VCS package guidelines (简体中文)

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用 makepkg 打包 CVS, SVN & GIT 文件

事实上,这个工作非常简单,您不需要什么特殊的知识。不管怎么样,您对CVS和SVN的知识懂得越多越好。很多人在 PKGBUILD 文件里面引入了不必要(译注:这个词是译者加的,在尽量不影响理解的前提下,译者可能会不自觉的使用自己的语言,后面不再声明)的自定义变量,这样会使工作变得复杂。这些看起来很复杂的语句并不是必须的,但是对于使语法结构清洗,是很有帮助的。

一些小提示

  • pkgname 加上 -cvs 或者 -svn 或者 -git 这样的后缀 (where applicable, 这个不知道怎么翻译) - 这样可以防止和非devel版本的包名混淆,比如 fluxbox-svn , fvwm-cvs 对 fluxbox , fvwm.
  • 您还必须小心处理 pacman 的冲突(依赖关系冲突)。比如 fluxbox-svn will 与 fluxbox 冲突。这样您就需要使用 conflicts= 字段(field)
conflicts=('fluxbox')
您还应该使用 provides= 字段,以便让需要 fluxbox (作者这里用fluxbox来举例)的包知道 fluxbox-svn 就是 fluxbox
provides=('fluxbox')
您最好不要使用(your should avoid using) replaces= ,它可能会产生不必要的麻烦
  • When using/defining the cvsroot use anonymous:@ rather than anonymous@ to avoid having to press enter to give blank password OR anonymous:password@ - if a password is required.
  • cvs and svn PKGBUILDs may not require a source or md5sum array but these fields must be included in the PKGBUILD if you wish to submit it to the AUR, otherwise the pkg will be rejected. They may be left blank though.
source=()
md5sums=()
  • 使用 CVS/SVN/GIT 的时候,我们极少用到 pkgrel 字段,因为源文件时有改动,所以我们通常用 pkgver 来标记改动(假定我们用 pkgver 来保存日期)(英文原文:It is rarely necessary to use the pkgrel field when building CVS/SVN/GIT pkgs - any changes to the pkg will often be on another day and so are usually accounted for by a change in pkgver (assuming pkgver is used to hold a date format),英语不到家,有人会翻译的mail:fluke at sfcube.net)
  • 不要忘记把 svn 或者 cvs 包含在 makedepends= 里面,如果必须的话(译注:如果你要从 svn 来 checkout 源码包,自然要要保证你有 svn 客户端)
  • 为了保证 check out(译注:cvs和svn的术语,就不翻译了) 下来的 code 的完整性,我们建立一个独立的 build 目录,比如你已经在 $startdir 把代码 ckeck out 到了 src/$_cvsmod 目录你可以:
  mkdir src/$_cvsmod-build

  cd src/$_cvsmod-build
  ../$_cvsmod/configure

万一 这种方法失败了,你可以尝试:

  cp -r src/$_cvsmod src/$_cvsmod-build
  cd src/$_cvsmod-build
  • AUR的介绍中说最重要的是不要使用 backtick 扩展去创建 pkg 变量(With the introduction of the AUR it is most important to avoid using backtick execution to create pkg variables)
    • 对于 cvs 包 您应该避免 pkgver=`date +%y%m%d` - (译注:this also inteferes with the functionality of the AUR.,这句话不好翻译,我不知道inteferes什么意思) 作为替代的方案,还可以用日期格式的 $pkgver 变量,并且使用 cvs -D 去获取从那个日期起的代码 (看下面)
    • 对于 svn 您可以使用修正号(revision number)。下面是一种简易的获取修正号的方法:
svn log $_svntrunk --limit 1 | grep -m 1 -o "r.*" | cut -d \| -f 1 | sed s@r@@g

这条命令从 svn repo (译注:就是 svn 的源)最近额记录里面取得修正号--修正号的前面带有r字母。下面的来自于 fluxbox 的 svn 记录,修正号就在左上角,r4084。

------------------------------------------------------------------------
r4084 | mathias | 2005-07-20 19:29:01 +0100 (Wed, 20 Jul 2005) | 16 lines

Changed some *Focus options, just to make some things a bit more clear.
the "Sloppy" was always a bit .. unprecise.

CVS PKGBUILD 样例

这里用一个 bmp-cvs 的 PKGBUILD 来说明上面的一些技巧(一些小提示)

# Contributor:  Lukas Sabota <punkrockguy318@comcast.net>
# Contributor: dibblethewrecker dibblethewrecker.at.jiwe.dot.org
pkgname=bmp-cvs
pkgver=20050728
pkgrel=1
pkgdesc="BeepMP is a multimedia player that uses the WinAmp 2.x UI, GTK2, and is based on XMMS. This will checkout and package the latest CVS version."
url="http://beepmp.sourceforge.net/"
license=
depends=('gtk2' 'libvorbis' 'alsa-lib' 'audiofile' 'libglade' 'id3lib' 'x-server')
provides=('bmp')
conflicts=('bmp')
makedepends=('cvs')
install=$pkgname.install

_cvsroot=":pserver:anonymous:@cvs.sourceforge.net:/cvsroot/beepmp"
_cvsmod="bmp"

build() {
  cd $startdir/src
  msg "Connecting to $_cvsmod.sourceforge.net CVS server...."
  cvs -z3 -d $_cvsroot co -D $pkgver -f $_cvsmod
  cd $_cvsmod
  ./autogen.sh

  msg "CVS checkout done or server timeout"
  msg "Starting make..."

  cp -r ../$_cvsmod ../$_cvsmod-build
  cd ../$_cvsmod-build

  ./configure --prefix=/usr
  make || return 1
  make DESTDIR=$startdir/pkg install || return 1

  mkdir -p $startdir/pkg/usr/share/xmms/Skins
  mv $startdir/pkg/usr/share/bmp/Skins/* $startdir/pkg/usr/share/xmms/Skins
  rmdir $startdir/pkg/usr/share/bmp/Skins

  rm -r $startdir/src/$_cvsmod-build
}
# vim:syntax=sh

SVN PKGBUILD 样例

假如您第一次对 PKGBUILD 使用 source 命令,它会填充(store) _svntrunk 和 _svnmod 变量。所以如果您运行:

source PKGBUILD
svn log $_svntrunk --limit 1 | grep -m 1 -o "r.*" | cut -d \| -f 1 | sed s@r@@g

你可以得到用于 pkgver 的修正号

# Contributor:  Lukas Sabota <punkrockguy318@comcast.net>
# Contributor: dibblethewrecker dibblethewrecker.at.jiwe.dot.org
pkgname=fluxbox-svn
pkgver=4084
pkgrel=1
pkgdesc="Fluxbox-svn is the bleeding edge version of a lightweight yet \
customizable windowmanager for X. This will checkout and package the latest SVN version."
url="http://www.fluxbox.org"
depends=('bash' 'x-server')
makedepends=('subversion')
conflicts=('blackbox' 'fluxbox' 'fluxbox-devel' 'fluxbox-cvs')
replaces=('fluxbox-cvs')
provides=('fluxbox')

_svntrunk=svn://svn.berlios.de/fluxbox/trunk
_svnmod=fluxbox

build() {
  cd $startdir/src

  svn co $_svntrunk --config-dir ./ -r $pkgver $_svnmod
  cd $_svnmod
  ./autogen.sh

  msg "SVN checkout done or server timeout"
  msg "Starting make..."

  mkdir ../$_svnmod-build
  cd ../$_svnmod-build

  # fix for crap fb issue
  mkdir data
  cp ../$_svnmod/data/keys data/

  ../$_svnmod/configure --prefix=/usr --enable-xinerama --enable-imlib2 --enable-debug
  #./configure --prefix=/usr --enable-xinerama --enable-imlib2 --enable-debug
  make || return 1
  make DESTDIR=$startdir/pkg/ install

  rm -r $startdir/src/$_svnmod-build
}
# vim:syntax=sh

GIT PKGBUILD 样例

pkgname=compiz-git
pkgver=20060707
pkgrel=1
pkgdesc="Composite and window manager for Xgl"
url="http://en.opensuse.org/Compiz"
license=""
depends=('xgl-cvs' 'mesa-xgl-cvs' 'cairo-devel' 'libxevie' \
         'startup-notification' 'libpng'  'libxdamage' \
         'libxrandr' 'libwnck-compiz' 'gnome-desktop' 'control-center' \
         'libsvg-cairo' 'libxcomposite')
makedepends=('git')
conflicts=()
replaces=()
backup=()
install=compiz.install
source=(compiz-intel-copy-pixel-issue-workaround-1.diff)
md5sums=('10a157b86d528bca2be6731c5eaff7b3')

_gitroot="git://anongit.freedesktop.org/git/xorg/app/compiz"
_gitname="compiz"
build() {
export CFLAGS="$CFLAGS -I/opt/mesa-xgl-cvs/include"
  cd $startdir/src
  msg "Connecting to git.freedesktop.org GIT server...."

  if [ -d $startdir/src/$_gitname ] ; then
  cd $_gitname && git-pull origin
  msg "The local files are updated."
  else
  git clone $_gitroot
  fi

  msg "GIT checkout done or server timeout"
  msg "Starting make..."

  cp -r $startdir/src/$_gitname $startdir/src/$_gitname-build
  cd $startdir/src/$_gitname-build
  patch -Np0 -i ${startdir}/src/compiz-intel-copy-pixel-issue-workaround-1.diff

  ACLOCAL="aclocal -I /opt/gnome/share/aclocal" ./autogen.sh --host=${CHOST} \
    --prefix=/usr \
    --infodir=/usr/share/info \
    --mandir=/usr/man \
    --sysconfdir=/opt/gnome/etc \
    --enable-gnome \
    --enable-libsvg-cairo \
    --enable-gconf-dump \
    --disable-kde || return 1
  make || return 1
  make DESTDIR=$startdir/pkg install

  find $startdir/pkg -type f -name '*.la' -exec rm {} \;
} 

如您所见,我在 pkgname 后面使用 "-git" 后缀,另外两个变量 -- _gitroot 和 _gitname 用来表示包的“源”和包名字。 我需要解释一个 if 条件:

if [ -d $startdir/src/$_gitname ] ; then
cd $_gitname && git-pull origin
msg "The local files are updated."
else
git clone $_gitroot
fi

因为我们有两个命令,一个用来更新,一个迎来取得代码。我把源代码 copy 到一个 "-build" 目录(在 cvs 和 svn 版本的包里面,我们也这样做)。

versionpkg - a makepkg wrapper for CVS/SVN builds

This is a very simple script that allows you to easily update your CVS and SVN packages without having to edit the PKGBUILDs manually to enter the date or revision number.

Simply run this script rather than makepkg in the build dir. This script completely removes the need for backtick execution to set the date or tag version in PKGBUILDs.

To use the script;

  • Ensure that pkgver is declared within the first ten lines of the PKGBUILD or it won't work!
  • Ensure you have include the following custom variables and checkout command:
  • CVS
_cvsroot=
The root of the CVS server - remember to include a colon (:) after the username as outlined above
_cvsmod=
Simply the CVS module name you wish to check out e.g.
_cvsroot=":pserver:anonymous:@mplayerhq.hu:/cvsroot/ffmpeg"
_cvsmod="ffmpeg"
Here is the checkout command for CVS that uses the above variables. The -D option is essential for proper use of versionpkg and is best used in combination with the -f option. Use of -D without -f may result in errors
cvs -z9 -q -d $_cvsroot co -D $pkgver -f $_cvsmod
-z controls the level of compression (1 is low 9 is high)
-D specifies the date to check out, we use $pkgver as that is set to the current date by the script.
-q is a quiet switch
  • SVN
_svntrunk=
The address of the SVN trunk
_svnmod=
Again the module you wish to check out from trun e.g.
_svntrunk=svn://svn.berlios.de/fluxbox/trunk
_svnmod=fluxbox
Here is the checkout command for SVN that uses the above variables. The -r option is essential for proper use of versionpkg.
svn co $_svntrunk --config-dir ./ -r $pkgver $_svnmod
Here -r specifies the revision number, we use $pkgver as that is set to the latest revision number by the script.

The script!

To improve security versionpkg can now be installed directly from [community] pacman -S versionpkg. I strongly recommend that you use that. The script below is purely for illustrative purposes :)
Changelog:

  • check for both CVS/SVN vars
  • If build fails revert to previous pkgver to allow correct gensync operation
  • Added support for coloured messages
#!/bin/bash

# versionpkg - a makepkg wrapper for building CVS/SVN pkgs
# dibblethewrecker.at.jiwe.org

# makepkg configuration
[ -f /etc/makepkg.conf ] && source /etc/makepkg.conf

# SUBROUTINES
plain() {
	if [ "$USE_COLOR" = "Y" -o "$USE_COLOR" = "y" ]; then
		echo -e "    \033[1;1m$1\033[1;0m" >&2
	else
		echo "    $1" >&2
	fi
}
msg() {
	if [ "$USE_COLOR" = "Y" -o "$USE_COLOR" = "y" ]; then
		echo -e "\033[1;32m==>\033[1;0m \033[1;1m$1\033[1;0m" >&2
	else
		echo "==> $1" >&2
	fi
}
warning() {
	if [ "$USE_COLOR" = "Y" -o "$USE_COLOR" = "y" ]; then
		echo -e "\033[1;33m==> WARNING:\033[1;0m \033[1;1m$1\033[1;0m" >&2
	else
		echo "==> WARNING: $1" >&2
	fi
}
error() {
	if [ "$USE_COLOR" = "Y" -o "$USE_COLOR" = "y" ]; then
		echo -e "\033[1;31m==> ERROR:\033[1;0m \033[1;1m$1\033[1;0m" >&2
	else
		echo "==> ERROR: $1" >&2
	fi
	return 1
}

source ./PKGBUILD
oldpkgver=$pkgver

if [ ! -z ${_cvsroot} ] && [ ! -z ${_cvsmod} ] ; then
	cvsdate=`date +%Y%m%d`
	sed -i "1,11 s|pkgver=$oldpkgver|pkgver=$cvsdate|" ./PKGBUILD
	makepkg $@
	if [ $? -gt 0 ] ; then
		error "Reverting pkgver..."
		sed -i "1,11 s|pkgver=$cvsdate|pkgver=$oldpkgver|" ./PKGBUILD
	fi     	
elif [ ! -z ${_svntrunk} ] && [ ! -z ${_svnmod} ] ; then
	svnrevno=`svn log $_svntrunk --limit 1 | grep -m 1 -o "r.*" | cut -d \| -f 1 | sed s@r@@g`
	msg "Current revision number is $svnrevno"
	if [ "${1}" != "-f" ] && [ "${oldpkgver}" == "${svnrevno}" ] ; then
		error "No new revision available.  (use -f to overwrite)"
		exit
	fi
	sleep 3
	sed -i "1,11 s|pkgver=$oldpkgver|pkgver=$svnrevno|" ./PKGBUILD
	makepkg $@
	if [ $? -gt 0 ] ; then
		error "Reverting pkgver..."
		sed -i "1,11 s|pkgver=$svnrevno|pkgver=$oldpkgver|" ./PKGBUILD
	fi 
else
	error "No SVN or CVS variables found! Aborting..."
	exit
fi

译者声明

译者对本文的翻译全凭理解,部分内容可能没有经过实践,有错误的话,请直接编辑本文。