Difference between revisions of "Wayland"

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[[Category:X Server]]
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[[Category:Graphical user interfaces]]
[[zh-CN:Wayland]]
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[[es:Wayland]]
{{Article summary start}}
+
[[fr:Wayland]]
{{Article summary text|A guide to installing and running the Wayland display server.}}
+
[[ja:Wayland]]
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
+
[[ru:Wayland]]
{{Article summary wiki|KMS}}
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[[zh-hans:Wayland]]
{{Article summary wiki|Xorg}}
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{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary end}}
+
{{Related|KMS}}
 +
{{Related|Xorg}}
 +
{{Related articles end}}
  
'''Wayland''' is a new windowing protocol for Linux. Utilization of Wayland requires changes to and re-installation of parts of your system's software. For more information on Wayland see its [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/ homepage].
+
[https://wayland.freedesktop.org/ Wayland] is a protocol for a [[wikipedia:Compositing window manager|compositing window manager]] to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing the protocol. It is supported on some desktop environments like [[GNOME]] and [[KDE]]. There is also a compositor reference implementation called Weston. XWayland provides a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy [[X11]] applications in Wayland.
  
{{Warning|Wayland is under heavy development.  Support can not be guaranteed and it may not function as you expect.}}
+
== Requirements ==
  
== Requirements ==
+
Most Wayland compositors only work on systems using [[Kernel mode setting]]. Wayland by itself does not provide a graphical environment; for this you also need a compositor such as [[#Weston]] or [[Sway]], or a desktop environment that includes a compositor like [[GNOME]] or [[KDE]].
Currently Wayland will only work with on a system that is utilizing [[KMS]].
 
  
== Installation ==
+
For the GPU driver and Wayland compositor to be compatible they must support the same buffer API. There are two main APIs: [[Wikipedia:Generic Buffer Management|GBM]] and [https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=XDC2016-Device-Memory-API EGLStreams].
You need to build and install {{AUR|wayland-git}} and {{AUR|mesa-full-wayland}} from the [[AUR]]. Replacement of the Mesa stack is required because the stock one does not support Wayland.
 
  
== Usage ==
+
{| class="wikitable"
As Wayland is only a library, it is useless on its own. To use it, you need a compositor (like Weston), Weston demo applications, Qt5 (or Qt4 with QPA enabled) with Wayland plugin, and/or GTK+ with Wayland support.
+
|-
 +
! Buffer API !! GPU driver support !! Wayland compositor support
 +
|-
 +
| GBM || All except [[NVIDIA]] || All
 +
|-
 +
| EGLStreams || [[NVIDIA]] || [[GNOME]], [[KDE]]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
 
== Weston ==
 
== Weston ==
 +
 +
Weston is the reference implementation of a Wayland compositor.
 +
 
=== Installation ===
 
=== Installation ===
You need to build and install {{AUR|weston-git}} from the [[AUR]].
+
 
 +
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|weston}} package.
  
 
=== Usage ===
 
=== Usage ===
Now that Wayland and its requirements are installed you should be ready to test it out. Try switching to a terminal and running:
 
$ weston-launch
 
Note I was having trouble with keyboard & mouse not working unless this was run as root
 
  
You can also try:
+
{{tip|Super (windows key) can be changed, see [[#Configuration|weston.ini]]}}
$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so
+
 
if you have troubles with your hardware's driver.
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|+ '''Keyboard Shortcuts'''
 +
!Cmd
 +
!Action
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Ctrl+Alt+Backspace}}
 +
|Quit Weston
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Super+Scroll}} (or {{ic|PageUp}}/{{ic|PageDown}})
 +
|Zoom in/out of desktop
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Super+Tab}}
 +
|Switch windows
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Super+LMB}}
 +
|Move Window
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Super+MMB}}
 +
|Rotate Window
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Super+RMB}}
 +
|Resize Window
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Super+Alt+Scroll}}
 +
|Change window opacity
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Super+k}}
 +
|Force Kill Active Window
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Super+Up/Down}}
 +
|Switch Prev/Next Workspace
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Super+Shift+Up/Down}}
 +
|Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Super+F''n''}}
 +
|Switch to Workspace ''n'' (e.g. F2)
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Super+s}}
 +
|Take a screenshot
 +
|-
 +
|{{ic|Super+r}}
 +
|Record a screencast
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
To launch Weston natively (from a TTY) or to run Weston inside a running X session:
 +
 
 +
$ weston
  
Then at a TTY you can run the demos:
+
Then within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:
  
 
  $ weston-terminal
 
  $ weston-terminal
Should launch a terminal emulator.
+
 
 +
To move flowers around the screen:
  
 
  $ weston-flower  
 
  $ weston-flower  
Moves a flower around the screen.  This tests the frame protocol.
 
  
$ weston-gears
+
To display images:
Runs glxgears on Wayland.
 
  
 
  $ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...
 
  $ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...
Displays images.
 
  
  $ weston-view doc1.pdf doc2.pdf...
+
=== Configuration ===
Displays PDF files.
+
 
 +
Weston's outputs differ slightly from those of {{ic|xorg.conf}} Monitors:
 +
 
 +
  $ ls /sys/class/drm
 +
card0
 +
card0-VGA-1
 +
card1
 +
card1-DVI-I-1
 +
card1-HDMI-A-1
 +
card1-VGA-2
 +
 
 +
{{ic|card0}} is the unused built-in video adapter. The add-on adapter {{ic|card1}} is cabled to one HDMI and one DVI monitor, so the output names are {{ic|HDMI-A-1}} and {{ic|DVI-I-1}}.
 +
 
 +
Following is an example configuration file. See {{man|5|weston.ini}} for more.
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|<nowiki>
 +
[core]
 +
# xwayland support
 +
xwayland=true
 +
 
 +
[libinput]
 +
enable-tap=true
 +
 
 +
[shell]
 +
#background-image=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Aqua.jpg
 +
background-type=scale-crop
 +
background-color=0xff000000
 +
#background-color=0xff002244
 +
#panel-color=0x90ff0000
 +
panel-color=0x00ffffff
 +
panel-position=bottom
 +
#clock-format=none
 +
#animation=zoom
 +
#startup-animation=none
 +
close-animation=none
 +
focus-animation=dim-layer
 +
#binding-modifier=ctrl
 +
num-workspaces=6
 +
locking=false
 +
cursor-theme=Adwaita
 +
cursor-size=24
 +
 
 +
# tablet options
 +
#lockscreen-icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/256x256/actions/lock.png
 +
#lockscreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Garden.jpg
 +
#homescreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Blinds.jpg
 +
#animation=fade
 +
 
 +
# for Laptop displays
 +
[output]
 +
name=LVDS1
 +
mode=preferred
 +
#mode=1680x1050
 +
#transform=90
 +
 
 +
#[output]
 +
#name=VGA1
 +
# The following sets the mode with a modeline, you can get modelines for your preffered resolutions using the cvt utility
 +
#mode=173.00 1920 2048 2248 2576 1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync +vsync
 +
#transform=flipped
 +
 
 +
#[output]
 +
#name=X1
 +
#mode=1024x768
 +
#transform=flipped-270
 +
 
 +
# on screen keyboard input method
 +
#[input-method]
 +
#path=/usr/lib/weston/weston-keyboard
 +
 
 +
[keyboard]
 +
keymap_rules=evdev
 +
#keymap_layout=us,de
 +
#keymap_variant=colemak,
 +
#keymap_options=grp:shifts_toggle
 +
#keymap_options=caps:ctrl_modifier,shift:both_capslock_cancel
 +
repeat-rate=30
 +
repeat-delay=300
 +
 
 +
# keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst
 +
#numlock-on=true
 +
 
 +
[terminal]
 +
font=monospace
 +
font-size=18
 +
 
 +
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/weston/icon_flower.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/weston-flower
 +
 
 +
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/32x32/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal --shell=/usr/bin/bash
 +
 
 +
#[launcher]
 +
#icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/32x32/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 +
#path=/usr/bin/gnome-terminal
 +
 
 +
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/32x32/apps/firefox.png
 +
path=MOZ_GTK_TITLEBAR_DECORATION=client /usr/bin/firefox
 +
 
 +
#[launcher]
 +
#icon=/usr/share/icons/Adwaita/32x32/apps/multimedia-volume-control.png
 +
#path=/usr/bin/st alsamixer -c0
 +
</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Minimal {{ic|weston.ini}}:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|<nowiki>
 +
[core]
 +
xwayland=true
 +
 
 +
[keyboard]
 +
keymap_layout=gb
 +
 
 +
[output]
 +
name=LVDS1
 +
mode=1680x1050
 +
transform=90
 +
 
 +
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal
 +
 
 +
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/firefox
 +
 
 +
</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==== XWayland ====
 +
 
 +
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} package.
 +
 
 +
When you want to run an X application from within Weston, it spins up Xwayland to service the request. The following configuration is shown above:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
 +
<nowiki>[core]
 +
xwayland=true</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
{{Note| if X is not already configured you may need to configure a keymap: [[Keyboard configuration in Xorg]]}}
 +
 
 +
==== High DPI displays ====
 +
 
 +
For [[wikipedia:Retina_Display|Retina]] or [[HiDPI]] displays, use:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
 +
<nowiki>[output]
 +
name=...
 +
scale=2</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==== Shell font ====
 +
 
 +
Weston uses the default sans-serif font for window title bars, clocks, etc. See [[Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts]] for instructions on how to change this font.
 +
 
 +
=== Tips and tricks ===
 +
 
 +
==== Screencast recording ====
 +
 
 +
Weston has built-in screencast recording which can be started and stopped by pressing the {{ic|Super}}+{{ic|r}} key combination. Screencasts are saved to the file {{ic|capture.wcap}} in the current working directory of Weston. The WCAP format is a lossless video format specific to Weston, which only records the difference in frames. To be able to play the recorded screencast, the WCAP file will need to be converted to a format which a media player can understand. First, convert the capture to the YUV pixel format:
 +
 
 +
$ wcap-decode --yuv4mpeg2 capture.wcap > capture.y4m
 +
 
 +
The YUV file can then be transcoded to other formats using [[FFmpeg]] or {{Pkg|x264}} (see {{ic|x264 -h}} for more).
 +
 
 +
==== Window switching ====
 +
 
 +
To switch windows with {{ic|Super+Space}} instead of {{ic|Super+Tab}} change {{ic|KEY_TAB}} to {{ic|KEY_SPACE}} in {{ic|desktop-shell/shell.c}} and recompile {{Pkg|weston}}.
 +
 
 +
== GUI libraries ==
 +
 
 +
See details on the [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/toolkits.html official website].
  
== Qt ==
+
=== GTK 3 ===
  
=== Installation ===
+
The {{Pkg|gtk3}} package has the Wayland backend enabled. GTK will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: {{ic|GDK_BACKEND&#61;x11}}.
You need to build and install {{AUR|qt-qpa}} from [[AUR]]. It contains a development version of Qt 4.8 compiled with QPA (Lighthouse) support. It installs into /opt/qt-qpa because it's binary incompatible with non-QPA version of Qt (like the stock one).
+
 
 +
=== Qt 5 ===
 +
 
 +
To enable Wayland support in Qt 5, install the {{Pkg|qt5-wayland}} package.
 +
 
 +
To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin [https://wiki.qt.io/QtWayland#How_do_I_use_QtWayland.3F], use {{ic|1=-platform wayland}} or {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl}} [[environment variable]]. To force the usage of [[X11]] on a Wayland session, use {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=xcb}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Clutter ===
 +
 
 +
The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the {{Pkg|clutter}} package.
 +
 
 +
To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set {{ic|CLUTTER_BACKEND&#61;wayland}}.
 +
 
 +
=== SDL2 ===
 +
 
 +
To run a SDL2 application on Wayland, set {{ic|SDL_VIDEODRIVER&#61;wayland}}.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Many proprietary games come bundled with old versions of SDL, which don't support Wayland and might break entirely if you set {{ic|SDL_VIDEODRIVER&#61;wayland}}. To force the application to run with XWayland, set {{ic|SDL_VIDEODRIVER&#61;x11}}.}}
 +
 
 +
=== GLFW ===
 +
 
 +
To use GLFW with the Wayland backend, install the {{Pkg|glfw-wayland}} package (instead of {{Pkg|glfw-x11}}).
 +
 
 +
=== GLEW ===
 +
 
 +
To use GLEW with the Wayland backend, install the {{Pkg|glew-wayland}} package (instead of {{Pkg|glew}}).
 +
 
 +
=== EFL ===
 +
 
 +
EFL has complete Wayland support. To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/efl.html project page].
 +
 
 +
== Display managers ==
 +
 
 +
Below listed display managers which supports running Wayland compositors. The Type column indicates whether the display manager supports running on Wayland or not.
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
! Name
 +
! Type
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| GDM
 +
| Runs on Wayland
 +
| [[GNOME]] display manager.
 +
|-
 +
| LightDM
 +
| Runs on X11
 +
| Cross-desktop display manager.
 +
|-
 +
| Ly
 +
| Runs in console
 +
| TUI display manager written in C
 +
|-
 +
| SDDM
 +
| Runs on X11
 +
| QML-based display manager.
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
== Compositors ==
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
! Name
 +
! Type
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| GNOME
 +
| Stacking
 +
| See [[GNOME#Starting]].
 +
|-
 +
| sway
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [[Sway]] is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. [https://github.com/SirCmpwn/sway GitHub]
 +
|-
 +
| Enlightenment
 +
| Stacking and tiling
 +
| [https://www.enlightenment.org/about-wayland More Info]
 +
|-
 +
| KDE Plasma
 +
| Stacking
 +
| See [[KDE#Starting Plasma]]
 +
|-
 +
| Orbment
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [https://github.com/Cloudef/orbment orbment] (previously loliwm) is an abandoned tiling WM for Wayland.
 +
|-
 +
| Velox
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [[Velox]] is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by [[dwm]] and [[xmonad]].
 +
|-
 +
| Orbital
 +
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/giucam/orbital Orbital] is a Wayland compositor and shell (more akin to a WM than a DE) using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple but flexible and good looking Wayland desktop.
 +
|-
 +
| Liri Shell
 +
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/lirios/shell Liri Shell] is the desktop shell for [[Liri]], built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
 +
|-
 +
| Maynard
 +
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard Maynard] is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti. Not under development. [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard/issues/54#issuecomment-303422302][https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard/issues/55#issuecomment-373808518]
 +
|-
 +
| Motorcar
 +
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| [https://github.com/evil0sheep/motorcar Motorcar] is a Wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing using virtual reality.
 +
|-
 +
| Way Cooler
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [https://github.com/way-cooler/way-cooler Way Cooler] is a customizable (Lua config files) Wayland compositor written in Rust. Inspired by i3 and awesome.
 +
|-
 +
| Maze Compositor
 +
| Floating 3D
 +
| [https://github.com/imbavirus/mazecompositor Maze Compositor] is a 3D Qt based Wayland compositor
 +
|-
 +
| Cage
 +
| Kiosk
 +
| [https://www.hjdskes.nl/projects/cage/ Cage] is a Wayland compositor that displays a single fullscreen application
 +
|-
 +
| Greenfield
 +
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/udevbe/greenfield Greenfield] is a Wayland compositor that runs in a web browser and can display remote applications
 +
|-
 +
| Grefsen
 +
| Floating
 +
| [https://github.com/ec1oud/grefsen Grefsen] is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.
 +
|-
 +
| Waymonad
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [https://github.com/waymonad/waymonad Waymonad] is a Wayland compositor based on ideas from and inspired by xmonad
 +
|-
 +
| wayfire
 +
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/WayfireWM/wayfire Wayfire] is a general purpose compositor.
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
Some of the above may support [[display manager]]s. Check {{ic|/usr/share/wayland-sessions/''compositor''.desktop}} to see how they are started.
 +
 
 +
==Troubleshooting==
 +
 
 +
=== Gamma ===
 +
 
 +
While [[Redshift]] doesn't support Wayland (without a patch) it is possible to apply the desired temperature in [[tty]] before starting a compositor. For example:
 +
 
 +
redshift -m drm -PO 3000
 +
 
 +
Otherwise some compositors feature this option during runtime:
 +
 
 +
* [[GNOME]] provides features like [[Redshift]] out-of-the-box and has Wayland support. Enable [[GNOME#Night_Light|Night Light]] in Display settings.
 +
* Likewise, [[KDE Plasma]] provides ''Night Color'' which is Wayland-only.
 +
* On Sway 1.0 and other wlroots-based compositors, {{AUR|redshift-wlr-gamma-control-git}} can be used.
 +
* On Orbital, {{AUR|redshift-wayland-git}} can be used.
 +
 
 +
=== LLVM assertion failure ===
 +
 
 +
If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild {{Pkg|mesa}} without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.
 +
 
 +
This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM. You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:
 +
 
 +
$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so
 +
 
 +
=== Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes ===
  
=== Usage ===
+
Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the {{ic|1=CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling}} set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from {{ic|/etc/environment}} or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.
At first, you need a working Wayland compositor, like the one from demo applications, or an experimental version of KWin.
 
  
Then compile any qmake-based Qt project:
+
=== Cannot open display: :0 with Electron-based applications ===
$ export PATH=/opt/qt-qpa/bin:$PATH
 
$ export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/qt-qpa/lib
 
$ qmake
 
$ make
 
  
And run it by executing the compiled binary:
+
Make sure you haven't set GDK_BACKEND=wayland. Setting it globally will break Electron apps.
$ export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/qt-qpa/lib
 
$ export QT_QPA_PLATFORM=waylandgl
 
$ ./binaryname
 
  
=== Qt Compositor ===
+
=== Screen recording ===
There is ongoing work to make [http://labs.qt.nokia.com/2011/03/18/multi-process-lighthouse/ Qt-Compositor], a base layer to make custom Qt compositors on top of Wayland.
 
  
== Other GUI libraries ==
+
{{AUR|green-recorder}} and {{AUR|obs-gnome-screencast}} support screen recording on Wayland using GNOME screencast feature.
([http://wayland.freedesktop.org/toolkits.html page from official website])
 
  
===GTK+===
+
{{AUR|wf-recorder-git}} is a video recorder for wlroots-based compositors.
  
With GTK+ 3.0, GTK+ gained support for multiple backends at runtime and can switch between backends in the same way Qt can with lighthouse. The Wayland support is on the upstream GTK+ master branch but disabled by default. To try GTK+ on Wayland, check out gtk+ and pass <code>--enable-wayland</code> to configure:
+
{{AUR|wlrobs-hg}} is obs-studio plugin that allows you to screen capture on wlroots-based compositors.
  
$ git clone git://git.gnome.org/gtk+
+
=== Remote display ===
$ cd gtk+
 
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr --enable-x11-backend --enable-wayland-backend --enable-debug=yes
 
$ make
 
  
When both Wayland and X backends are enabled, GTK+ will default to the X11 backend, but this can be overridden by setting the <code>GDK_BACKEND</code> environment variable to <code>wayland</code>.
+
* (20190503) {{pkg|wlroots}} (used by [[sway]]) offers an RDP backend since version 0.6 [https://github.com/swaywm/wlroots/blob/master/docs/env_vars.md].
 +
* (20180401) mutter has now remote desktop enabled at compile time, see [https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/Mutter/RemoteDesktop] and {{Pkg|gnome-remote-desktop}} for details.
 +
* There was a merge of FreeRDP into Weston in 2013, enabled via a compile flag. The {{Pkg|weston}} package has it enabled since version 6.0.0.
 +
* {{AUR|waypipe-git}} is a transparent proxy for Wayland applications, with a wrapper command to run over [[SSH]]
  
{{Note|Alternatively, you can install {{AUR|gtk3-git}} from the [[AUR]].}}
+
=== Input grabbing in games, remote desktop and VM windows  ===
  
===Clutter===
+
In contrast to Xorg, Wayland does not allow exclusive input device grabbing, also known as active or explicit grab (e.g. [https://tronche.com/gui/x/xlib/input/XGrabKeyboard.html keyboard], [https://tronche.com/gui/x/xlib/input/XGrabPointer.html mouse]), instead, it depends on the Wayland compositor to pass keyboard shortcuts and confine the pointer device to the application window.
  
The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is in the master branch of the [http://git.gnome.org/browse/clutter main repo] and can be activated by passing <code>--with-flavour=wayland</code> to the configure script.
+
This change in input grabbing breaks current applications' behavior, meaning:
  
===SDL===
+
* Hotkey combinations and modifiers will be caught by the compositor and won't be sent to remote desktop and virtual machine windows.
 +
* The mouse pointer will not be restricted to the application's window which might cause a parallax effect where the location of the mouse pointer inside the window of the virtual machine or remote desktop is displaced from the host's mouse pointer.
  
Benjamin Franzke is working on a port of SDL to Wayland, it's available in his [http://cgit.freedesktop.org/~bnf/sdl-wayland/ sdl-wayland repo] on freedesktop.org. Further development upon Benjamins work was done by Andre Heider in his [https://github.com/dhewg/libsdl/tree/wl wayland branch] of libsdl.
+
Wayland solves this by adding protocol extensions for Wayland and XWayland. Support for these extensions is needed to be added to the Wayland compositors. In the case of native Wayland clients, the used widget toolkits (e.g GTK, QT) needs to support these extensions or the applications themselves if no widget toolkit is being used. In the case of Xorg applications, no changes in the applications or widget toolkits are needed as the XWayland support is enough.
  
===EFL===
+
These extensions are already included in {{pkg|wayland-protocols}}, and supported by {{pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} 1.20.
  
EFL has complete Wayland support. Please see [http://trac.enlightenment.org/e/wiki/Wayland here] for details.
+
The related extensions are:
  
==Window managers and desktop shells==
+
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/xwayland-keyboard-grab/xwayland-keyboard-grab-unstable-v1.xml XWayland keyboard grabbing protocol]
 +
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/keyboard-shortcuts-inhibit/keyboard-shortcuts-inhibit-unstable-v1.xml Compositor shortcuts inhibit protocol]
 +
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/relative-pointer/relative-pointer-unstable-v1.xml Relative pointer protocol]
 +
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/pointer-constraints/pointer-constraints-unstable-v1.xml Pointer constraints protocol]
  
===KDE===
+
Supporting Wayland compositors:
  
The KDE Wayland support is expected to come in three phases, with the first two phases expected to be completed this year during the KDE SC 4.8 and 4.9 development cycles. Please see [http://community.kde.org/KWin/Wayland here] for details.
+
* Mutter, [[GNOME]]'s compositor [https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=783342 since release 3.28].
  
Also, there is [http://blog.martin-graesslin.com/blog/2011/03/kwin-at-gsoc-2011/ early work] to make it possible to run KWin (KDE's window manager) on Wayland.
+
Supporting widget toolkits:
  
===GNOME===
+
* GTK since release 3.22.18.
  
GNOME will be ported to Wayland in a future version.
+
==== wlroots input inhibitor protocol ====
  
===Unity===
+
[https://github.com/swaywm/wlr-protocols/blob/master/unstable/wlr-input-inhibitor-unstable-v1.xml Input inhibitor] is a Wayland protocol which was defined the by developers of Sway and wlroots and is overlapping Wayland's {{ic|Compositor shortcuts inhibit}} protocol.<br/>
Ubuntu desktop shell Unity, using Compiz window manager, was [http://www.markshuttleworth.com/archives/551 announced] to be ported to Wayland.
+
Sway and wlroots do not support the {{ic|Compositor shortcuts inhibit}} and {{ic|XWayland keyboard grabbing}} protocols, and it seems they are against adding support for the latter [https://github.com/swaywm/wlroots/pull/635#issuecomment-366385856] [https://github.com/swaywm/wlroots/issues/624#issuecomment-367276476].<br/>
 +
No widget toolkit or application is known to support this protocol.
  
==See also==
+
== See also ==
* [[Cursor Themes]]
 
  
==External links==
+
* [https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/How_to_debug_Wayland_problems Article about Wayland debugging on Fedora Wiki]
 +
* [[Cursor themes]]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=107499 Arch Linux forum discussion]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=107499 Arch Linux forum discussion]
* [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/docs/html/ Wayland documentation online]
+
* [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/docs/html/ Wayland documentation online]

Latest revision as of 14:46, 12 October 2019

Wayland is a protocol for a compositing window manager to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing the protocol. It is supported on some desktop environments like GNOME and KDE. There is also a compositor reference implementation called Weston. XWayland provides a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy X11 applications in Wayland.

Requirements

Most Wayland compositors only work on systems using Kernel mode setting. Wayland by itself does not provide a graphical environment; for this you also need a compositor such as #Weston or Sway, or a desktop environment that includes a compositor like GNOME or KDE.

For the GPU driver and Wayland compositor to be compatible they must support the same buffer API. There are two main APIs: GBM and EGLStreams.

Buffer API GPU driver support Wayland compositor support
GBM All except NVIDIA All
EGLStreams NVIDIA GNOME, KDE

Weston

Weston is the reference implementation of a Wayland compositor.

Installation

Install the weston package.

Usage

Tip: Super (windows key) can be changed, see weston.ini
Keyboard Shortcuts
Cmd Action
Ctrl+Alt+Backspace Quit Weston
Super+Scroll (or PageUp/PageDown) Zoom in/out of desktop
Super+Tab Switch windows
Super+LMB Move Window
Super+MMB Rotate Window
Super+RMB Resize Window
Super+Alt+Scroll Change window opacity
Super+k Force Kill Active Window
Super+Up/Down Switch Prev/Next Workspace
Super+Shift+Up/Down Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace
Super+Fn Switch to Workspace n (e.g. F2)
Super+s Take a screenshot
Super+r Record a screencast

To launch Weston natively (from a TTY) or to run Weston inside a running X session:

$ weston

Then within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:

$ weston-terminal

To move flowers around the screen:

$ weston-flower 

To display images:

$ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...

Configuration

Weston's outputs differ slightly from those of xorg.conf Monitors:

$ ls /sys/class/drm
card0
card0-VGA-1
card1
card1-DVI-I-1
card1-HDMI-A-1
card1-VGA-2

card0 is the unused built-in video adapter. The add-on adapter card1 is cabled to one HDMI and one DVI monitor, so the output names are HDMI-A-1 and DVI-I-1.

Following is an example configuration file. See weston.ini(5) for more.

~/.config/weston.ini
[core]
# xwayland support
xwayland=true

[libinput]
enable-tap=true

[shell]
#background-image=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Aqua.jpg
background-type=scale-crop
background-color=0xff000000
#background-color=0xff002244
#panel-color=0x90ff0000
panel-color=0x00ffffff
panel-position=bottom
#clock-format=none
#animation=zoom
#startup-animation=none
close-animation=none
focus-animation=dim-layer
#binding-modifier=ctrl
num-workspaces=6
locking=false
cursor-theme=Adwaita
cursor-size=24

# tablet options
#lockscreen-icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/256x256/actions/lock.png
#lockscreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Garden.jpg
#homescreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Blinds.jpg
#animation=fade

# for Laptop displays
[output]
name=LVDS1
mode=preferred
#mode=1680x1050
#transform=90

#[output]
#name=VGA1
# The following sets the mode with a modeline, you can get modelines for your preffered resolutions using the cvt utility
#mode=173.00 1920 2048 2248 2576 1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync +vsync
#transform=flipped

#[output]
#name=X1
#mode=1024x768
#transform=flipped-270

# on screen keyboard input method
#[input-method]
#path=/usr/lib/weston/weston-keyboard

[keyboard]
keymap_rules=evdev
#keymap_layout=us,de
#keymap_variant=colemak,
#keymap_options=grp:shifts_toggle
#keymap_options=caps:ctrl_modifier,shift:both_capslock_cancel
repeat-rate=30
repeat-delay=300

# keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst
#numlock-on=true

[terminal]
font=monospace
font-size=18

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/weston/icon_flower.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-flower

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/32x32/apps/utilities-terminal.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal --shell=/usr/bin/bash

#[launcher]
#icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/32x32/apps/utilities-terminal.png
#path=/usr/bin/gnome-terminal

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/32x32/apps/firefox.png
path=MOZ_GTK_TITLEBAR_DECORATION=client /usr/bin/firefox

#[launcher]
#icon=/usr/share/icons/Adwaita/32x32/apps/multimedia-volume-control.png
#path=/usr/bin/st alsamixer -c0

Minimal weston.ini:

~/.config/weston.ini
[core]
xwayland=true

[keyboard]
keymap_layout=gb

[output]
name=LVDS1
mode=1680x1050
transform=90

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
path=/usr/bin/firefox


XWayland

Install the xorg-server-xwayland package.

When you want to run an X application from within Weston, it spins up Xwayland to service the request. The following configuration is shown above:

~/.config/weston.ini
[core]
xwayland=true
Note: if X is not already configured you may need to configure a keymap: Keyboard configuration in Xorg

High DPI displays

For Retina or HiDPI displays, use:

~/.config/weston.ini
[output]
name=...
scale=2

Shell font

Weston uses the default sans-serif font for window title bars, clocks, etc. See Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts for instructions on how to change this font.

Tips and tricks

Screencast recording

Weston has built-in screencast recording which can be started and stopped by pressing the Super+r key combination. Screencasts are saved to the file capture.wcap in the current working directory of Weston. The WCAP format is a lossless video format specific to Weston, which only records the difference in frames. To be able to play the recorded screencast, the WCAP file will need to be converted to a format which a media player can understand. First, convert the capture to the YUV pixel format:

$ wcap-decode --yuv4mpeg2 capture.wcap > capture.y4m

The YUV file can then be transcoded to other formats using FFmpeg or x264 (see x264 -h for more).

Window switching

To switch windows with Super+Space instead of Super+Tab change KEY_TAB to KEY_SPACE in desktop-shell/shell.c and recompile weston.

GUI libraries

See details on the official website.

GTK 3

The gtk3 package has the Wayland backend enabled. GTK will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: GDK_BACKEND=x11.

Qt 5

To enable Wayland support in Qt 5, install the qt5-wayland package.

To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin [1], use -platform wayland or QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl environment variable. To force the usage of X11 on a Wayland session, use QT_QPA_PLATFORM=xcb.

Clutter

The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the clutter package.

To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set CLUTTER_BACKEND=wayland.

SDL2

To run a SDL2 application on Wayland, set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland.

Note: Many proprietary games come bundled with old versions of SDL, which don't support Wayland and might break entirely if you set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland. To force the application to run with XWayland, set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=x11.

GLFW

To use GLFW with the Wayland backend, install the glfw-wayland package (instead of glfw-x11).

GLEW

To use GLEW with the Wayland backend, install the glew-wayland package (instead of glew).

EFL

EFL has complete Wayland support. To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland project page.

Display managers

Below listed display managers which supports running Wayland compositors. The Type column indicates whether the display manager supports running on Wayland or not.

Name Type Description
GDM Runs on Wayland GNOME display manager.
LightDM Runs on X11 Cross-desktop display manager.
Ly Runs in console TUI display manager written in C
SDDM Runs on X11 QML-based display manager.

Compositors

Name Type Description
GNOME Stacking See GNOME#Starting.
sway Tiling Sway is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. GitHub
Enlightenment Stacking and tiling More Info
KDE Plasma Stacking See KDE#Starting Plasma
Orbment Tiling orbment (previously loliwm) is an abandoned tiling WM for Wayland.
Velox Tiling Velox is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by dwm and xmonad.
Orbital Stacking Orbital is a Wayland compositor and shell (more akin to a WM than a DE) using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple but flexible and good looking Wayland desktop.
Liri Shell Stacking Liri Shell is the desktop shell for Liri, built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
Maynard (Unclear) Maynard is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti. Not under development. [2][3]
Motorcar (Unclear) Motorcar is a Wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing using virtual reality.
Way Cooler Tiling Way Cooler is a customizable (Lua config files) Wayland compositor written in Rust. Inspired by i3 and awesome.
Maze Compositor Floating 3D Maze Compositor is a 3D Qt based Wayland compositor
Cage Kiosk Cage is a Wayland compositor that displays a single fullscreen application
Greenfield Stacking Greenfield is a Wayland compositor that runs in a web browser and can display remote applications
Grefsen Floating Grefsen is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.
Waymonad Tiling Waymonad is a Wayland compositor based on ideas from and inspired by xmonad
wayfire Stacking Wayfire is a general purpose compositor.

Some of the above may support display managers. Check /usr/share/wayland-sessions/compositor.desktop to see how they are started.

Troubleshooting

Gamma

While Redshift doesn't support Wayland (without a patch) it is possible to apply the desired temperature in tty before starting a compositor. For example:

redshift -m drm -PO 3000

Otherwise some compositors feature this option during runtime:

LLVM assertion failure

If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild mesa without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.

This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM. You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:

$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so

Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes

Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from /etc/environment or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.

Cannot open display: :0 with Electron-based applications

Make sure you haven't set GDK_BACKEND=wayland. Setting it globally will break Electron apps.

Screen recording

green-recorderAUR and obs-gnome-screencastAUR support screen recording on Wayland using GNOME screencast feature.

wf-recorder-gitAUR is a video recorder for wlroots-based compositors.

wlrobs-hgAUR is obs-studio plugin that allows you to screen capture on wlroots-based compositors.

Remote display

  • (20190503) wlroots (used by sway) offers an RDP backend since version 0.6 [4].
  • (20180401) mutter has now remote desktop enabled at compile time, see [5] and gnome-remote-desktop for details.
  • There was a merge of FreeRDP into Weston in 2013, enabled via a compile flag. The weston package has it enabled since version 6.0.0.
  • waypipe-gitAUR is a transparent proxy for Wayland applications, with a wrapper command to run over SSH

Input grabbing in games, remote desktop and VM windows

In contrast to Xorg, Wayland does not allow exclusive input device grabbing, also known as active or explicit grab (e.g. keyboard, mouse), instead, it depends on the Wayland compositor to pass keyboard shortcuts and confine the pointer device to the application window.

This change in input grabbing breaks current applications' behavior, meaning:

  • Hotkey combinations and modifiers will be caught by the compositor and won't be sent to remote desktop and virtual machine windows.
  • The mouse pointer will not be restricted to the application's window which might cause a parallax effect where the location of the mouse pointer inside the window of the virtual machine or remote desktop is displaced from the host's mouse pointer.

Wayland solves this by adding protocol extensions for Wayland and XWayland. Support for these extensions is needed to be added to the Wayland compositors. In the case of native Wayland clients, the used widget toolkits (e.g GTK, QT) needs to support these extensions or the applications themselves if no widget toolkit is being used. In the case of Xorg applications, no changes in the applications or widget toolkits are needed as the XWayland support is enough.

These extensions are already included in wayland-protocols, and supported by xorg-server-xwayland 1.20.

The related extensions are:

Supporting Wayland compositors:

Supporting widget toolkits:

  • GTK since release 3.22.18.

wlroots input inhibitor protocol

Input inhibitor is a Wayland protocol which was defined the by developers of Sway and wlroots and is overlapping Wayland's Compositor shortcuts inhibit protocol.
Sway and wlroots do not support the Compositor shortcuts inhibit and XWayland keyboard grabbing protocols, and it seems they are against adding support for the latter [6] [7].
No widget toolkit or application is known to support this protocol.

See also