skins
+
  rmdir $startdir/pkg/usr/share/bmp/Skins
+
  
  rm -r $startdir/src/$_cvsmod-build
+
* When using Git, one can speed up the cloning operation using the {{Ic|1=--depth=1}} parameter. This creates a shallow clone, and has only the last change history - since histories are unimportant for builds most of the time.
}
+
# vim:syntax=sh
+
</pre>
+
  
===SVN PKGBUILD 样例===
+
git clone git://hostname.dom/project.git --depth=1
  
假如您第一次对 PKGBUILD 使用 <tt>source</tt> 命令,它会填充(store) _svntrunk 和 _svnmod 变量。所以如果您运行:
+
* It's possible to create the package also from a branch other than the master. To do so add {{Ic|1=--branch branch_name}} after the first {{Ic|1=git clone}}, in this way:
source PKGBUILD
+
svn log $_svntrunk --limit 1 | grep -m 1 -o "r.*" | cut -d \| -f 1 | sed s@r@@g
+
你可以得到用于 pkgver 的修正号
+
  
<pre>
+
  git clone "$_gitroot" "$_gitname" --branch branch_name
# Contributor: Lukas Sabota <punkrockguy318@comcast.net>
+
Remember to save package with a different name, for example {{Ic|1= pkgname-branchname-git}}, in order to avoid confusion with the package from the branch master.
# Contributor: dibblethewrecker dibblethewrecker.at.jiwe.dot.org
+
pkgname=fluxbox-svn
+
pkgver=4084
+
pkgrel=1
+
pkgdesc="Fluxbox-svn is the bleeding edge version of a lightweight yet \
+
customizable windowmanager for X. This will checkout and package the latest SVN version."
+
url="http://www.fluxbox.org"
+
depends=('bash' 'x-server')
+
makedepends=('subversion')
+
conflicts=('blackbox' 'fluxbox' 'fluxbox-devel' 'fluxbox-cvs')
+
replaces=('fluxbox-cvs')
+
provides=('fluxbox')
+
  
_svntrunk=svn://svn.berlios.de/fluxbox/trunk
+
* Copy paste script when building from repo
_svnmod=fluxbox
+
If you are lazy here is a sample script when making git-based PKGBUILDs.
  
build() {
+
   cd "$srcdir"
   cd $startdir/src
+
   msg "Connecting to GIT server..."
 
+
   if [ -d $_gitname ] ; then
  svn co $_svntrunk --config-dir ./ -r $pkgver $_svnmod
+
    cd $_gitname && git pull origin
  cd $_svnmod
+
    msg "The local files are updated."
  ./autogen.sh
+
 
+
  msg "SVN checkout done or server timeout"
+
  msg "Starting make..."
+
 
+
  mkdir ../$_svnmod-build
+
  cd ../$_svnmod-build
+
 
+
  # fix for crap fb issue
+
  mkdir data
+
  cp ../$_svnmod/data/keys data/
+
 
+
  ../$_svnmod/configure --prefix=/usr --enable-xinerama --enable-imlib2 --enable-debug
+
  #./configure --prefix=/usr --enable-xinerama --enable-imlib2 --enable-debug
+
  make || return 1
+
  make DESTDIR=$startdir/pkg/ install
+
 
+
  rm -r $startdir/src/$_svnmod-build
+
}
+
# vim:syntax=sh</pre>
+
 
+
===GIT PKGBUILD 样例===
+
 
+
<pre>
+
pkgname=compiz-git
+
pkgver=20060707
+
pkgrel=1
+
pkgdesc="Composite and window manager for Xgl"
+
url="http://en.opensuse.org/Compiz"
+
license=""
+
depends=('xgl-cvs' 'mesa-xgl-cvs' 'cairo-devel' 'libxevie' \
+
        'startup-notification' 'libpng'  'libxdamage' \
+
        'libxrandr' 'libwnck-compiz' 'gnome-desktop' 'control-center' \
+
        'libsvg-cairo' 'libxcomposite')
+
makedepends=('git')
+
conflicts=()
+
replaces=()
+
backup=()
+
install=compiz.install
+
source=(compiz-intel-copy-pixel-issue-workaround-1.diff)
+
md5sums=('10a157b86d528bca2be6731c5eaff7b3')
+
 
+
_gitroot="git://anongit.freedesktop.org/git/xorg/app/compiz"
+
_gitname="compiz"
+
build() {
+
export CFLAGS="$CFLAGS -I/opt/mesa-xgl-cvs/include"
+
  cd $startdir/src
+
   msg "Connecting to git.freedesktop.org GIT server...."
+
 
+
   if [ -d $startdir/src/$_gitname ] ; then
+
  cd $_gitname && git-pull origin
+
  msg "The local files are updated."
+
 
   else
 
   else
  git clone $_gitroot
+
    git clone --depth=1 $_gitroot $_gitname
 
   fi
 
   fi
 
 
   msg "GIT checkout done or server timeout"
 
   msg "GIT checkout done or server timeout"
  msg "Starting make..."
 
 
  cp -r $startdir/src/$_gitname $startdir/src/$_gitname-build
 
  cd $startdir/src/$_gitname-build
 
  patch -Np0 -i ${startdir}/src/compiz-intel-copy-pixel-issue-workaround-1.diff
 
 
  ACLOCAL="aclocal -I /opt/gnome/share/aclocal" ./autogen.sh --host=${CHOST} \
 
    --prefix=/usr \
 
    --infodir=/usr/share/info \
 
    --mandir=/usr/man \
 
    --sysconfdir=/opt/gnome/etc \
 
    --enable-gnome \
 
    --enable-libsvg-cairo \
 
    --enable-gconf-dump \
 
    --disable-kde || return 1
 
  make || return 1
 
  make DESTDIR=$startdir/pkg install
 
 
  find $startdir/pkg -type f -name '*.la' -exec rm {} \;
 
}
 
</pre>
 
如您所见,我在 pkgname 后面使用 "-git" 后缀,另外两个变量 -- _gitroot 和 _gitname 用来表示包的“源”和包名字。
 
我需要解释一个 if 条件:
 
<pre>
 
if [ -d $startdir/src/$_gitname ] ; then
 
cd $_gitname && git-pull origin
 
msg "The local files are updated."
 
else
 
git clone $_gitroot
 
fi
 
</pre>
 
因为我们有两个命令,一个用来更新,一个迎来取得代码。我把源代码 copy 到一个 "-build" 目录(在 cvs 和 svn 版本的包里面,我们也这样做)。
 
 
===versionpkg - a <tt>makepkg</tt> wrapper for CVS/SVN builds===
 
这是一个很简单的脚本,它能够让你在不改动 PKGBUILD 文件里面的日期或者修正号的前提下更新你的 CVS 或者 SVN 包。
 
 
简单地在你的 build 目录运行这个命令,代替 <tt>makepkg</tt>。这个脚本完全免除了用 backtick 扩展来设置 PKGBUILD 中的日期或者版本标记的必要。 (This script completely removes the need for backtick execution to set the date or tag version in PKGBUILDs.)
 
 
使用这个脚本之前;
 
* 确保在 PKGBUILD 的前10行的位置已经声明了 pkgver, 否则这个脚本不会正常工作!
 
* 确保你的文件包含了下面的变量以及 checkout 命令:
 
* CVS
 
_cvsroot=
 
: CVS 服务器根目录(The root of the CVS server) - 即的包含一个半角冒号 (:) 在用户名后面,就像上面提到的一样。
 
_cvsmod=
 
: 你要 check out 的 CVS 模块,如:
 
_cvsroot=":pserver:anonymous:@mplayerhq.hu:/cvsroot/ffmpeg"
 
_cvsmod="ffmpeg"
 
: 下面这个 check out 的例子用到了上面提到的变来嗯。<strong>-D</strong> 选项对于正确使用 <code>versionpkg</code> 是必须的,它和 <strong>-f</strong> 选项是很好的组合.  在不使用 <strong>-f</strong> 选项的情况下使用 <strong>-D</strong> 可能会导致错误
 
cvs -z9 -q -d $_cvsroot co -D $pkgver -f $_cvsmod
 
: -z 控制压缩级别(1低9高)
 
: -D 指定 check out 的日期,这这个脚本里面我们用 $pkgver 来在设置时间。
 
: -q 是 quiet (关闭详细信息)模式开关。
 
* SVN
 
_svntrunk=
 
: SVN trunk 地址 (译注,相当于 CVS root)
 
_svnmod=
 
: 在说一次,这个是你想要 ckeck out 的模块名,如:
 
_svntrunk=svn://svn.berlios.de/fluxbox/trunk
 
_svnmod=fluxbox
 
: 下面这个例子使用了上面的变量。<strong>-r</strong> 选项对于正确使用 <code>versionpkg</code> 是必要的(译注,这个是用来设置修改号的,显然).
 
svn co $_svntrunk --config-dir ./ -r $pkgver $_svnmod
 
: 这里的 -r 指定修改号, 我们用 $pkgver 来表示修改号。
 
 
====看看这个脚本!====
 
为了提高安全性, versionpkg 现在可以直接从 [community] 安装,<code>pacman -S versionpkg</code>。 我强烈建议您这样做(I strongly recommend that you use that. )下面的脚本纯粹用来解释 :)<br>
 
Changelog (修改记录):
 
* check for both CVS/SVN vars (检查 SVN 和 CVS vars)
 
* 如果失败了,就回退到上一个 pkgver ,以便允许正确的 gensync 操作(译注,我不知道 gensync, 从名字看应该是和更新有关,英文原文:If build fails revert to previous pkgver to allow correct gensync operation)
 
* 加入了有色消息(coloured messages)的支持
 
<pre>#!/bin/bash
 
 
# versionpkg - a makepkg wrapper for building CVS/SVN pkgs
 
# dibblethewrecker.at.jiwe.org
 
  
# makepkg configuration
+
* Temporary build directories: When using Git, and where you need to create a separate build directory (e.g., for building/compiling), you should avoid copying over the {{Ic|1=.git}} directory located in the parent folder because it contains history information that Git uses internally. With repos with thousands of commits, this .git directory will contain upwards of hundreds of MiB of useless commit history that has *nothing* to do with the current working tree. The only time you'd need to copy over the .git directory itself is when you need to build from a specific, older commit (which is generally never the case as the point of a VCS PKGBUILD is to pull from the latest bleeding edge commit). Thus, instead of
[ -f /etc/makepkg.conf ] && source /etc/makepkg.conf
+
  
# SUBROUTINES
+
rm -rf "$srcdir/$_gitname-build"
plain() {
+
cp -R "$srcdir/$_gitname" "$srcdir/$_gitname-build" # copy everything, including the useless .git folder
if [ "$USE_COLOR" = "Y" -o "$USE_COLOR" = "y" ]; then
+
cd "$srcdir/$_gitname-build"
echo -e "    \033[1;1m$1\033[1;0m" >&2
+
make # build/compile from source
else
+
echo "    $1" >&2
+
fi
+
}
+
msg() {
+
if [ "$USE_COLOR" = "Y" -o "$USE_COLOR" = "y" ]; then
+
echo -e "\033[1;32m==>\033[1;0m \033[1;1m$1\033[1;0m" >&2
+
else
+
echo "==> $1" >&2
+
fi
+
}
+
warning() {
+
if [ "$USE_COLOR" = "Y" -o "$USE_COLOR" = "y" ]; then
+
echo -e "\033[1;33m==> WARNING:\033[1;0m \033[1;1m$1\033[1;0m" >&2
+
else
+
echo "==> WARNING: $1" >&2
+
fi
+
}
+
error() {
+
if [ "$USE_COLOR" = "Y" -o "$USE_COLOR" = "y" ]; then
+
echo -e "\033[1;31m==> ERROR:\033[1;0m \033[1;1m$1\033[1;0m" >&2
+
else
+
echo "==> ERROR: $1" >&2
+
fi
+
return 1
+
}
+
  
source ./PKGBUILD
+
you should do
oldpkgver=$pkgver
+
  
if [ ! -z ${_cvsroot} ] && [ ! -z ${_cvsmod} ] ; then
+
rm -rf "$srcdir/$_gitname-build"
cvsdate=`date +%Y%m%d`
+
cd "$srcdir/$_gitname" && ls -A | grep -v .git | xargs -d '\n' cp -r -t ../$_gitname-build # do not copy over the .git folder
sed -i "1,11 s|pkgver=$oldpkgver|pkgver=$cvsdate|" ./PKGBUILD
+
cd "$srcdir/$_gitname-build"
makepkg $@
+
make # build/compile from source
if [ $? -gt 0 ] ; then
+
error "Reverting pkgver..."
+
sed -i "1,11 s|pkgver=$cvsdate|pkgver=$oldpkgver|" ./PKGBUILD
+
fi   
+
elif [ ! -z ${_svntrunk} ] && [ ! -z ${_svnmod} ] ; then
+
svnrevno=`svn log $_svntrunk --limit 1 | grep -m 1 -o "r.*" | cut -d \| -f 1 | sed s@r@@g`
+
msg "Current revision number is $svnrevno"
+
if [ "${1}" != "-f" ] && [ "${oldpkgver}" == "${svnrevno}" ] ; then
+
error "No new revision available. (use -f to overwrite)"
+
exit
+
fi
+
sleep 3
+
sed -i "1,11 s|pkgver=$oldpkgver|pkgver=$svnrevno|" ./PKGBUILD
+
makepkg $@
+
if [ $? -gt 0 ] ; then
+
error "Reverting pkgver..."
+
sed -i "1,11 s|pkgver=$svnrevno|pkgver=$oldpkgver|" ./PKGBUILD
+
fi
+
else
+
error "No SVN or CVS variables found! Aborting..."
+
exit
+
fi
+
</pre>
+
  
== 译者声明 ==
+
to cut down on build time and disk usage.
译者对本文的翻译全凭理解,部分内容可能没有经过实践,有错误的话,请直接编辑本文。
+

Revision as of 01:59, 6 December 2012

Template:Package Guidelines

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附注: please use the first argument of the template to provide more detailed indications.

Version control systems can be used for retrieval of source code for both usual statically versioned packages and latest (trunk) version of packages. This article covers both cases.

Prototypes

The ABS package provides prototypes for cvs, svn, git, mercurial, and darcs PKGBUILDs. When abs is installed, you can find them in /usr/share/pacman. Latest versions can be found in the prototypes directory in the ABS Git repository.

Guidelines

  • Properly suffix pkgname with -cvs, -svn, -hg, -darcs, -bzr, -git etc. If the package tracks a moving development trunk it should be given a suffix. If the package fetches a release from a VCS tag then it should not be given a suffix. Use this rule of thumb: if the output of the package depends on the time at which it was compiled, append a suffix; otherwise do not.
  • A VCS package may be updated as and when needed to adopt changes to the build system, including ammendments to dependencies, URL, sources, etc. If the revision number remains the same after such an update, but produces a resulting binary which is different, increasing the pkgrel is mandatory. If both the revision number and the resulting binary remain the same, pkgrel should be kept intact. There is no need to update the VCS package just to accommodate a revision bump, but one may choose to do so.
  • When makepkg is run, by default it will check for newer revisions and then update the pkgver in the PKGBUILD. Look at --holdver in man makepkg if you want otherwise. --holdver only works for cvs and svn, which allow checkout of older revisions.
  • Check for package conflicts. For example fluxbox-svn will conflict with fluxbox. In this case, you need to use conflicts=('fluxbox').
  • Use the provides field so that packages that require the non-VCS package can be installed (provides=('fluxbox')).
  • You should AVOID using replaces=... as it generally causes unnecessary problems.
  • When using/defining the cvsroot, use anonymous:@ rather than anonymous@ to avoid a password prompt and having to enter a blank password OR use anonymous:password@ if a password is required.
  • Don't forget to include the appropriate VCS tool (cvs, subversion, git, ...) in makedepends=....
  • To preserve the integrity of the checked-out code consider copying the original build directory if you have to make edits. For example, having checked out source code to src/$_cvsmod from $startdir you can use:
mkdir src/$_cvsmod-build

cd src/$_cvsmod-build
../$_cvsmod/configure

or:

cp -r src/$_cvsmod src/$_cvsmod-build
cd src/$_cvsmod-build
  • With the introduction of the AUR, it is most important to avoid using backtick execution to create package variables. makepkg will automatically bump the pkgver anyway when building the package (unless --holdver is used).

Tips

  • You should make sure that there are no VCS directories and files left over in your package. If there are, you may want to remove them, by adding a command similar to this one at the end of the the package() script:
rm -rf $(find "$pkgdir" -type d -name ".svn")
  • When using Git, one can speed up the cloning operation using the --depth=1 parameter. This creates a shallow clone, and has only the last change history - since histories are unimportant for builds most of the time.
git clone git://hostname.dom/project.git --depth=1
  • It's possible to create the package also from a branch other than the master. To do so add --branch branch_name after the first git clone, in this way:
git clone "$_gitroot" "$_gitname" --branch branch_name

Remember to save package with a different name, for example pkgname-branchname-git, in order to avoid confusion with the package from the branch master.

  • Copy paste script when building from repo

If you are lazy here is a sample script when making git-based PKGBUILDs.

 cd "$srcdir"
 msg "Connecting to GIT server..."
 if [ -d $_gitname ] ; then
   cd $_gitname && git pull origin
   msg "The local files are updated."
 else
   git clone --depth=1 $_gitroot $_gitname
 fi
 msg "GIT checkout done or server timeout"
  • Temporary build directories: When using Git, and where you need to create a separate build directory (e.g., for building/compiling), you should avoid copying over the .git directory located in the parent folder because it contains history information that Git uses internally. With repos with thousands of commits, this .git directory will contain upwards of hundreds of MiB of useless commit history that has *nothing* to do with the current working tree. The only time you'd need to copy over the .git directory itself is when you need to build from a specific, older commit (which is generally never the case as the point of a VCS PKGBUILD is to pull from the latest bleeding edge commit). Thus, instead of
rm -rf "$srcdir/$_gitname-build"
cp -R "$srcdir/$_gitname" "$srcdir/$_gitname-build" # copy everything, including the useless .git folder
cd "$srcdir/$_gitname-build"
make # build/compile from source

you should do

rm -rf "$srcdir/$_gitname-build"
cd "$srcdir/$_gitname" && ls -A | grep -v .git | xargs -d '\n' cp -r -t ../$_gitname-build # do not copy over the .git folder
cd "$srcdir/$_gitname-build"
make # build/compile from source

to cut down on build time and disk usage.