Difference between revisions of "Very Secure FTP Daemon"

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(PAM with virtual users (updated))
(PAM with virtual users (updated))
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  # openssl passwd -1
  # openssl passwd -1
Whatever solution the produced {{ic|/etc/vsftpd/.passwd}} will look like this:
Whatever solution the produced {{ic|/etc/vsftpd/.passwd}} should look like this:

Revision as of 14:24, 27 February 2014

zh-CN:Very Secure FTP Daemon vsftpd (Very Secure FTP Daemon) is a lightweight, stable and secure FTP server for UNIX-like systems.


Simply install vsftpd from the Official repositories.

To start the server:

# systemctl start vsftpd.service

If you want it to be started automatically at boot:

# systemctl enable vsftpd.service

See the xinetd section below for procedures to use vsftpd with xinetd.


Most of the settings in vsftpd are done by editing the file /etc/vsftpd.conf. The file itself is well-documented, so this section only highlights some important changes you may want to modify. For all available options and documentation, one can man vsftpd.conf (5) (or visit vsftpd.conf online manpage). Files are served by default from /srv/ftp.

Enabling uploading

The WRITE_ENABLE flag must be set to YES in /etc/vsftpd.conf in order to allow changes to the filesystem, such as uploading:


Local user login

One must set the line to /etc/vsftpd.conf to allow users in /etc/passwd to login:


Anonymous login

The line in /etc/vsftpd.conf controls whether anonymous users can login:

# Allow anonymous login
# No password is required for an anonymous login          
# Maximum transfer rate for an anonymous client in Bytes/second          
# Directory to be used for an anonymous login           

Chroot jail

One can set up a chroot environment which prevents the user from leaving its home directory. To enable this, add the following lines to /etc/vsftpd.conf:


The chroot_list_file variable specifies the file which contains users that are jailed.

For a more restricted environment, one can specify the line:


This will make local users jailed by default. In this case, the file specified by chroot_list_file lists users that are not in a chroot jail.

Limiting user login

It's possible to prevent users from logging into the FTP server by adding two lines to /etc/vsftpd.conf:


userlist_file now specifies the file which lists users that are not able to login.

If you only want to allow certain users to login, add the line:


The file specified by userlist_file will now contain users that are able to login.

Limiting connections

One can limit the data transfer rate, number of clients and connections per IP for local users by adding the information in /etc/vsftpd.conf:

local_max_rate=1000000 # Maximum data transfer rate in bytes per second
max_clients=50         # Maximum number of clients that may be connected
max_per_ip=2           # Maximum connections per IP

Using xinetd

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: Contains reference to rc.conf, which does not exist anymore. (Discuss in Talk:Very Secure FTP Daemon#)

If you want to use vsftpd with xinetd, add the following lines to /etc/xinetd.d/vsftpd:

service ftp
        socket_type             = stream
        wait                    = no
        user                    = root
        server                  = /usr/bin/vsftpd
        log_on_success  += HOST DURATION
        log_on_failure  += HOST
        disable                 = no

The option below should be set in /etc/vsftpd.conf:


Finally, add xinetd to your daemons line in /etc/rc.conf. You do not need to add vsftpd, as it will be called by xinetd whenever necessary.

If you get errors like this while connecting to the server:

500 OOPS: cap_set_proc

You need to add capability in MODULES= line in /etc/rc.conf.

While upgrading to version 2.1.0 you might get an error like this when connecting to the server from a client:

500 OOPS: could not bind listening IPv4 socket

In earlier versions it has been enough to leave the following lines commented:

# Use this to use vsftpd in standalone mode, otherwise it runs through (x)inetd
# listen=YES

In this newer version, and maybe future releases, it is necessary however to explicitly configure it to not run in a standalone mode, like this:

# Use this to use vsftpd in standalone mode, otherwise it runs through (x)inetd

Using SSL to Secure FTP

Generate an SSL Cert, e.g. like that:

# cd /etc/ssl/certs
# openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 7300 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/ssl/certs/vsftpd.pem -out /etc/ssl/certs/vsftpd.pem
# chmod 600 /etc/ssl/certs/vsftpd.pem

You will be asked a lot of Questions about your Company etc., as your Certificate is not a trusted one it doesn't really matter what you fill in. You will use this for encryption! If you plan to use this in a matter of trust get one from a CA like thawte, verisign etc.

edit your configuration /etc/vsftpd.conf

#this is important

#choose what you like, if you accept anon-connections
# you may want to enable this
# allow_anon_ssl=NO

#choose what you like,
# it's a matter of performance i guess
# force_local_data_ssl=NO

#choose what you like

#you should at least enable this if you enable ssl...
#choose what you like
#choose what you like
#give the correct path to your currently generated *.pem file
#the *.pem file contains both the key and cert

Dynamic DNS

Make sure you put the following two lines in /etc/vsftpd.conf:


It is not necessary to use a script that updates pasv_address periodically and restarts the server, as it can be found elsewhere!

Note: You won't be able to connect in passive mode via LAN anymore. Try the active mode on your LAN PC's FTP client.

Port configurations

Especially for private FTP servers that are exposed to the web it's recommended to change the listening port to something other than the standard port 21. This can be done using the following lines in /etc/vsftpd.conf:


Furthermore a custom passive port range can be given by:


Configuring iptables

Often the server running the FTP daemon is protected by an iptables firewall. To allow access to the FTP server the corresponding port needs to be opened using something like

# iptables -A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 2211 -j ACCEPT

This article won't provide any instruction on how to set up iptables but here is an example: Simple stateful firewall.

There are some kernel modules needed for proper FTP connection handling by iptables that should be referenced here. Among those especially ip_conntrack_ftp. It is needed as FTP uses the given listen_port (21 by default) for commands only; all the data transfer is done over different ports. These ports are chosen by the FTP daemon at random and for each session (also depending on whether active or passive mode is used). To tell iptables that packets on ports should be accepted, ip_conntrack_ftp is required. To load it automatically on boot create a new file in /etc/modules-load.d e.g.:

# echo ip_conntrack_ftp > /etc/modules-load.d/ip_conntrack_ftp.conf

If you changed the listen_port you also need to configure the conntrack module accordingly:

options nf_conntrack_ftp ports=2211
options ip_conntrack_ftp ports=2211

Tips and tricks

PAM with virtual users (updated)

Since PAM no longer provides pam_userdb.so another easy method is to use pam_pwdfileAUR. For environments with many users another option could be pam_mysql. This section is however limited to explain how to configure a chroot environment and authentication by pam_pwdfile.so.

In this example we create the directory vsftpd:

# mkdir /etc/vsftpd

One option to create and store user names and passwords is to use the Apache generator htpasswd:

# htpasswd -c /etc/vsftpd/.passwd

A problem with the above command is that vsftpd might not be able to read the generated MD5 hashed password. If running the same command with the -d switch, crypt() encryption, password become readable by vsftpd, but the downside of this is less security and a password limited to 8 characters. Openssl could be used to produce a MD5 based BSD password with algorithm 1:

# openssl passwd -1

Whatever solution the produced /etc/vsftpd/.passwd should look like this:


Next you need to create a PAM service using pam_pwdfile.so and the generated /etc/vsftpd/.passwd file. In this example we create a file in the /etc/pam.d directory named vsftpd with the following content:

auth required pam_pwdfile.so pwdfile /etc/vsftpd/.passwd
account required pam_permit.so

Now it is time to create a home for the virtual users. In the example /srv/ftp is decided to host data for virtual users, which also reflects the default directory structure of Arch. First create the general user virtual and make /srv/ftp its home:

# useradd -d /srv/ftp virtual

Make virtual the owner:

# chown virtual:virtual /srv/ftp

A basic /etc/vsftpd.conf with no private folders configured, which will default to the home folder of the virtual user:

# pointing to the correct PAM service file

Some parameters might not be necessary for your own setup. If you want the chroot environment to be writable you will need to add the following to the configuration file:


Otherwise vsftpd because of default security settings will complain if it detects that chroot is writable.

Start the vsftpd daemon:

# systemctl start vsftpd

You should no be able to login from a ftp-client with any of the users and passwords stored in /etc/vsftpd/.passwd

Adding private folders for the virtual users

First create directories for users:

# mkdir /srv/ftp/user1
# mkdir /srv/ftp/user2
# chown virtual:virtual /srv/ftp/user?/

Then, add the following lines to /etc/vsftpd.conf:



vsftpd: no connection (Error 500) with recent kernels (3.5 and newer) and .service

add this to your /etc/vsftpd.conf


vsftpd: refusing to run with writable root inside chroot()

As of vsftpd 2.3.5, the chroot directory that users are locked to must not be writable. This is in order to prevent a security vulnerabilty.

The safe way to allow upload is to keep chroot enabled, and configure your FTP directories.

# mkdir -p /srv/ftp/user/upload
# chmod 550 /srv/ftp/user
# chmod 750 /srv/ftp/user/upload

If you must:

You can put this into your /etc/vsftpd.conf to workaround this security enhancement (since vsftpd 3.0.0; from Fixing 500 OOPS: vsftpd: refusing to run with writable root inside chroot ()):


or alternative:

Install vsftpd-ext from AUR and set in the conf file allow_writable_root=YES

FileZilla Client: GnuTLS error -8 when connecting via SSL

vsftpd tries to display plain-text error messages in the SSL session. In order to debug this, temporarily disable encryption and you will see the correct error message.[1]

vsftpd.service fails to run on boot

If you have enabled the vsftpd service and it fails to run on boot, make sure it is set to load after network.target in the service file:

Description=vsftpd daemon

See also