Difference between revisions of "VCS package guidelines (简体中文)"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Sync with English version.)
m (Sync to latest English version.)
Line 7: Line 7:
  
 
== Prototypes ==
 
== Prototypes ==
 +
 
The [[ABS]] package provides prototypes for [[cvs]], [[svn]], [[git]], [[mercurial]], and [[Wikipedia:darcs|darcs]] [[PKGBUILD]]s. When {{Pkg|abs}} is installed, you can find them in {{ic|/usr/share/pacman}}. Latest versions can be found in the [https://projects.archlinux.org/abs.git/tree/prototypes prototypes directory in the ABS Git repository].
 
The [[ABS]] package provides prototypes for [[cvs]], [[svn]], [[git]], [[mercurial]], and [[Wikipedia:darcs|darcs]] [[PKGBUILD]]s. When {{Pkg|abs}} is installed, you can find them in {{ic|/usr/share/pacman}}. Latest versions can be found in the [https://projects.archlinux.org/abs.git/tree/prototypes prototypes directory in the ABS Git repository].
  
 
== Guidelines ==
 
== Guidelines ==
* Properly suffix {{Ic|pkgname}} with {{Ic|-cvs}}, {{Ic|-svn}}, {{Ic|-hg}}, {{Ic|-darcs}}, {{Ic|-bzr}}, {{Ic|-git}} etc. If the package tracks a moving development trunk it should be given a suffix. If the package fetches a release from a VCS tag then it should not be given a suffix. Use this rule of thumb: if the output of the package depends on the time at which it was compiled, append a suffix; otherwise do not.
 
  
* A VCS package may be updated as and when needed to adopt changes to the build system, including ammendments to dependencies, URL, sources, etc. If the revision number remains the same after such an update, but produces a resulting binary which is different, increasing the {{Ic|pkgrel}} is mandatory. If both the revision number and the resulting binary remain the same, {{Ic|pkgrel}} should be kept intact. There is no need to update the VCS package just to accommodate a revision bump, but one may choose to do so.
+
* Suffix {{Ic|pkgname}} with {{Ic|-cvs}}, {{Ic|-svn}}, {{Ic|-hg}}, {{Ic|-darcs}}, {{Ic|-bzr}}, {{Ic|-git}} etc. unless the package fetches a specific release.
  
* When [[makepkg]] is run, by default it will check for newer revisions and then update the {{Ic|pkgver}} in the PKGBUILD. Look at {{Ic|--holdver}} in [https://www.archlinux.org/pacman/makepkg.8.html man makepkg] if you want otherwise.  {{Ic|--holdver}} only works for cvs and svn, which allow checkout of older revisions.
+
* If the resulting package is different after changing the dependencies, URL, sources, etc. increasing the {{Ic|pkgrel}} is mandatory. Touching the {{ic|pkgver}} isn't.
  
* Check for package conflicts.  For example ''fluxbox-svn'' will conflict with ''fluxbox''.  In this case, you need to use {{Ic|1=conflicts=('fluxbox')}}.
+
* {{Ic|--holdver}} can be used to prevent [[makepkg]] from updating the {{ic|pkgver}} (see: [https://www.archlinux.org/pacman/makepkg.8.html makepkg(8)])
 
+
* Use the {{Ic|provides}} field so that packages that require the non-VCS package can be installed ({{Ic|1=provides=('fluxbox')}}).
+
 
+
* You should AVOID using {{Ic|1=replaces}} as it generally causes unnecessary problems.
+
 
+
* When using/defining the cvsroot, use {{Ic|anonymous:@}} rather than {{Ic|anonymous@}} to avoid a password prompt and having to enter a blank password ''OR'' use {{Ic|anonymous:password@}} if a password is required.
+
 
+
* Don't forget to include the appropriate VCS tool (cvs, subversion, git, ...) in {{Ic|1=makedepends}}.
+
 
+
* To preserve the integrity of the checked-out code consider copying the original build directory if you have to make edits.  For example, having checked out source code to {{ic|$srcdir/$_vcsname}} from a host you can use:
+
 
+
mkdir "$srcdir/$_vcsname-build"
+
+
cd "$srcdir/$_vcsname-build"
+
../"$_vcsname"/configure
+
  
or:
+
* Include what the package conflicts with and provides (e.g. for {{AUR|fluxbox-git}}: {{Ic|1=conflicts=('fluxbox')}} and {{Ic|1=provides=('fluxbox')}}).
  
cp -r "$srcdir/$_vcsname" "$srcdir/$_vcsname-build"
+
* {{Ic|1=replaces=()}} generally causes unnecessary problems and should be avoided.
cd "$srcdir/$_vcsname-build"
+
  
* With the introduction of the [[AUR]], it is most important to avoid using backtick execution to create package variables. makepkg will automatically bump the {{Ic|pkgver}} anyway when building the package (unless {{Ic|--holdver}} is used).
+
* When using the cvsroot, use {{Ic|anonymous:@}} rather than {{Ic|anonymous@}} to avoid having to enter a blank password or {{Ic|anonymous:password@}}, if one is required.
  
== Pacman 4.1 ==
+
* Include the appropriate VCS tool in {{Ic|1=makedepends}} ({{pkg|cvs}}, {{pkg|subversion}}, {{pkg|git}}, ...).
  
 
=== VCS sources ===
 
=== VCS sources ===
 +
{{Note|Pacman 4.1 supports the following VCS sources: {{ic|bzr}}, {{ic|git}}, {{ic|hg}} and {{ic|svn}}. See the {{ic|fragment}} section of {{ic|man PKGBUILD}} or [https://www.archlinux.org/pacman/PKGBUILD.5.html PKGBUILD(5)] for a list of supported VCS.}}
  
Starting with {{Pkg|pacman}} 4.1, the VCS sources are handled differently. They can be specified in the {{ic|source}} array and will be treated like any other source: {{ic|makepkg}} will clone/checkout/branch the distant repo in a subdirectory inside the {{ic|$SRCDEST}} directory defined in {{Ic|/etc/makepkg.conf}}. The directory is then copied (in a way that is specific to each VCS) in {{ic|$srcdir}}, as a result the local repo is left untouched and there is no need for a {{ic|-build}} directory anymore. Any subsequent attempt at building a package will only do incremental updates to the local repo, provided it was not erased.
+
Starting with {{Pkg|pacman}} 4.1, the VCS sources should be specified in the {{ic|1=source=()}} array and will be treated like any other source. {{ic|makepkg}} will clone/checkout/branch the repo into {{ic|$SRCDEST}} (same as {{ic|$startdir}} if not set in [https://www.archlinux.org/pacman/makepkg.conf.5.html makepkg.conf(5)]) and copy it to {{ic|$srcdir}} (in a specific way to each VCS). The local repo is left untouched, thus invalidating the need for a {{ic|-build}} directory.
  
The general format of a VCS source array is as follows:
+
The general format of a VCS {{ic|1=source=()}} array is:
 +
source=('[folder::][vcs+]url[#fragment]')
  
source=('[dir::][vcs+]url[#fragment]')
+
* {{ic|folder}} (optional) is used to change the default repo name to something more relevant (e.g. than {{ic|trunk}}) or to preserve the previous sources
 
+
* {{ic|vcs+}} is needed for URLs that do not reflect the VCS type, e.g. {{ic|git+http://some_repo}}.
* {{ic|url}} is pretty self-explanatory, this is the URL to the distant repo
+
* {{ic|url}} is the URL to the distant or local repo
 
+
* {{ic|#fragment}} (optional) is needed to pull a specific branch or commit
{{Note|The URL can also point to a local repo instead of a distant one if so desired.}}
+
 
+
* {{ic|vcs+}} is needed for URLs that do not reflect the VCS type, like {{ic|http://some_distant_repo}}
+
* {{ic|#fragment}} is an optional parameter which can be used to pull a specific branch or commit. The list of recognized fragments is documented in the PKGBUILD manpage
+
* finally {{ic|dir}} is used to change the default name of the local repo into something more relevant than {{ic|trunk}} for example
+
 
+
{{Note|This is useful in case you want to keep several local repos lying around.}}
+
 
+
Here is an example of what a git source array could look like:
+
  
 +
An example Git source array:
 
  source=('project_name::git+http://project_url#branch=project_branch')
 
  source=('project_name::git+http://project_url#branch=project_branch')
  
=== pkgver autobump ===
+
=== The pkgver() function ===
 
+
The {{ic|pkgver}} autobump is now achieved via a dedicated {{ic|pkgver()}} function. This allows for better control over the {{ic|pkgver}}, and maintainers should favor a {{ic|pkgver}} that makes sense. Following are some examples for several VCS.  
The {{ic|pkgver}} autobump is now achieved via a dedicated {{ic|pkgver()}} function. This allows for better control over the {{ic|pkgver}}, following are examples for several VCS.
+
  
 
==== Git ====
 
==== Git ====
 
 
With tags:
 
With tags:
  
  pkgver () {
+
  pkgver() {
 
   cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
 
   cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
 
   git describe --always | sed 's|-|.|g'
 
   git describe --always | sed 's|-|.|g'
Line 79: Line 55:
 
Without tags:
 
Without tags:
  
  pkgver () {
+
  pkgver() {
 
   cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
 
   cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
 
   echo "0.$(git rev-list --count HEAD).$(git describe --always)"
 
   echo "0.$(git rev-list --count HEAD).$(git describe --always)"
 
  }
 
  }
  
==== Subversion ====
+
Using the last commit date:
  
 +
pkgver() {
 +
  cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
 +
  git log -1 --format="%cd" --date=short | sed 's|-||g'
 +
}
 +
 +
==== Subversion ====
 
  pkgver() {
 
  pkgver() {
 
   cd "$SRCDEST"/local_repo
 
   cd "$SRCDEST"/local_repo
   svnversion
+
   svnversion |tr -d [A-z]
 
  }
 
  }
  
{{Note|The copy inside {{ic|$srcdir}} is made using {{ic|svn export}} which does not create working copies, any {{ic|svn}} related command has to be used in the local repo, hence {{ic|$SRCDEST}}.}}
+
{{Note|The copy inside {{ic|$srcdir}} is made using {{ic|svn export}} which does not create working copies. Any {{ic|svn}} related command has to be used in the local repo, hence {{ic|$SRCDEST}}.}}
  
 
==== Mercurial ====
 
==== Mercurial ====
 
 
  pkgver() {
 
  pkgver() {
 
   cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
 
   cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
Line 101: Line 82:
  
 
==== Bazaar ====
 
==== Bazaar ====
 
 
  pkgver() {
 
  pkgver() {
 
   cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
 
   cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
Line 108: Line 88:
  
 
==== Fallback ====
 
==== Fallback ====
 +
The following can be used in case no satisfactory {{ic|pkgver}} can be extracted from the repo:
  
The following can be used in case no satisfactory {{ic|pkgver}} can be extracted from the repo.
+
  pkgver() {
 
+
  pkgver () {
+
 
   date +"%Y%m%d"
 
   date +"%Y%m%d"
 
  }
 
  }
  
 
== Tips ==
 
== Tips ==
* You should make sure that there are no VCS directories and files left over in your package. If there are, you may want to remove them, by adding a command similar to this one at the end of the the {{ic|package()}} script:
 
 
find "$pkgdir" -type d -name ".svn" -exec rm -rf '{}' +;
 
 
* When using Git, one can speed up the cloning operation using the {{Ic|1=--depth 1}} parameter. This creates a shallow clone, and has only the last change history - since histories are unimportant for builds most of the time.
 
 
git clone --depth 1 git://hostname.dom/project.git
 
 
* It's possible to create the package also from a branch other than the master. To do so add {{Ic|1=--branch branch_name}} after the first {{Ic|1=git clone}}, in this way:
 
 
git clone "$_gitroot" "$_gitname" --branch branch_name
 
Remember to save package with a different name, for example {{Ic|1= pkgname-branchname-git}}, in order to avoid confusion with the package from the branch master.
 
 
* Copy paste script when building from repo
 
If you are lazy here is a sample script when making git-based PKGBUILDs. This is not needed if you are using pacman 4.1 or later.
 
 
  cd "$srcdir"
 
  msg "Connecting to GIT server..."
 
  if <nowiki>[[</nowiki> -d "$_gitname" <nowiki>]]</nowiki> ; then
 
    cd "$_gitname" && git pull origin
 
    msg "The local files are updated."
 
  else
 
    git clone --depth 1 "$_gitroot" "$_gitname"
 
  fi
 
  msg "GIT checkout done or server timeout"
 
 
  # change dir and prepare to call configure, make etc
 
  cd "$srcdir/$_gitname"
 
 
* Here is an example of a Git PKGBUILD in pacman 4.1:
 
  
  # Contributor: Dave Reisner <d@falconindy.com>  
+
=== A sample Git PKGBUILD for pacman 4.1 ===
  # Edited for pacman 4.1 by William Giokas (KaiSforza) <1007380@gmail.com>
+
  # Maintainer: Dave Reisner <d@falconindy.com>  
 +
  # Contributor: William Giokas (KaiSforza) <1007380@gmail.com>
 
   
 
   
 
  pkgname=expac-git
 
  pkgname=expac-git
Line 154: Line 104:
 
  pkgver=0.0.0
 
  pkgver=0.0.0
 
  pkgrel=1
 
  pkgrel=1
  pkgdesc="pacman database extraction utility"
+
  pkgdesc="Pacman database extraction utility"
 
  arch=('i686' 'x86_64')
 
  arch=('i686' 'x86_64')
  url="http://github.com/falconindy/expac"
+
  url="https://github.com/falconindy/expac"
 
  license=('MIT')
 
  license=('MIT')
 
  depends=('pacman')
 
  depends=('pacman')
Line 162: Line 112:
 
  conflicts=('expac')
 
  conflicts=('expac')
 
  provides=('expac')
 
  provides=('expac')
+
  # Here is the fun bit. Makepkg knows it's a git repo because the URL starts with 'git'
  # here is the fun bit. makepkg knows it's a git repo because the url starts with 'git'
+
  # it then knows to checkout the branch 'pacman41' upon cloning, expediating versioning:
  # it then knows to checkout the branch 'pacman41' upon cloning, expediating versioning.
+
  #source=('git+https://github.com/falconindy/expac.git'
  branch="pacman41"
+
  source=('git://github.com/falconindy/expac.git'
  source=("git://github.com/falconindy/expac.git#branch=$branch")
+
        'expac_icon.png')
  # because the sources are not static, skip checksums
+
  # Because the sources are not static, skip Git checksum:
  md5sums=('SKIP')
+
  md5sums=('SKIP'
 +
          '020c36e38466b68cbc7b3f93e2044b49')
 
   
 
   
 
  pkgver() {
 
  pkgver() {
 
   cd "$srcdir/$_gitname"
 
   cd "$srcdir/$_gitname"
   echo $(git describe --always | sed 's/-/./g')
+
   git describe --always | sed 's|-|.|g'
   # for git, if the repo has no tags, comment out the above and uncomment the next line:
+
   # To give the total count of commits and the hash of the last one
 +
  # (useful if you're making a repository with git packages so that they can have
 +
  # sequential version numbers, else a "pacman -Syu" may not update the package):
 
   #echo "0.$(git rev-list --count $branch).$(git describe --always)"
 
   #echo "0.$(git rev-list --count $branch).$(git describe --always)"
   # This will give you a count of the total commits and the hash of the commit you are on.
+
   # Using the last commit date:
   # Useful if you're making a repository with git packages so that they can have sequential
+
   #git log -1 --format="%cd" --date=short | sed 's|-||g'
  # version numbers. (Else a pacman -Syu may not update the package)
+
 
  }
 
  }
 
   
 
   
Line 188: Line 140:
 
   cd "$srcdir/$_gitname"
 
   cd "$srcdir/$_gitname"
 
   make PREFIX=/usr DESTDIR="$pkgdir" install
 
   make PREFIX=/usr DESTDIR="$pkgdir" install
 +
  install -Dm644 "$srcdir/expac_icon.png" "$pkgdir/usr/share/pixmaps/expac.png"
 
  }
 
  }
  
* Temporary build directories: When using Git, and where you need to create a separate build directory (e.g., for building/compiling), you should avoid copying over the {{Ic|1=.git}} directory located in the parent folder because it contains history information that Git uses internally. With repos with thousands of commits, this .git directory will contain upwards of hundreds of MiB of useless commit history that has *nothing* to do with the current working tree. The only time you'd need to copy over the .git directory itself is when you need to build from a specific, older commit (which is generally never the case as the point of a VCS PKGBUILD is to pull from the latest bleeding edge commit). Thus, instead of
+
=== Removing VCS leftovers ===
 +
To make sure that there are no VCS leftovers use the following at the end of the {{ic|package()}} function (replacing {{ic|'''.git'''}} with {{ic|.svn}}, {{ic|.hg}}, etc.):
 +
find "$pkgdir" -type d -name "'''.git'''" -exec rm -r '{}' +
 +
 
 +
=== SVN packages that try to get their revision number ===
 +
If the build system for the program you are packaging calls {{ic|svnversion}} or {{ic|svn info}} to determine its revision number, you can add a {{ic|prepare()}} function similar to this one to make it work:
 +
 
 +
prepare() {
 +
  cp -a "$SRCDEST/$_svnmod/.svn" "$srcdir/$_svnmod/"
 +
}
  
rm -rf "$srcdir/$_gitname-build"
+
== Troubleshooting ==
cp -R "$srcdir/$_gitname" "$srcdir/${_gitname}-build" # copy everything, including the useless .git directory
+
cd "$srcdir/${_gitname}-build"
+
make # build/compile from source
+
  
you should do
+
=== Bazaar limitation ===
 +
Currently, bazaar URLs only work in the form of {{ic|http://bazaar.launchpad.net/}}, e.g.:
 +
source=('project_name::bzr+http://bazaar.launchpad.net/~project_team/project_path')
  
rm -rf "$srcdir/$_gitname-build"
+
Using any other {{ic|http://}}, {{ic|https://}} or {{ic|ssh://}} URL (including {{ic|lp:project_name}}) will prevent makepkg from updating the local repo.
git clone "$srcdir/$_gitname" "$srcdir/${_gitname}-build" # if on same partition, will just hard link all of the .git directory
+
cd "$srcdir/$_gitname-build"
+
make # build/compile from source
+
  
to cut down on build time and disk usage.
+
The correct URL can be obtained with:
As of pacman 4.1, this is obsolete.
+
$ bzr config parent_location

Revision as of 05:18, 8 April 2013

Template:Package Guidelines

Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png本页面需要更新翻译,内容可能已经与英文脱节。要贡献翻译,请访问简体中文翻译组Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png

附注: please use the first argument of the template to provide more detailed indications.

Version control systems can be used for retrieval of source code for both usual statically versioned packages and latest (trunk) version of packages. This article covers both cases.

Prototypes

The ABS package provides prototypes for cvs, svn, git, mercurial, and darcs PKGBUILDs. When abs is installed, you can find them in /usr/share/pacman. Latest versions can be found in the prototypes directory in the ABS Git repository.

Guidelines

  • Suffix pkgname with -cvs, -svn, -hg, -darcs, -bzr, -git etc. unless the package fetches a specific release.
  • If the resulting package is different after changing the dependencies, URL, sources, etc. increasing the pkgrel is mandatory. Touching the pkgver isn't.
  • Include what the package conflicts with and provides (e.g. for fluxbox-gitAUR: conflicts=('fluxbox') and provides=('fluxbox')).
  • replaces=() generally causes unnecessary problems and should be avoided.
  • When using the cvsroot, use anonymous:@ rather than anonymous@ to avoid having to enter a blank password or anonymous:password@, if one is required.

VCS sources

Note: Pacman 4.1 supports the following VCS sources: bzr, git, hg and svn. See the fragment section of man PKGBUILD or PKGBUILD(5) for a list of supported VCS.

Starting with pacman 4.1, the VCS sources should be specified in the source=() array and will be treated like any other source. makepkg will clone/checkout/branch the repo into $SRCDEST (same as $startdir if not set in makepkg.conf(5)) and copy it to $srcdir (in a specific way to each VCS). The local repo is left untouched, thus invalidating the need for a -build directory.

The general format of a VCS source=() array is:

source=('[folder::][vcs+]url[#fragment]')
  • folder (optional) is used to change the default repo name to something more relevant (e.g. than trunk) or to preserve the previous sources
  • vcs+ is needed for URLs that do not reflect the VCS type, e.g. git+http://some_repo.
  • url is the URL to the distant or local repo
  • #fragment (optional) is needed to pull a specific branch or commit

An example Git source array:

source=('project_name::git+http://project_url#branch=project_branch')

The pkgver() function

The pkgver autobump is now achieved via a dedicated pkgver() function. This allows for better control over the pkgver, and maintainers should favor a pkgver that makes sense. Following are some examples for several VCS.

Git

With tags:

pkgver() {
  cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
  git describe --always | sed 's|-|.|g'
}

Without tags:

pkgver() {
  cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
  echo "0.$(git rev-list --count HEAD).$(git describe --always)"
}

Using the last commit date:

pkgver() {
  cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
  git log -1 --format="%cd" --date=short | sed 's|-||g'
}

Subversion

pkgver() {
  cd "$SRCDEST"/local_repo
  svnversion |tr -d [A-z]
}
Note: The copy inside $srcdir is made using svn export which does not create working copies. Any svn related command has to be used in the local repo, hence $SRCDEST.

Mercurial

pkgver() {
  cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
  hg identify -ni | awk 'BEGIN{OFS=".";} {print $2,$1}'
}

Bazaar

pkgver() {
  cd "$srcdir"/local_repo
  bzr revno
}

Fallback

The following can be used in case no satisfactory pkgver can be extracted from the repo:

pkgver() {
  date +"%Y%m%d"
}

Tips

A sample Git PKGBUILD for pacman 4.1

# Maintainer: Dave Reisner <d@falconindy.com> 
# Contributor: William Giokas (KaiSforza) <1007380@gmail.com>

pkgname=expac-git
_gitname=expac
pkgver=0.0.0
pkgrel=1
pkgdesc="Pacman database extraction utility"
arch=('i686' 'x86_64')
url="https://github.com/falconindy/expac"
license=('MIT')
depends=('pacman')
makedepends=('git' 'perl')
conflicts=('expac')
provides=('expac')
# Here is the fun bit. Makepkg knows it's a git repo because the URL starts with 'git'
# it then knows to checkout the branch 'pacman41' upon cloning, expediating versioning:
#source=('git+https://github.com/falconindy/expac.git'
source=('git://github.com/falconindy/expac.git'
        'expac_icon.png')
# Because the sources are not static, skip Git checksum:
md5sums=('SKIP'
         '020c36e38466b68cbc7b3f93e2044b49')

pkgver() {
  cd "$srcdir/$_gitname"
  git describe --always | sed 's|-|.|g'
  # To give the total count of commits and the hash of the last one
  # (useful if you're making a repository with git packages so that they can have
  # sequential version numbers, else a "pacman -Syu" may not update the package):
  #echo "0.$(git rev-list --count $branch).$(git describe --always)"
  # Using the last commit date:
  #git log -1 --format="%cd" --date=short | sed 's|-||g'
}

build() {
  cd "$srcdir/$_gitname"
  make
}

package() {
  cd "$srcdir/$_gitname"
  make PREFIX=/usr DESTDIR="$pkgdir" install
  install -Dm644 "$srcdir/expac_icon.png" "$pkgdir/usr/share/pixmaps/expac.png"
}

Removing VCS leftovers

To make sure that there are no VCS leftovers use the following at the end of the package() function (replacing .git with .svn, .hg, etc.):

find "$pkgdir" -type d -name ".git" -exec rm -r '{}' +

SVN packages that try to get their revision number

If the build system for the program you are packaging calls svnversion or svn info to determine its revision number, you can add a prepare() function similar to this one to make it work:

prepare() {
  cp -a "$SRCDEST/$_svnmod/.svn" "$srcdir/$_svnmod/"
}

Troubleshooting

Bazaar limitation

Currently, bazaar URLs only work in the form of http://bazaar.launchpad.net/, e.g.:

source=('project_name::bzr+http://bazaar.launchpad.net/~project_team/project_path')

Using any other http://, https:// or ssh:// URL (including lp:project_name) will prevent makepkg from updating the local repo.

The correct URL can be obtained with:

$ bzr config parent_location