VMware/Installing Arch as a guest
zh-CN:Installing Arch Linux in VMware Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end
This article handles installing Archlinux in a VMware-based virtual environment such as VMware ESX, VMware Workstation/Fusion and VMware Player.
- 1 VMware Tools versus Open-VM-Tools
- 2 Open-VM-Tools modules
- 3 Open-VM-Tools utilities
- 4 Installing Open-VM-Tools
- 5 Installing the official VMware Tools
- 6 Time synchronization
- 7 Xorg configuration
- 8 Paravirtual SCSI-Adapter
- 9 VMCI
- 10 DRAG AND DROP
- 11 COPY AND PASTE
- 12 Shared Folders with the Host
VMware Tools versus Open-VM-Tools
VMware Tools for linux exists in 2 forms: the official VMware Tools and Open-VM-Tools. VMware Tools is based on a stable snapshot of Open-VM-Tools. Open-VM-Tools contains more experimental code and features. The official VMware Tools are not available for Archlinux.
Originally, VMware Tools provided the best drivers for network and storage, combined with the functionality for other features such as time synchronization. However, for quite a while now the drivers for the network adapter en scsi adapter are part of the linux kernel, and VMware Tools is only needed for extra features and support for the "old" vmxnet adapter.
The open-vm-tools-modules package contains the following modules:
- vmblock: kernel filesystem module, enables drag&drop functionality between the host system and the virtual machine in VMware Workstation/Fusion.
- vmhgfs: kernel filesystem module, enables file/directory sharing between the host system and the virtual machine in VMware Workstation/Fusion.
- vmsync: experimental filesystem sync driver, enables filesystem quiescing when creating backups and snapshots.
- vmci: virtual machine communication interface, high performance interface between virtual machines on the same host and between virtual machines and the host itself.
- vsocket: part of vmci.
- vmxnet: driver for the old vmxnet netwerk-adapter.
The open-vm-tools package comes with the following utilities:
- vmtoolsd: service responsible for the virtual machine status report.
- vmware-check-vm: tool to check whether a utility has been started on a physical or virtual machine.
- vmware-xferlogs: Dumps logging/debugging information to the virtual machine logfile.
- vmware-toolbox-cmd: tool to obtain virtual machine information of the host such as statistics,...
- vmware-user-suid-wrapper: tool to enable clipboard sharing (copy/paste) between host and virtual machine.
Install the community] repository.and the package in the [
# pacman -S open-vm-tools open-vm-tools-modules
Start the service and enable it at boot:
# systemctl start vmtoolsd # systemctl enable vmtoolsd
The open-vm-tools reads the file /etc/arch-release which is empty:
# cat /proc/version > /etc/arch-release
Installing the official VMware Tools
Install the ifconfig(1) program for the installer to work properly:
# pacman -S net-tools
Install Linux kernel headers for the installer to work properly:
# pacman -S linux-headers # cd /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/build/include/linux # ln -sv ../generated/uapi/linux/version.h
Create bogus init directories for the installer to work properly:
# for x in `seq 0 6`; do mkdir -pv /etc/init.d/rc$x.d; done
Mount the VMware Tools virtual CDROM when offered:
# mount /dev/cdrom /mnt
Extract the tarball:
# cd /root # tar zxf /mnt/VMwareTools*.tar.gz # cd vmware-tools-distrib
Run the installer and use the default answers for all questions:
You can safely ignore the following build failures:
- VMNEXT 3 virtual network card
- "Warning: This script could not find mkinitrd or updatte-initramfs and cannot remake the initrd file!"
Reboot your computer:
# systemctl reboot
Log in and start the VMware Tools:
# /etc/init.d/rc6.d/K99vmware-tools start
Configuring time synchronization in a virtual machine is important: fluctuations are bound to occur more easily in a virtual machine compared to a physical host. This is mostly due to the fact that the CPU is shared by more than one virtual machine.
There are 2 options to set up time synchronization: the host machine as source or an external server as source.
Host machine as time source
To use the host as a time source (for example in an ESX server), run the following command (one time is enough):
vmware-toolbox-cmd timesync enable
To synchronize your guest clock with the host after your host machine wakes up from sleeping (like a laptop computer):
sudo hwclock --hctosys --localtime
I run the above command every time I wake up my sleeping laptop and resume using Arch Linux inside the VMWare Player.
External server as time source
Install the following dependencies:
pacman -S xf86-input-vmmouse xf86-video-vmware svga-dri
vmwgfx module to load at boot.
Create the following file:
Section "Device" Identifier "Card0" Driver "vmware" EndSection
Afterwards, a reboot is required.
If you're booting into a graphical target you're almost done.
/etc/xdg/autostart/vmware-user.desktop will get started which will setup most of the things needed to work with the virtual machine.
If you're booting into multi-user.target then you need to enable the vmtoolsd.service:
# systemctl enable vmtoolsd.service
Due to less overhead the paravirtual scsi-adapter can give a substantial performance boost in ESX.
This can be used as follows: open the
/etc/mkinitcpio.conf file and add the following to the MODULES array:
Afterwards, run the command:
mkinitcpio -p linux
Shutdown the virtual machine and change the scsi-adapter type to:
VMware Paravirtual. It's safe to ignore the warning that'll pop up.
The VMCI interface is enabled by default in VMware Workstation and Fusion. In VMware ESX the interface is restricted, which means that communication is only possible between ESX and the virtual machine, not between virtual machines themselves. This can be changed in the Virtual Machine settings, traffic between ESX and the Virtual Machine can not be disabled.
DRAG AND DROP
Drag and Drop from files, from VMware Workstation/Fusion into the Virtual Machines, can be disabled by editing
COPY AND PASTE
Install the following package (it is required for copy/paste but not listed as a dependency as reported here)
pacman -S gtkmm
Run the following command after starting X (or add it to your
~/.xinitrc file) to automatically synchronize your X clipboard with the host's. This allows you to copy text from your virtual machine and paste it in the host, and vice versa.
If you get the following error (which, in rare cases, you might have to run `strace vmware-user-suid-wrapper` to see it!)
vmware-user: could not open /proc/fs/vmblock/dev
you need to first insert the vmblock module into your kernel.
sudo modprobe vmblock
To have the module loaded at boot, see Kernel Modules#Loading.
Rebuilding the vmblock module
If your kernel already has the vmblock module loaded,
lsmod | grep vmblock
and vmware-user-suid-wrapper still doesn't work, then you'll have to build the open-vm-tools-modules package yourself from the Arch Build System:
sudo abs community/open-vm-tools-modules cp -R /var/abs/community/open-vm-tools-modules/ . cd ./open-vm-tools-modules/ makepkg -s pacman -U open-vm-tools-modules-*.xz
Afterwards, restart your machine for the newly rebuilt & re-installed modules to take effect!
Create a new Shared Folder by selecting
Settings... in the VMware Workstation menu. Select the
Options tab and then
Shared Folder. Enable the
Always enabled option and create a new share. For Windows XP, you can create a share named
C with the Host Path
Add the following rule to
/etc/fstab (adjust the uid/gid where needed) for each shared folder:
.host:/shared_folder /mnt/shared vmhgfs defaults,user,ttl=5,uid=root,gid=root,fmask=0133,dmask=0022 0 0
Create the mount directories and Shared Folders:
mkdir /mnt/shared mount /mnt/shared
Temporary mounts are also possible:
mount -t -v -o rw .host:/shared_folder /mnt/shared
.host:/ /mnt/shared vmhgfs defaults 0 0 mount -t vmhgfs .host:/ /mnt/shared
For shared folders to be working you need to have loaded the vmhgfs driver. Simply create the following systemd files:
[Unit] Description=Load VMware shared folders ConditionPathExists=.host:/ [Mount] What=.host:/ Where=/mnt/hgfs Type=vmhgfs Options=defaults,noatime [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
[Unit] Description=Load VMware shared folders ConditionPathExists=.host:/ [Automount] Where=/mnt/hgfs [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
Make sure that the folder /mnt/hgfs exists:
# mkdir -p /mnt/hgfs
Enable the mount target with:
# systemctl enable mnt-hgfs.automount
Prune mlocate DB
When using mlocate, it's useless to index the shared directories in the
locate DB. Therefore, add the directories to