Difference between revisions of "Wayland"

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[[Category:X server]]
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[[Category:Graphical user interfaces]]
 
[[es:Wayland]]
 
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[[fr:Wayland]]
 
[[fr:Wayland]]
 
[[ja:Wayland]]
 
[[ja:Wayland]]
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[[pt:Wayland]]
 
[[ru:Wayland]]
 
[[ru:Wayland]]
[[zh-CN:Wayland]]
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[[zh-hans:Wayland]]
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related|KMS}}
 
{{Related|KMS}}
 
{{Related|Xorg}}
 
{{Related|Xorg}}
{{Related|Mir}}
 
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
'''Wayland''' is a new windowing protocol for Linux. Utilization of Wayland requires changes to and re-installation of parts of your system's software. For more information on Wayland see its [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/ homepage].
+
 
 +
[https://wayland.freedesktop.org/ Wayland] is a protocol for a [[wikipedia:Compositing window manager|compositing window manager]] to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing the protocol. It is supported on some desktop environments like [[GNOME]] and [[KDE]]. There is also a compositor reference implementation called [[Weston]]. XWayland provides a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy [[X11]] applications in Wayland.
  
 
== Requirements ==
 
== Requirements ==
  
Currently Wayland will only work on systems utilizing [[KMS]].
+
Most Wayland compositors only work on systems using [[Kernel mode setting]]. Wayland by itself does not provide a graphical environment; for this you also need a compositor such as [[Weston]] or [[Sway]], or a desktop environment that includes a compositor like [[GNOME]] or [[KDE]].
  
== Installation ==
+
For the GPU driver and Wayland compositor to be compatible they must support the same buffer API. There are two main APIs: [[Wikipedia:Generic Buffer Management|GBM]] and [https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=XDC2016-Device-Memory-API EGLStreams].
{{Note|Wayland is most likely installed on your system already, as it is an indirect dependency of {{Pkg|gtk2}} and {{Pkg|gtk3}}.}}
 
  
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|wayland}} package.
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Buffer API !! GPU driver support !! Wayland compositor support
 +
|-
 +
| GBM || All except [[NVIDIA]] || All
 +
|-
 +
| EGLStreams || [[NVIDIA]] || [[GNOME]], [[KDE]]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
== Usage ==
+
== Compositors ==
  
As Wayland is only a library, it is useless on its own. To replace X Server, you need a compositor (like Weston).
+
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
+
! Name
== Weston ==
+
! Type
 
+
! Description
=== Installation ===
+
|-
 
+
| Mutter
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|weston}} package.
+
| Stacking
 
+
| See [[GNOME#Starting]].
=== Usage ===
+
|-
 
+
| sway
{| class="wikitable" style="float: right; width: 200px;"
+
| Tiling
|+ '''''Keyboard Shortcuts''' (super = windows key - can be changed, see weston.ini)'' {{Ic|Ctrl-b}}
+
| [[Sway]] is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. [https://github.com/SirCmpwn/sway GitHub]
!Cmd
+
|-
!Action
+
| Enlightenment
 +
| Stacking and tiling
 +
| [https://www.enlightenment.org/about-wayland More Info]
 +
|-
 +
| KDE Kwin
 +
| Stacking
 +
| See [[KDE#Starting Plasma]]
 
|-
 
|-
|Ctrl + Alt + Backspace
+
| Orbment
|Quit Weston
+
| Tiling
 +
| [https://github.com/Cloudef/orbment orbment] (previously loliwm) is an abandoned tiling WM for Wayland.
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + Scroll (or PageUp/PageDown)
+
| Velox
|Zoom in/out of desktop
+
| Tiling
 +
| [[Velox]] is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by [[dwm]] and [[xmonad]].
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + Tab
+
| Orbital
|Switch windows
+
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/giucam/orbital Orbital] is a Wayland compositor and shell (more akin to a WM than a DE) using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple but flexible and good looking Wayland desktop.
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + LMB
+
| Liri Shell
|Move Window
+
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/lirios/shell Liri Shell] is the desktop shell for [[Liri]], built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + MMB
+
| Maynard
|Resize Window
+
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard Maynard] is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti. Not under development. [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard/issues/54#issuecomment-303422302][https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard/issues/55#issuecomment-373808518]
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + RMB
+
| Motorcar
|Rotate Window !
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| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| [https://github.com/evil0sheep/motorcar Motorcar] is a Wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing using virtual reality.
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + Alt + Scroll
+
| Maze Compositor
|Change window opacity
+
| Floating 3D
 +
| [https://github.com/imbavirus/mazecompositor Maze Compositor] is a 3D Qt based Wayland compositor
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + K
+
| Cage
|Force Kill Active Window
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| Kiosk
 +
| [https://www.hjdskes.nl/projects/cage/ Cage] is a Wayland compositor that displays a single fullscreen application
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + KeyUp/KeyDown
+
| Greenfield
|Switch Prev/Next Workspace
+
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/udevbe/greenfield Greenfield] is a Wayland compositor that runs in a web browser and can display remote applications
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + Shift + KeyUp/KeyDown
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| Grefsen
|Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace
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| Floating
 +
| [https://github.com/ec1oud/grefsen Grefsen] is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + F'''''n'''''
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| Waymonad
|Switch to Workspace '''''n'''''
+
| Tiling
 +
| [https://github.com/waymonad/waymonad Waymonad] is a Wayland compositor based on ideas from and inspired by xmonad
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + S
+
| wayfire
|Take a screenshot
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| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/WayfireWM/wayfire Wayfire] is a general purpose compositor.
 
|-
 
|-
|Super + R
+
| Weston
|Record a screencast.
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| Floating
 +
| [[Weston]] is a Wayland compositor reference implementation.
 
|}
 
|}
  
Now that Wayland and its requirements are installed you should be ready to test it out.  
+
Some of the above may support [[display manager]]s. Check {{ic|/usr/share/wayland-sessions/''compositor''.desktop}} to see how they are started.
  
It is possible to run Weston inside a running X session:
+
== Display managers ==
$ weston
 
  
Alternatively, to try to launch Weston natively, switch to a terminal and run:
+
Below listed display managers which supports running Wayland compositors. The Type column indicates whether the display manager supports running on Wayland or not.
$ weston-launch
 
  
Then at a TTY within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:
+
{| class="wikitable sortable"
$ weston-terminal
+
! Name
 +
! Type
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| [[GDM]]
 +
| Runs on Wayland
 +
| [[GNOME]] display manager.
 +
|-
 +
| [[LightDM]]
 +
| Runs on X11
 +
| Cross-desktop display manager.
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ly]]
 +
| Runs in console
 +
| TUI display manager written in C
 +
|-
 +
| [[SDDM]]
 +
| Runs on X11
 +
| QML-based display manager.
 +
|}
  
To move flowers around the screen:
+
== GUI libraries ==
$ weston-flower
 
  
To test the frame protocol (runs {{ic|glxgears}}):
+
See details on the [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/toolkits.html official website].
$ weston-gears
 
  
To display images:
+
=== GTK 3 ===
$ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...
 
  
=== Configuration ===
+
The {{Pkg|gtk3}} package has the Wayland backend enabled. GTK will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: {{ic|1=GDK_BACKEND=x11}}.
Example configuration file for keyboard layout, module selection and UI modifications. See {{ic|man weston.ini}} for full details:
 
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
 
<nowiki>[core]
 
### uncomment this line for xwayland support ###
 
#modules=xwayland.so
 
  
[shell]
+
=== Qt 5 ===
background-image=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Aqua.jpg
 
background-color=0xff002244
 
panel-color=0x90ff0000
 
locking=true
 
animation=zoom
 
#binding-modifier=ctrl
 
#num-workspaces=6
 
### for cursor themes install xcursor-themes pkg from Extra. ###
 
#cursor-theme=whiteglass
 
#cursor-size=24
 
  
### tablet options ###
+
To enable Wayland support in Qt 5, install the {{Pkg|qt5-wayland}} package.
#lockscreen-icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/256x256/actions/lock.png
 
#lockscreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Garden.jpg
 
#homescreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Blinds.jpg
 
#animation=fade
 
  
[keyboard]
+
To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin [https://wiki.qt.io/QtWayland#How_do_I_use_QtWayland.3F], use {{ic|1=-platform wayland}} or {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl}} [[environment variable]]. To force the usage of [[X11]] on a Wayland session, use {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=xcb}}.
keymap_rules=evdev
 
#keymap_layout=gb
 
#keymap_options=caps:ctrl_modifier,shift:both_capslock_cancel
 
### keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst ###
 
  
 +
=== Clutter ===
  
[terminal]
+
The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the {{Pkg|clutter}} package.
#font=DroidSansMono
 
#font-size=14
 
  
 +
To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set {{ic|1=CLUTTER_BACKEND=wayland}}.
  
 +
=== SDL2 ===
  
[launcher]
+
To run a SDL2 application on Wayland, set {{ic|1=SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland}}.
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 
path=/usr/bin/gnome-terminal
 
  
[launcher]
+
{{Note|Many proprietary games come bundled with old versions of SDL, which don't support Wayland and might break entirely if you set {{ic|1=SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland}}. To force the application to run with XWayland, set {{ic|1=SDL_VIDEODRIVER=x11}}.}}
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal
 
  
[launcher]
+
=== GLFW ===
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
 
path=/usr/bin/firefox
 
  
[launcher]
+
To use GLFW with the Wayland backend, install the {{Pkg|glfw-wayland}} package (instead of {{Pkg|glfw-x11}}).
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/arts.png
 
path=./clients/flower
 
  
[screensaver]
+
=== GLEW ===
# Uncomment path to disable screensaver
 
path=/usr/libexec/weston-screensaver
 
duration=600
 
  
[input-method]
+
To use GLEW with the Wayland backend, install the {{Pkg|glew-wayland}} package (instead of {{Pkg|glew}}).
path=/usr/libexec/weston-keyboard
 
  
###  for Laptop displays  ###
+
=== EFL ===
#[output]
 
#name=LVDS1
 
#mode=1680x1050
 
#transform=90
 
  
#[output]
+
EFL has complete Wayland support. To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/efl.html project page].
#name=VGA1
 
# The following sets the mode with a modeline, you can get modelines for your preffered resolutions using the cvt utility
 
#mode=173.00 1920 2048 2248 2576 1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync +vsync
 
#transform=flipped
 
  
#[output]
+
=== winit ===
#name=X1
 
#mode=1024x768
 
#transform=flipped-270</nowiki>
 
}}
 
  
Minimal {{ic|weston.ini}} :
+
Winit is window handling library in Rust. It will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: {{ic|1=WINIT_UNIX_BACKEND=x11}}.
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
 
<nowiki>[core]
 
modules=xwayland.so
 
  
[keyboard]
+
==Troubleshooting==
keymap_layout=gb
 
  
[launcher]
+
=== Gamma ===
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal
 
  
[launcher]
+
While [[Redshift]] doesn't support Wayland (without a patch) it is possible to apply the desired temperature in [[tty]] before starting a compositor. For example:
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
 
path=/usr/bin/firefox
 
  
 +
redshift -m drm -PO 3000
  
[output]
+
Otherwise some compositors feature this option during runtime:
name=LVDS1
 
mode=1680x1050
 
transform=90</nowiki>
 
}}
 
  
==== XWayland ====
+
* [[GNOME]] provides features like [[Redshift]] out-of-the-box and has Wayland support. Enable [[GNOME#Night_Light|Night Light]] in Display settings.
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} package.
+
* Likewise, [[KDE Plasma]] also provides ''Night Color''.
 +
* On Sway 1.0 and other wlroots-based compositors, {{AUR|redshift-wlr-gamma-control-git}} can be used.
 +
* On Orbital, {{AUR|redshift-wayland-git}} can be used.
  
When you want to run an X application from within Weston, it spins up Xwayland to service the request. The following configuration is shown above:
+
=== LLVM assertion failure ===
  
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
+
If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild {{Pkg|mesa}} without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.
<nowiki>[core]
 
modules=xwayland.so</nowiki>
 
}}
 
  
==== Screencast recording ====
+
This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM. You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:
Weston has build-in screencast recording which can be started and stopped by pressing the {{ic|Super+r}} key combination. Screencasts are saved to the file {{ic|capture.wcap}} in the current working directory of Weston.
 
  
The WCAP format is a lossless video format specific to Weston, which only records the difference in frames. To be able to play the recorded screencast, the WCAP file will need to be converted to a format which a media player can understand.
+
  $ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so
 
 
To convert the file to ''.webm'', execute:
 
 
 
  $ wcap-decode capture.wcap --yuv4mpeg2 | vpxenc --target-bitrate=1024 --best -t 4 -o foo.webm -
 
  
To convert the file to ''.ogv'', execute:
+
=== Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes ===
  
$ wcap-decode capture.wcap --yuv4mpeg2 | theora_encode - -o cap.ogv
+
Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the {{ic|1=CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling}} set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from {{ic|/etc/environment}} or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.
  
==== High DPI displays ====
+
=== Cannot open display: :0 with Electron-based applications ===
  
For [[wikipedia:Retina_Display|Retina]] or [[HiDPI]] displays, use:
+
Make sure you haven't set GDK_BACKEND=wayland. Setting it globally will break Electron apps.
  
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
+
=== Screen recording ===
<nowiki>[output]
 
name=...
 
scale=2</nowiki>
 
}}
 
  
==== Shell font ====
+
{{AUR|green-recorder}}, {{AUR|obs-gnome-screencast}} and {{AUR|obs-xdg-portal-git}} support screen recording on Wayland using GNOME screencast feature.
  
Weston uses the default sans-serif font for window title bars, clocks, etc. See [[Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts]] for instructions on how to change this font.
+
{{AUR|wf-recorder-git}} is a video recorder for wlroots-based compositors.
  
== GUI libraries ==
+
{{AUR|wlrobs-hg}} is a {{Pkg|obs-studio}} plugin that allows you to screen capture on wlroots-based compositors.
  
See details on the [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/toolkits.html official website].
+
=== Remote display ===
  
=== GTK+ 3 ===
+
* (20200206) {{pkg|wlroots}} (used by [[sway]]) offers an VNC backend via {{AUR|wayvnc}} since version 0.10. RDP backend has been removed. [https://github.com/swaywm/wlroots/releases/tag/0.10.0].
 +
* (20180401) {{pkg|mutter}} has now remote desktop enabled at compile time, see [https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/Mutter/RemoteDesktop] and {{Pkg|gnome-remote-desktop}} for details.
 +
* There was a merge of FreeRDP into Weston in 2013, enabled via a compile flag. The {{Pkg|weston}} package has it enabled since version 6.0.0.
 +
* {{AUR|waypipe-git}} is a transparent proxy for Wayland applications, with a wrapper command to run over [[SSH]]
  
The {{Pkg|gtk3}} package from the official repositories now has the Wayland backend enabled.
+
=== Input grabbing in games, remote desktop and VM windows  ===
  
GTK+ 3 gained support for multiple backends at runtime and can switch between backends in the same way Qt can with lighthouse.
+
In contrast to Xorg, Wayland does not allow exclusive input device grabbing, also known as active or explicit grab (e.g. [https://tronche.com/gui/x/xlib/input/XGrabKeyboard.html keyboard], [https://tronche.com/gui/x/xlib/input/XGrabPointer.html mouse]), instead, it depends on the Wayland compositor to pass keyboard shortcuts and confine the pointer device to the application window.
  
When both Wayland and X backends are enabled, GTK+ will default to the X11 backend, but this can be overridden by modifying an environment variable: {{ic|GDK_BACKEND&#61;wayland}}.
+
This change in input grabbing breaks current applications' behavior, meaning:
  
=== Qt 5 ===
+
* Hotkey combinations and modifiers will be caught by the compositor and won't be sent to remote desktop and virtual machine windows.
The {{Grp|qt5}} package from the repositories has the Wayland support.
+
* The mouse pointer will not be restricted to the application's window which might cause a parallax effect where the location of the mouse pointer inside the window of the virtual machine or remote desktop is displaced from the host's mouse pointer.
To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin, set the {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl}} [[environment variable]].
 
  
=== Clutter ===
+
Wayland solves this by adding protocol extensions for Wayland and XWayland. Support for these extensions is needed to be added to the Wayland compositors. In the case of native Wayland clients, the used widget toolkits (e.g GTK, Qt) needs to support these extensions or the applications themselves if no widget toolkit is being used. In the case of Xorg applications, no changes in the applications or widget toolkits are needed as the XWayland support is enough.
  
The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the official package in extra.
+
These extensions are already included in {{pkg|wayland-protocols}}, and supported by {{pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} 1.20.
  
To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set {{ic|CLUTTER_BACKEND&#61;wayland}}.
+
The related extensions are:
  
=== SDL ===
+
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/xwayland-keyboard-grab/xwayland-keyboard-grab-unstable-v1.xml XWayland keyboard grabbing protocol]
 +
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/keyboard-shortcuts-inhibit/keyboard-shortcuts-inhibit-unstable-v1.xml Compositor shortcuts inhibit protocol]
 +
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/relative-pointer/relative-pointer-unstable-v1.xml Relative pointer protocol]
 +
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/pointer-constraints/pointer-constraints-unstable-v1.xml Pointer constraints protocol]
  
Experimental wayland support is now in SDL 2.0.2 and enabled by default on Arch Linux.
+
Supporting Wayland compositors:
  
To run a SDL application on Wayland, set {{ic|SDL_VIDEODRIVER&#61;wayland}}.
+
* Mutter, [[GNOME]]'s compositor [https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=783342 since release 3.28].
  
=== GLFW ===
+
Supporting widget toolkits:
  
Experimental wayland support is now in GLFW 3.1 and can be enabled with the {{ic|-DGLFW_USE_WAYLAND&#61;ON}} CMake option at compile time. You can also install the package {{AUR|glfw-wayland-git}} from the AUR.
+
* GTK since release 3.22.18.
  
=== EFL ===
+
==== wlroots input inhibitor protocol ====
  
EFL has complete Wayland support.  
+
[https://github.com/swaywm/wlr-protocols/blob/master/unstable/wlr-input-inhibitor-unstable-v1.xml Input inhibitor] is a Wayland protocol which was defined the by developers of Sway and wlroots and is overlapping Wayland's {{ic|Compositor shortcuts inhibit}} protocol.<br/>
To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/efl.html project page].
+
Sway and wlroots do not support the {{ic|Compositor shortcuts inhibit}} and {{ic|XWayland keyboard grabbing}} protocols, and it seems they are against adding support for the latter [https://github.com/swaywm/wlroots/pull/635#issuecomment-366385856] [https://github.com/swaywm/wlroots/issues/624#issuecomment-367276476].<br/>
 +
No widget toolkit or application is known to support this protocol.
  
== Window managers and desktop shells ==
+
== See also ==
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
! Name
 
! Type
 
! Description
 
|-
 
| GNOME
 
| Compositing
 
| See [[GNOME#Starting GNOME]].
 
|-
 
| Hawaii
 
| ''(Unclear)''
 
| See [[Hawaii]].
 
|-
 
| sway
 
| Tiling
 
| [https://github.com/SirCmpwn/sway Sway] is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland.
 
|-
 
| KDE
 
| Compositing
 
| [[KDE]] 4.11 added support for [http://blog.martin-graesslin.com/blog/2013/06/starting-a-full-kde-plasma-session-in-wayland/ KWin under Wayland system compositor]. With [https://community.kde.org/KWin/Wayland#Start_a_Plasma_session_on_Wayland KDE Plasma 5.4], the first technology preview of a Wayland session is released but it is currently targeted for the mobile platform and does not yet allow to use it as a full replacement for Xorg based desktop.
 
|-
 
| Orbment
 
| Tiling
 
| [https://github.com/Cloudef/orbment orbment] (previously loliwm) is a tiling WM for Wayland.
 
|-
 
| Velox
 
| Tiling
 
| [https://github.com/michaelforney/velox velox] is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by [[dwm]] and [[xmonad]].
 
|-
 
| Orbital
 
| Compositing
 
| [https://github.com/giucam/orbital Orbital] is a Wayland compositor and shell, using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple yet flexible and good looking Wayland desktop. It is not a full fledged DE but rather the analogue of a WM in the X11 world, such as [[Awesome]] or [[Fluxbox]].
 
|-
 
| Papyros Shell
 
| ''(Unclear)''
 
| [https://github.com/papyros/papyros-shell Papyros Shell] is the desktop shell for [http://papyros.io Papyros], built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
 
|-
 
| Maynard
 
| ''(Unclear)''
 
| [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard Maynard] is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti.
 
|-
 
| Motorcar
 
| ''(Unclear)''
 
| [https://github.com/evil0sheep/motorcar Motorcar] is a wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing.
 
|}
 
 
 
Some of installed wayland desktop clients might store information in {{ic|/usr/share/wayland-sessions/*.desktop}} files about how to start them in wayland.
 
  
==Troubleshooting==
+
* [https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/How_to_debug_Wayland_problems Article about Wayland debugging on Fedora Wiki]
 
 
=== LLVM assertion failure ===
 
If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild {{Pkg|mesa}} without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.
 
 
 
This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM.
 
You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:
 
 
 
$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so
 
 
 
=== Weston fails to launch after update to 1.7 ===
 
This is possibly caused by the {{ic|desktop-shell.so}} module being loaded by your {{ic|weston.ini}}. This used to be required, but is not anymore.
 
 
 
Remove it from the {{ic|[core]}} section:
 
 
 
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
 
<nowiki>[core]
 
modules=xwayland.so,desktop-shell.so</nowiki>
 
}}
 
 
 
So that you end up with:
 
 
 
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
 
<nowiki>[core]
 
modules=xwayland.so</nowiki>
 
}}
 
 
 
== See also ==
 
 
* [[Cursor themes]]
 
* [[Cursor themes]]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=107499 Arch Linux forum discussion]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=107499 Arch Linux forum discussion]
* [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/docs/html/ Wayland documentation online]
+
* [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/docs/html/ Wayland documentation online]

Latest revision as of 05:26, 6 February 2020

Wayland is a protocol for a compositing window manager to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing the protocol. It is supported on some desktop environments like GNOME and KDE. There is also a compositor reference implementation called Weston. XWayland provides a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy X11 applications in Wayland.

Requirements

Most Wayland compositors only work on systems using Kernel mode setting. Wayland by itself does not provide a graphical environment; for this you also need a compositor such as Weston or Sway, or a desktop environment that includes a compositor like GNOME or KDE.

For the GPU driver and Wayland compositor to be compatible they must support the same buffer API. There are two main APIs: GBM and EGLStreams.

Buffer API GPU driver support Wayland compositor support
GBM All except NVIDIA All
EGLStreams NVIDIA GNOME, KDE

Compositors

Name Type Description
Mutter Stacking See GNOME#Starting.
sway Tiling Sway is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. GitHub
Enlightenment Stacking and tiling More Info
KDE Kwin Stacking See KDE#Starting Plasma
Orbment Tiling orbment (previously loliwm) is an abandoned tiling WM for Wayland.
Velox Tiling Velox is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by dwm and xmonad.
Orbital Stacking Orbital is a Wayland compositor and shell (more akin to a WM than a DE) using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple but flexible and good looking Wayland desktop.
Liri Shell Stacking Liri Shell is the desktop shell for Liri, built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
Maynard (Unclear) Maynard is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti. Not under development. [1][2]
Motorcar (Unclear) Motorcar is a Wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing using virtual reality.
Maze Compositor Floating 3D Maze Compositor is a 3D Qt based Wayland compositor
Cage Kiosk Cage is a Wayland compositor that displays a single fullscreen application
Greenfield Stacking Greenfield is a Wayland compositor that runs in a web browser and can display remote applications
Grefsen Floating Grefsen is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.
Waymonad Tiling Waymonad is a Wayland compositor based on ideas from and inspired by xmonad
wayfire Stacking Wayfire is a general purpose compositor.
Weston Floating Weston is a Wayland compositor reference implementation.

Some of the above may support display managers. Check /usr/share/wayland-sessions/compositor.desktop to see how they are started.

Display managers

Below listed display managers which supports running Wayland compositors. The Type column indicates whether the display manager supports running on Wayland or not.

Name Type Description
GDM Runs on Wayland GNOME display manager.
LightDM Runs on X11 Cross-desktop display manager.
Ly Runs in console TUI display manager written in C
SDDM Runs on X11 QML-based display manager.

GUI libraries

See details on the official website.

GTK 3

The gtk3 package has the Wayland backend enabled. GTK will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: GDK_BACKEND=x11.

Qt 5

To enable Wayland support in Qt 5, install the qt5-wayland package.

To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin [3], use -platform wayland or QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl environment variable. To force the usage of X11 on a Wayland session, use QT_QPA_PLATFORM=xcb.

Clutter

The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the clutter package.

To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set CLUTTER_BACKEND=wayland.

SDL2

To run a SDL2 application on Wayland, set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland.

Note: Many proprietary games come bundled with old versions of SDL, which don't support Wayland and might break entirely if you set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland. To force the application to run with XWayland, set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=x11.

GLFW

To use GLFW with the Wayland backend, install the glfw-wayland package (instead of glfw-x11).

GLEW

To use GLEW with the Wayland backend, install the glew-wayland package (instead of glew).

EFL

EFL has complete Wayland support. To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland project page.

winit

Winit is window handling library in Rust. It will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: WINIT_UNIX_BACKEND=x11.

Troubleshooting

Gamma

While Redshift doesn't support Wayland (without a patch) it is possible to apply the desired temperature in tty before starting a compositor. For example:

redshift -m drm -PO 3000

Otherwise some compositors feature this option during runtime:

LLVM assertion failure

If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild mesa without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.

This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM. You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:

$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so

Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes

Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from /etc/environment or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.

Cannot open display: :0 with Electron-based applications

Make sure you haven't set GDK_BACKEND=wayland. Setting it globally will break Electron apps.

Screen recording

green-recorderAUR, obs-gnome-screencastAUR and obs-xdg-portal-gitAUR support screen recording on Wayland using GNOME screencast feature.

wf-recorder-gitAUR is a video recorder for wlroots-based compositors.

wlrobs-hgAUR is a obs-studio plugin that allows you to screen capture on wlroots-based compositors.

Remote display

  • (20200206) wlroots (used by sway) offers an VNC backend via wayvncAUR since version 0.10. RDP backend has been removed. [4].
  • (20180401) mutter has now remote desktop enabled at compile time, see [5] and gnome-remote-desktop for details.
  • There was a merge of FreeRDP into Weston in 2013, enabled via a compile flag. The weston package has it enabled since version 6.0.0.
  • waypipe-gitAUR is a transparent proxy for Wayland applications, with a wrapper command to run over SSH

Input grabbing in games, remote desktop and VM windows

In contrast to Xorg, Wayland does not allow exclusive input device grabbing, also known as active or explicit grab (e.g. keyboard, mouse), instead, it depends on the Wayland compositor to pass keyboard shortcuts and confine the pointer device to the application window.

This change in input grabbing breaks current applications' behavior, meaning:

  • Hotkey combinations and modifiers will be caught by the compositor and won't be sent to remote desktop and virtual machine windows.
  • The mouse pointer will not be restricted to the application's window which might cause a parallax effect where the location of the mouse pointer inside the window of the virtual machine or remote desktop is displaced from the host's mouse pointer.

Wayland solves this by adding protocol extensions for Wayland and XWayland. Support for these extensions is needed to be added to the Wayland compositors. In the case of native Wayland clients, the used widget toolkits (e.g GTK, Qt) needs to support these extensions or the applications themselves if no widget toolkit is being used. In the case of Xorg applications, no changes in the applications or widget toolkits are needed as the XWayland support is enough.

These extensions are already included in wayland-protocols, and supported by xorg-server-xwayland 1.20.

The related extensions are:

Supporting Wayland compositors:

Supporting widget toolkits:

  • GTK since release 3.22.18.

wlroots input inhibitor protocol

Input inhibitor is a Wayland protocol which was defined the by developers of Sway and wlroots and is overlapping Wayland's Compositor shortcuts inhibit protocol.
Sway and wlroots do not support the Compositor shortcuts inhibit and XWayland keyboard grabbing protocols, and it seems they are against adding support for the latter [6] [7].
No widget toolkit or application is known to support this protocol.

See also