If you are running GNOME, you need to restart GNOME so that
vino-server is started automatically when enabling the remote desktop feature.
You can configure vino via gnome-control-certer.
Now you can connect remotely to your desktop via a VNC viewer like TightVNC or Remmina. Remember to forward port 5900 if you are behind a NAT device and to allow the connection through iptables.
If you are having problems regarding security and encryption you could try:
$ gsettings set org.gnome.Vino require-encryption false
# /usr/lib/vino/vino-server &