Difference between revisions of "Wayland"

From ArchWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m (→‎GTK+ 3: rm irrelevant history)
(→‎Display managers: Add greetd)
 
(219 intermediate revisions by 54 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
[[Category:X server]]
+
[[Category:Graphical user interfaces]]
 
[[es:Wayland]]
 
[[es:Wayland]]
 
[[fr:Wayland]]
 
[[fr:Wayland]]
 
[[ja:Wayland]]
 
[[ja:Wayland]]
 +
[[pt:Wayland]]
 
[[ru:Wayland]]
 
[[ru:Wayland]]
 
[[zh-hans:Wayland]]
 
[[zh-hans:Wayland]]
Line 8: Line 9:
 
{{Related|KMS}}
 
{{Related|KMS}}
 
{{Related|Xorg}}
 
{{Related|Xorg}}
{{Related|Mir}}
 
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
  
[http://wayland.freedesktop.org/ Wayland] is a protocol for a [[wikipedia:Compositing window manager|compositor]] to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing this protocol. All major Linux desktop systems like Gnome, KDE do support Wayland, and there is also a reference implementation for a compositor called "Weston". [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/xserver.html XWayland] implements a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy X11 applications on Wayland.
+
[https://wayland.freedesktop.org/ Wayland] is a protocol for a [[wikipedia:Compositing window manager|compositing window manager]] to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing the protocol. It is supported on some desktop environments like [[GNOME]] and [[KDE]]. There is also a compositor reference implementation called [[Weston]]. XWayland provides a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy [[X11]] applications in Wayland.
  
 
== Requirements ==
 
== Requirements ==
  
Wayland only works on systems using [[KMS]]. As Wayland is only a library, it is useless on its own: to replace the X Server you need a compositor such as [[#Weston]].
+
Most Wayland compositors only work on systems using [[Kernel mode setting]]. Wayland by itself does not provide a graphical environment; for this you also need a compositor such as [[Weston]] or [[Sway]], or a desktop environment that includes a compositor like [[GNOME]] or [[KDE]].
  
=== Buffer API support ===
+
For the GPU driver and Wayland compositor to be compatible they must support the same buffer API. There are two main APIs: [[Wikipedia:Generic Buffer Management|GBM]] and [https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=XDC2016-Device-Memory-API EGLStreams].
 
 
For the GPU driver and Wayland composer to be compatible they must support the same buffer API. There are two main APIs: [[Wikipedia:Generic Buffer Management|GBM]] and [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=XDC2016-Device-Memory-API EGLStreams].
 
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
Line 25: Line 23:
 
! Buffer API !! GPU driver support !! Wayland compositor support
 
! Buffer API !! GPU driver support !! Wayland compositor support
 
|-
 
|-
| GBM || Most* || All
+
| GBM || All except [[NVIDIA]] || All
 
|-
 
|-
| EGLStreams || [[Nvidia]] || [[GNOME]] ([https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=773629 from 3.24])
+
| EGLStreams || [[NVIDIA]] || [[GNOME]], [[KDE]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
<nowiki>*</nowiki>: "Most" GPU drivers (supporting GBM) include [[AMDGPU]], [[ATI]], [[Intel]] and [[Nouveau]]. '''Not included''' are [[AMD Catalyst]] and [[Nvidia]]
+
== Compositors ==
  
== Weston ==
+
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
+
! Name
Weston is the reference implementation of a Wayland compositor.
+
! Type
 
+
! Description
=== Installation ===
 
 
 
Install the {{Pkg|weston}} package.
 
 
 
=== Usage ===
 
 
 
{{Style|Violates [[Help:Style#Keyboard keys]].}}
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable" style="float: right; width: 40%; margin-left: 1em"
 
|+ '''''Keyboard Shortcuts''' (super = windows key - can be changed, see weston.ini)'' {{Ic|Ctrl-b}}
 
!Cmd
 
!Action
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Ctrl + Alt + Backspace
+
| Mutter
|Quit Weston
+
| Stacking
 +
| See [[GNOME#Starting]].
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + Scroll (or PageUp/PageDown)
+
| sway
|Zoom in/out of desktop
+
| Tiling
 +
| [[Sway]] is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. [https://github.com/SirCmpwn/sway GitHub]
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + Tab
+
| Enlightenment
|Switch windows
+
| Stacking and tiling
 +
| See [[Enlightenment#Manually]]. More Info: [https://git.enlightenment.org/core/enlightenment.git/tree/README] [https://www.enlightenment.org/about-wayland]
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + LMB
+
| KDE Kwin
|Move Window
+
| Stacking
 +
| See [[KDE#Starting Plasma]].
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + MMB
+
| Orbment
|Rotate Window !
+
| Tiling
 +
| [https://github.com/Cloudef/orbment orbment] (previously loliwm) is an abandoned tiling WM for Wayland.
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + RMB
+
| Velox
|Resize Window
+
| Tiling
 +
| [[Velox]] is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by [[dwm]] and [[xmonad]].
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + Alt + Scroll
+
| Orbital
|Change window opacity
+
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/giucam/orbital Orbital] is a compositor and shell (more of a WM than a DE) using Qt5 and Weston. The goal is to build a simple but flexible and good looking desktop.
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + K
+
| Liri Shell
|Force Kill Active Window
+
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/lirios/shell Liri Shell] is the desktop shell for [[Liri]], built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + KeyUp/KeyDown
+
| Maynard
|Switch Prev/Next Workspace
+
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard Maynard] is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti. Not under development. [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard/issues/54#issuecomment-303422302][https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard/issues/55#issuecomment-373808518]
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + Shift + KeyUp/KeyDown
+
| Motorcar
|Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace
+
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| [https://github.com/evil0sheep/motorcar Motorcar] is a Wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing using virtual reality.
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + F'''''n'''''
+
| Maze Compositor
|Switch to Workspace '''''n'''''
+
| Floating 3D
 +
| [https://github.com/imbavirus/mazecompositor Maze Compositor] is a 3D Qt based Wayland compositor.
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + S
+
| Cage
|Take a screenshot
+
| Kiosk
 +
| [https://www.hjdskes.nl/projects/cage/ Cage] is a Wayland compositor that displays a single fullscreen application.
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + R
+
| Greenfield
|Record a screencast.
+
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/udevbe/greenfield Greenfield] is a Wayland compositor that runs in a web browser and can display remote applications.
 +
|-
 +
| Grefsen
 +
| Floating
 +
| [https://github.com/ec1oud/grefsen Grefsen] is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.
 +
|-
 +
| Waymonad
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [https://github.com/waymonad/waymonad Waymonad] is a Wayland compositor based on ideas from and inspired by xmonad
 +
|-
 +
| wayfire
 +
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/WayfireWM/wayfire Wayfire] is a general purpose compositor.
 +
|-
 +
| Weston
 +
| Floating
 +
| [[Weston]] is a Wayland compositor reference implementation.
 
|}
 
|}
  
Now that Wayland and its requirements are installed you should be ready to test it out.  
+
Some of the above may support [[display manager]]s. Check {{ic|/usr/share/wayland-sessions/''compositor''.desktop}} to see how they are started.
  
It is possible to run Weston inside a running X session:
+
== Display managers ==
$ weston
 
  
Alternatively, to try to launch Weston natively, switch to a terminal and run:
+
Below listed display managers which supports running Wayland compositors. The Type column indicates whether the display manager supports running on Wayland or not.
$ weston-launch
 
  
Then at a TTY within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:
+
{| class="wikitable sortable"
$ weston-terminal
+
! Name
 +
! Type
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| [[GDM]]
 +
| Runs on Wayland
 +
| [[GNOME]] display manager.
 +
|-
 +
| [[LightDM]]
 +
| Runs on X11
 +
| Cross-desktop display manager.
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ly]]
 +
| Runs in console
 +
| TUI display manager written in C
 +
|-
 +
| [[SDDM]]
 +
| Runs on X11
 +
| QML-based display manager.
 +
|-
 +
| [[greetd]]
 +
| Login daemon
 +
| Minimal and flexible login daemon.
 +
|}
  
To move flowers around the screen:
+
== GUI libraries ==
$ weston-flower
 
  
To display images:
+
See details on the [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/toolkits.html official website].
$ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...
 
  
=== Configuration ===
+
=== GTK 3 ===
Example configuration file for keyboard layout, module selection and UI modifications. See {{man|5|weston.ini|url=}} for full details. The Weston outputs differ slightly from {{ic|xorg.conf}}'s Monitors:
 
  
$ ls /sys/class/drm
+
The {{Pkg|gtk3}} package has the Wayland backend enabled. GTK will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: {{ic|1=GDK_BACKEND=x11}}.
card0
 
card0-VGA-1
 
card1
 
card1-DVI-I-1
 
card1-HDMI-A-1
 
card1-VGA-2
 
  
{{ic|card0}} is the unused built-in video adapter. The add-on adapter {{ic|card1}} is cabled to one HDMI and one DVI monitor, so the output names are {{ic|HDMI-A-1}} and {{ic|DVI-I-1}}.
+
=== Qt 5 ===
  
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|<nowiki>
+
To enable Wayland support in Qt 5, install the {{Pkg|qt5-wayland}} package.
[core]
 
# xwayland support
 
modules=xwayland.so
 
  
[libinput]
+
To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin [https://wiki.qt.io/QtWayland#How_do_I_use_QtWayland.3F], use {{ic|1=-platform wayland}} or {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl}} [[environment variable]]. To force the usage of [[X11]] on a Wayland session, use {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=xcb}}.
enable_tap=true
 
  
[shell]
+
=== Clutter ===
background-image=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Aqua.jpg
 
background-color=0xff002244
 
panel-color=0x90ff0000
 
locking=true
 
animation=zoom
 
close-animation=fade
 
focus-animation=dim-layer
 
#binding-modifier=ctrl
 
#num-workspaces=6
 
### for cursor themes install xcursor-themes pkg from Extra. ###
 
#cursor-theme=whiteglass
 
#cursor-size=24
 
  
### tablet options ###
+
The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the {{Pkg|clutter}} package.
#lockscreen-icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/256x256/actions/lock.png
 
#lockscreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Garden.jpg
 
#homescreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Blinds.jpg
 
#animation=fade
 
  
###  for Laptop displays  ###
+
To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set {{ic|1=CLUTTER_BACKEND=wayland}}.
#[output]
 
#name=LVDS1
 
#mode=1680x1050
 
#transform=90
 
  
#[output]
+
=== SDL2 ===
#name=VGA1
 
# The following sets the mode with a modeline, you can get modelines for your preffered resolutions using the cvt utility
 
#mode=173.00 1920 2048 2248 2576 1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync +vsync
 
#transform=flipped
 
  
#[output]
+
To run a SDL2 application on Wayland, set {{ic|1=SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland}}.
#name=X1
 
#mode=1024x768
 
#transform=flipped-270
 
  
[input-method]
+
{{Note|Many proprietary games come bundled with old versions of SDL, which don't support Wayland and might break entirely if you set {{ic|1=SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland}}. To force the application to run with XWayland, set {{ic|1=SDL_VIDEODRIVER=x11}}.}}
#path=/usr/lib/weston/weston-keyboard
 
  
[keyboard]
+
=== GLFW ===
keymap_rules=evdev
 
#keymap_layout=gb,de
 
#keymap_options=caps:ctrl_modifier,shift:both_capslock_cancel
 
### keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst ###
 
numlock-on=true
 
  
[terminal]
+
To use GLFW with the Wayland backend, install the {{Pkg|glfw-wayland}} package (instead of {{Pkg|glfw-x11}}).
#font=DroidSansMono
 
#font-size=14
 
  
[launcher]
+
=== GLEW ===
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal
 
  
[launcher]
+
To use GLEW with the Wayland backend, install the {{Pkg|glew-wayland}} package (instead of {{Pkg|glew}}).
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 
path=/usr/bin/gnome-terminal
 
  
[launcher]
+
=== EFL ===
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
 
path=/usr/bin/firefox
 
  
[launcher]
+
EFL has complete Wayland support. To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/efl.html project page].
icon=/usr/share/weston/icon_flower.png
 
path=/usr/bin/weston-flower
 
  
[screensaver]
+
=== winit ===
# Uncomment path to disable screensaver
 
path=/usr/libexec/weston-screensaver
 
duration=600
 
</nowiki>
 
}}
 
  
Minimal {{ic|weston.ini}} :
+
Winit is window handling library in Rust. It will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: {{ic|1=WINIT_UNIX_BACKEND=x11}}.
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|<nowiki>
 
[core]
 
modules=xwayland.so
 
  
[keyboard]
+
==Troubleshooting==
keymap_layout=gb
 
  
[output]
+
=== Gamma ===
name=LVDS1
 
mode=1680x1050
 
transform=90
 
  
[launcher]
+
{{Merge|Backlight#Color correction|Same topic.}}
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal
 
  
[launcher]
+
While [[Redshift]] doesn't support Wayland (without a patch) it is possible to apply the desired temperature in [[tty]] before starting a compositor. For example:
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
 
path=/usr/bin/firefox
 
  
</nowiki>
+
redshift -m drm -PO 3000
}}
 
  
==== XWayland ====
+
Otherwise some compositors feature this option during runtime:
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} package.
 
  
When you want to run an X application from within Weston, it spins up Xwayland to service the request. The following configuration is shown above:
+
* On [[GNOME]], the built-in [[GNOME#Night_Light|Night Light]] can be used.
 +
* On [[KDE Plasma]], the built-in [[KDE#Night Color]] can be used.
 +
* On Sway 1.0 and other wlroots-based compositors, as well as Orbital, {{AUR|redshift-wayland-git}}/{{AUR|redshift-wlr-gamma-control-git}} can be used (the two AUR packages are the same).
  
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
+
=== Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes ===
<nowiki>[core]
 
modules=xwayland.so</nowiki>
 
}}
 
  
==== Screencast recording ====
+
Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the {{ic|1=CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling}} set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from {{ic|/etc/environment}} or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.
Weston has build-in screencast recording which can be started and stopped by pressing the {{ic|Super+r}} key combination. Screencasts are saved to the file {{ic|capture.wcap}} in the current working directory of Weston.  
 
  
The WCAP format is a lossless video format specific to Weston, which only records the difference in frames. To be able to play the recorded screencast, the WCAP file will need to be converted to a format which a media player can understand. First, convert the capture to the YUV pixel format:
+
=== Cannot open display: :0 with Electron-based applications ===
  
$ wcap-decode capture.wcap --yuv4mpeg2 > capture.y4m
+
Make sure you haven't set GDK_BACKEND=wayland. Setting it globally will break Electron apps.
  
The YUV file can then be transcoded to other formats using [[FFmpeg]].
+
=== Screen recording ===
  
==== High DPI displays ====
+
{{AUR|green-recorder}}, {{AUR|obs-gnome-screencast}} and {{AUR|obs-xdg-portal-git}} support screen recording on Wayland using GNOME screencast feature.
  
For [[wikipedia:Retina_Display|Retina]] or [[HiDPI]] displays, use:
+
{{AUR|wf-recorder-git}} is a video recorder for wlroots-based compositors.
  
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
+
{{AUR|wlrobs-hg}} is a {{Pkg|obs-studio}} plugin that allows you to screen capture on wlroots-based compositors.
<nowiki>[output]
 
name=...
 
scale=2</nowiki>
 
}}
 
  
==== Shell font ====
+
=== Remote display ===
  
Weston uses the default sans-serif font for window title bars, clocks, etc. See [[Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts]] for instructions on how to change this font.
+
* (20200206) {{pkg|wlroots}} (used by [[sway]]) offers an VNC backend via {{AUR|wayvnc}} since version 0.10. RDP backend has been removed. [https://github.com/swaywm/wlroots/releases/tag/0.10.0].
 +
* (20180401) {{pkg|mutter}} has now remote desktop enabled at compile time, see [https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/Mutter/RemoteDesktop] and {{Pkg|gnome-remote-desktop}} for details.
 +
* There was a merge of FreeRDP into Weston in 2013, enabled via a compile flag. The {{Pkg|weston}} package has it enabled since version 6.0.0.
 +
* {{AUR|waypipe-git}} is a transparent proxy for Wayland applications, with a wrapper command to run over [[SSH]]
  
== GUI libraries ==
+
=== Input grabbing in games, remote desktop and VM windows  ===
  
See details on the [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/toolkits.html official website].
+
In contrast to Xorg, Wayland does not allow exclusive input device grabbing, also known as active or explicit grab (e.g. [https://tronche.com/gui/x/xlib/input/XGrabKeyboard.html keyboard], [https://tronche.com/gui/x/xlib/input/XGrabPointer.html mouse]), instead, it depends on the Wayland compositor to pass keyboard shortcuts and confine the pointer device to the application window.
  
=== GTK+ 3 ===
+
This change in input grabbing breaks current applications' behavior, meaning:
  
The {{Pkg|gtk3}} package has the Wayland backend enabled. GTK+ will default to the X11 backend, but this can be overridden by modifying an environment variable: {{ic|GDK_BACKEND&#61;wayland}}.
+
* Hotkey combinations and modifiers will be caught by the compositor and won't be sent to remote desktop and virtual machine windows.
 +
* The mouse pointer will not be restricted to the application's window which might cause a parallax effect where the location of the mouse pointer inside the window of the virtual machine or remote desktop is displaced from the host's mouse pointer.
  
=== Qt 5 ===
+
Wayland solves this by adding protocol extensions for Wayland and XWayland. Support for these extensions is needed to be added to the Wayland compositors. In the case of native Wayland clients, the used widget toolkits (e.g GTK, Qt) needs to support these extensions or the applications themselves if no widget toolkit is being used. In the case of Xorg applications, no changes in the applications or widget toolkits are needed as the XWayland support is enough.
The {{Grp|qt5}} package from the repositories has the Wayland support if {{Pkg|qt5-wayland}} is installed.  
 
To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin, set the {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl}} [[environment variable]]. For Arch, most QT applications do not work because of QTBUG-58423, will be fixed with qt-5.8.1: https://codereview.qt-project.org/#/c/184278/ .
 
  
=== Clutter ===
+
These extensions are already included in {{pkg|wayland-protocols}}, and supported by {{pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} 1.20.
  
The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the official package in extra.
+
The related extensions are:
  
To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set {{ic|CLUTTER_BACKEND&#61;wayland}}.
+
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/xwayland-keyboard-grab/xwayland-keyboard-grab-unstable-v1.xml XWayland keyboard grabbing protocol]
 +
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/keyboard-shortcuts-inhibit/keyboard-shortcuts-inhibit-unstable-v1.xml Compositor shortcuts inhibit protocol]
 +
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/relative-pointer/relative-pointer-unstable-v1.xml Relative pointer protocol]
 +
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/pointer-constraints/pointer-constraints-unstable-v1.xml Pointer constraints protocol]
  
=== SDL ===
+
Supporting Wayland compositors:
  
Experimental wayland support is now in SDL 2.0.2 and enabled by default on Arch Linux.
+
* Mutter, [[GNOME]]'s compositor [https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=783342 since release 3.28].
  
To run a SDL application on Wayland, set {{ic|SDL_VIDEODRIVER&#61;wayland}}.
+
Supporting widget toolkits:
  
=== GLFW ===
+
* GTK since release 3.22.18.
  
Experimental wayland support is now in GLFW 3.1 and can be enabled with the {{ic|-DGLFW_USE_WAYLAND&#61;ON}} CMake option at compile time. You can also install the package {{AUR|glfw-wayland-git}} from the AUR.
+
==== wlroots input inhibitor protocol ====
  
=== EFL ===
+
[https://github.com/swaywm/wlr-protocols/blob/master/unstable/wlr-input-inhibitor-unstable-v1.xml Input inhibitor] is a Wayland protocol which was defined the by developers of Sway and wlroots and is overlapping Wayland's {{ic|Compositor shortcuts inhibit}} protocol.<br/>
 +
Sway and wlroots do not support the {{ic|Compositor shortcuts inhibit}} and {{ic|XWayland keyboard grabbing}} protocols, and it seems they are against adding support for the latter [https://github.com/swaywm/wlroots/pull/635#issuecomment-366385856] [https://github.com/swaywm/wlroots/issues/624#issuecomment-367276476].<br/>
 +
No widget toolkit or application is known to support this protocol.
  
EFL has complete Wayland support.
+
== See also ==
To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/efl.html project page].
 
 
 
== Window managers and desktop shells ==
 
  
{| class="wikitable sortable"
+
* [https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/How_to_debug_Wayland_problems Article about Wayland debugging on Fedora Wiki]
! Name
 
! Type
 
! Description
 
|-
 
| GNOME
 
| Compositing
 
| See [[GNOME#Starting GNOME]].
 
|-
 
| sway
 
| Tiling
 
| [[Sway]] is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. [https://github.com/SirCmpwn/sway Github]
 
|-
 
| Enlightenment
 
| Compositing
 
| Long running minimal Window Manager-turned Wayland compositor. E19 originally had Wayland support but this was removed and now only E20+ Wayland is considered stable enough for regular use. [https://www.enlightenment.org/about-wayland More Info]
 
|-
 
| KDE Plasma
 
| Compositing
 
| See [[KDE#Starting Plasma]]
 
|-
 
| Orbment
 
| Tiling
 
| [https://github.com/Cloudef/orbment orbment] (previously loliwm) is a tiling WM for Wayland.
 
|-
 
| Velox
 
| Tiling
 
| [[Velox]] is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by [[dwm]] and [[xmonad]].
 
|-
 
| Orbital
 
| Compositing
 
| [https://github.com/giucam/orbital Orbital] is a Wayland compositor and shell, using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple yet flexible and good looking Wayland desktop. It is not a full fledged DE but rather the analogue of a WM in the X11 world, such as [[Awesome]] or [[Fluxbox]].
 
|-
 
| Liri Shell
 
| Compositing
 
| [https://github.com/lirios/shell Liri Shell] is the desktop shell for [[Liri]], built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
 
|-
 
| Maynard
 
| ''(Unclear)''
 
| [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard Maynard] is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti.
 
|-
 
| Motorcar
 
| ''(Unclear)''
 
| [https://github.com/evil0sheep/motorcar Motorcar] is a wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing using Virtual Reality.
 
|-
 
| Way Cooler
 
| Tiling
 
|  {{AUR|way-cooler}} is a customizeable (lua config files) Wayland compositor written in Rust. Inspired by i3 and awesome.
 
|-
 
| Maze Compositor
 
| Floating 3D
 
| [https://github.com/capisce/mazecompositor Maze Compositor] is a 3D Qt based wayland compositor
 
|-
 
| Grefsen
 
| Floating
 
| [https://github.com/ec1oud/grefsen Grefsen] is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.
 
|}
 
 
 
Some of installed wayland desktop clients might store information in {{ic|/usr/share/wayland-sessions/*.desktop}} files about how to start them in wayland.
 
 
 
==Troubleshooting==
 
 
 
{{Style|Many of these subsections should go into a "Known issues" section (i.e., there is no solution currently). Additionally prepending a date is not needed.}}
 
 
 
=== LLVM assertion failure ===
 
If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild {{Pkg|mesa}} without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.
 
 
 
This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM.
 
You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:
 
 
 
$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so
 
 
 
=== Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes ===
 
Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the {{ic|1=CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling}} set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from {{ic|/etc/environment}} or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.
 
 
 
=== nemo ===
 
(20161229) prevent that the desktop is created <ref>[https://github.com/linuxmint/nemo/issues/1343 nemo issue 1343]</ref>
 
gsettings set org.nemo.desktop show-desktop-icons false
 
 
 
=== gparted ===
 
gparted wants to run as root. Before starting it, allow root user to display applications on your desktop by typing the following in a command line. Refer [https://bugzilla.gnome.org//show_bug.cgi?id=772875 GNOME bug 772875].
 
  xhost si:localuser:root
 
 
 
=== X11 on tty1, wayland on tty2 ===
 
(20161209) windows of gnome applications end up on tty2 no matter where started ([https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=774775 gnome issue 774775)]
 
 
 
=== gnome wayland on tty1, weston on tty2 ===
 
(20170106) apps started on gnome with WAYLAND_DISPLAY set to westen make it not respond any more ([https://bugs.freedesktop.org/show_bug.cgi?id=99489 wayland issue 99489])
 
 
 
=== weston-terminal ===
 
(20161229) core dump when started on gnome
 
 
 
=== liteide ===
 
(20161229) [https://github.com/visualfc/liteide/issues/734 core dump]] on gnome and weston.
 
 
 
=== screen recording ===
 
(20161229) As of November 2016 there is an ongoing discussion how to implement screen recording. Currently the compositors implement at least basic functionality.
 
 
 
=== remote display ===
 
(20161229) there was a merge of FreeRDP into weston in 2013, enabled via compile time switch. The arch linux weston package currently has it not enabled.
 
 
 
=== Remote desktop and vm applications don't grab input ===
 
Per design Wayland doesn't allow for an application to grab input devices and constrict the region of the input device to the application, a much wanted feature when using a remote desktop app or running a desktop vm, which means that modifier keys and hotkeys will not be sent correctly to the remote machine or vm and also the mouse pointer will not be restricted to the application's user interface (which might cause a parallax effect). [https://bugs.freedesktop.org/show_bug.cgi?id=97333] [https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1285770]
 
 
 
== See also ==
 
 
* [[Cursor themes]]
 
* [[Cursor themes]]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=107499 Arch Linux forum discussion]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=107499 Arch Linux forum discussion]
* [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/docs/html/ Wayland documentation online]
+
* [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/docs/html/ Wayland documentation online]

Latest revision as of 17:55, 2 April 2020

Wayland is a protocol for a compositing window manager to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing the protocol. It is supported on some desktop environments like GNOME and KDE. There is also a compositor reference implementation called Weston. XWayland provides a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy X11 applications in Wayland.

Requirements

Most Wayland compositors only work on systems using Kernel mode setting. Wayland by itself does not provide a graphical environment; for this you also need a compositor such as Weston or Sway, or a desktop environment that includes a compositor like GNOME or KDE.

For the GPU driver and Wayland compositor to be compatible they must support the same buffer API. There are two main APIs: GBM and EGLStreams.

Buffer API GPU driver support Wayland compositor support
GBM All except NVIDIA All
EGLStreams NVIDIA GNOME, KDE

Compositors

Name Type Description
Mutter Stacking See GNOME#Starting.
sway Tiling Sway is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. GitHub
Enlightenment Stacking and tiling See Enlightenment#Manually. More Info: [1] [2]
KDE Kwin Stacking See KDE#Starting Plasma.
Orbment Tiling orbment (previously loliwm) is an abandoned tiling WM for Wayland.
Velox Tiling Velox is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by dwm and xmonad.
Orbital Stacking Orbital is a compositor and shell (more of a WM than a DE) using Qt5 and Weston. The goal is to build a simple but flexible and good looking desktop.
Liri Shell Stacking Liri Shell is the desktop shell for Liri, built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
Maynard (Unclear) Maynard is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti. Not under development. [3][4]
Motorcar (Unclear) Motorcar is a Wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing using virtual reality.
Maze Compositor Floating 3D Maze Compositor is a 3D Qt based Wayland compositor.
Cage Kiosk Cage is a Wayland compositor that displays a single fullscreen application.
Greenfield Stacking Greenfield is a Wayland compositor that runs in a web browser and can display remote applications.
Grefsen Floating Grefsen is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.
Waymonad Tiling Waymonad is a Wayland compositor based on ideas from and inspired by xmonad
wayfire Stacking Wayfire is a general purpose compositor.
Weston Floating Weston is a Wayland compositor reference implementation.

Some of the above may support display managers. Check /usr/share/wayland-sessions/compositor.desktop to see how they are started.

Display managers

Below listed display managers which supports running Wayland compositors. The Type column indicates whether the display manager supports running on Wayland or not.

Name Type Description
GDM Runs on Wayland GNOME display manager.
LightDM Runs on X11 Cross-desktop display manager.
Ly Runs in console TUI display manager written in C
SDDM Runs on X11 QML-based display manager.
greetd Login daemon Minimal and flexible login daemon.

GUI libraries

See details on the official website.

GTK 3

The gtk3 package has the Wayland backend enabled. GTK will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: GDK_BACKEND=x11.

Qt 5

To enable Wayland support in Qt 5, install the qt5-wayland package.

To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin [5], use -platform wayland or QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl environment variable. To force the usage of X11 on a Wayland session, use QT_QPA_PLATFORM=xcb.

Clutter

The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the clutter package.

To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set CLUTTER_BACKEND=wayland.

SDL2

To run a SDL2 application on Wayland, set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland.

Note: Many proprietary games come bundled with old versions of SDL, which don't support Wayland and might break entirely if you set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland. To force the application to run with XWayland, set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=x11.

GLFW

To use GLFW with the Wayland backend, install the glfw-wayland package (instead of glfw-x11).

GLEW

To use GLEW with the Wayland backend, install the glew-wayland package (instead of glew).

EFL

EFL has complete Wayland support. To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland project page.

winit

Winit is window handling library in Rust. It will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: WINIT_UNIX_BACKEND=x11.

Troubleshooting

Gamma

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with Backlight#Color correction.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: Same topic. (Discuss in Talk:Wayland#)

While Redshift doesn't support Wayland (without a patch) it is possible to apply the desired temperature in tty before starting a compositor. For example:

redshift -m drm -PO 3000

Otherwise some compositors feature this option during runtime:

Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes

Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from /etc/environment or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.

Cannot open display: :0 with Electron-based applications

Make sure you haven't set GDK_BACKEND=wayland. Setting it globally will break Electron apps.

Screen recording

green-recorderAUR, obs-gnome-screencastAUR and obs-xdg-portal-gitAUR support screen recording on Wayland using GNOME screencast feature.

wf-recorder-gitAUR is a video recorder for wlroots-based compositors.

wlrobs-hgAUR is a obs-studio plugin that allows you to screen capture on wlroots-based compositors.

Remote display

  • (20200206) wlroots (used by sway) offers an VNC backend via wayvncAUR since version 0.10. RDP backend has been removed. [6].
  • (20180401) mutter has now remote desktop enabled at compile time, see [7] and gnome-remote-desktop for details.
  • There was a merge of FreeRDP into Weston in 2013, enabled via a compile flag. The weston package has it enabled since version 6.0.0.
  • waypipe-gitAUR is a transparent proxy for Wayland applications, with a wrapper command to run over SSH

Input grabbing in games, remote desktop and VM windows

In contrast to Xorg, Wayland does not allow exclusive input device grabbing, also known as active or explicit grab (e.g. keyboard, mouse), instead, it depends on the Wayland compositor to pass keyboard shortcuts and confine the pointer device to the application window.

This change in input grabbing breaks current applications' behavior, meaning:

  • Hotkey combinations and modifiers will be caught by the compositor and won't be sent to remote desktop and virtual machine windows.
  • The mouse pointer will not be restricted to the application's window which might cause a parallax effect where the location of the mouse pointer inside the window of the virtual machine or remote desktop is displaced from the host's mouse pointer.

Wayland solves this by adding protocol extensions for Wayland and XWayland. Support for these extensions is needed to be added to the Wayland compositors. In the case of native Wayland clients, the used widget toolkits (e.g GTK, Qt) needs to support these extensions or the applications themselves if no widget toolkit is being used. In the case of Xorg applications, no changes in the applications or widget toolkits are needed as the XWayland support is enough.

These extensions are already included in wayland-protocols, and supported by xorg-server-xwayland 1.20.

The related extensions are:

Supporting Wayland compositors:

Supporting widget toolkits:

  • GTK since release 3.22.18.

wlroots input inhibitor protocol

Input inhibitor is a Wayland protocol which was defined the by developers of Sway and wlroots and is overlapping Wayland's Compositor shortcuts inhibit protocol.
Sway and wlroots do not support the Compositor shortcuts inhibit and XWayland keyboard grabbing protocols, and it seems they are against adding support for the latter [8] [9].
No widget toolkit or application is known to support this protocol.

See also