Difference between revisions of "Wayland"

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{{Warning|The steps in this section set out ''to replace your graphics stack''. An incomplete installation could result in a broken graphical environment.}}
{{Warning|The steps in this section set out ''to replace your graphics stack''. An incomplete installation could result in a broken graphical environment.}}
If you plan to run native X-applications inside Wayland, then you have to install {{AUR|xorg-server-xwayland-git}} and either patched graphic drivers according to your system, e.g. {{AUR|xf86-video-intel-xwayland-git}}, or the generic wlglamor fallback found at {{AUR|xf86-video-wlglamor-git}}. After that, create or modify following configuration file:
If you plan to run native X-applications inside Wayland, then you have to install {{AUR|xorg-server-xwayland}} and either patched graphic drivers according to your system, e.g. {{AUR|xf86-video-intel-xwayland-git}}, or the generic wlglamor fallback found at {{AUR|xf86-video-wlglamor-git}}. After that, create or modify following configuration file:

Revision as of 04:16, 10 November 2013

zh-CN:Wayland Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end Wayland is a new windowing protocol for Linux. Utilization of Wayland requires changes to and re-installation of parts of your system's software. For more information on Wayland see its homepage.

Warning: Wayland is under heavy development. Support can not be guaranteed and it may not function as you expect.


Currently Wayland will only work on a system that is utilizing KMS.


Wayland is most probably installed on your system already as it is an indirect dependency of gtk2 and gtk3. If it is not installed, you will find the wayland package in the official repositories.


As Wayland is only a library, it is useless on its own. To use it, you need a compositor (like Weston), Weston demo applications, Qt5 with Wayland plugin, and/or GTK+ with Wayland support.



You need to install weston from the official repositories.


Keyboard Shortcuts (super = windows key - can be changed, see weston.ini) Ctrl-b
Cmd Action
Ctrl + Alt + Backspace Quit Weston
Super + Scroll (or PageUp/PageDown) Zoom in/out of desktop
Super + Tab Switch windows
Super + LMB Move Window
Super + MMB Resize Window
Super + RMB Rotate Window !
Super + Tab Switch windows
Super + K Force Kill Active Window
Super + KeyUp/KeyDown Switch Prev/Next Workspace
Super + Shift + KeyUp/KeyDown Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace
Super + Fn Switch to Workspace n

Now that Wayland and its requirements are installed you should be ready to test it out.


You need to be in the video group for Weston to start; this command is not supposed to be run as root and doing so may freeze your VT !

It is possible to run Weston inside a running X session:

$ weston

Alternatively, to launch Weston natively, try switching to a terminal and running:

$ weston-launch

Then at a TTY within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:

$ weston-terminal

To move flowers around the screen:

$ weston-flower 

To test the frame protocol (runs glxgears):

$ weston-gears

To display images:

$ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...

To display PDF Files:

$ weston-view doc1.pdf doc2.pdf...


Example configuration file for keyboard layout, module selection and UI modifications. See man weston.ini for full details:

### uncomment this line for xwayland support ###

### for cursor themes install xcursor-themes pkg from Extra. ###

### tablet options ###

### keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst ###






# Uncomment path to disable screensaver


###  for Laptop displays  ###

#modeline=173.00 1920 2048 2248 2576 1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync +vsync


Minimal weston.ini :







Warning: The steps in this section set out to replace your graphics stack. An incomplete installation could result in a broken graphical environment.

If you plan to run native X-applications inside Wayland, then you have to install xorg-server-xwaylandAUR and either patched graphic drivers according to your system, e.g. xf86-video-intel-xwayland-gitAUR, or the generic wlglamor fallback found at xf86-video-wlglamor-gitAUR. After that, create or modify following configuration file:


Now you can also run X applications in some kind of "compatibility mode". Final XWayland support should be available with the version 1.16 X-server release which is not due to land until mid 2014.

The AUR packages may require some modification in order to compile successfully though (see this thread). An alternative is to compile directly from source. This can be done in 3 steps (it is assumed you already have the base-devel group installed).

First install the standard XOrg packages and the appropriate video driver, this will pull in the required dependencies.

Note: Unless you are on a fresh installation, you likely already have these. Just ensure you have the latest versions and if using ATI or NVIDIA that you are using the open source drivers. Wayland graphics hardware support seems to go Intel > ATI > NVidia so YMMV on non-Intel hardware. However the new xf86-video-wlshm driver has been produced with the purpose of having high compatibility across all hardware stacks.
# pacman -S xorg-server xorg-server-utils xorg-xinit mesa
# pacman -S xf86-video-yourdriver

Second, checkout and compile the XWayland xorg server.

Note: If you have 3GB of RAM or more, performing these operations in memory (e.g. /tmp) is probably a good idea.
$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/xorg/xserver -b xwayland
$ cd xserver
$ ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/  --enable-xorg --enable-wayland
$ make

# make install

Third, checkout and compile your video driver. The repos can be found on the official Wayland website. As noted above, xf86-video-wlshm is likely a good option for non-Intel graphics. Following are the instructions for Intel hardware.

$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/xorg/driver/xf86-video-intel -b xwayland
$ cd xf86-video-intel
$ ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/ --enable-dri --disable-xaa --with-default-accel=sna
$ make

# make install

If your Intel graphics are pre-Sandybridge use --with-default-accel=uxa instead.

Now that you have replaced your xorg-server and graphics driver with the XWayland patched versions you should be able to run XWayland. To test, check that you have a small X application like xterm or xclock in your path, fire up Weston using weston-launch, open weston-terminal and run the X application.

What is XWayland ?

XWayland is an XOrg server and compiles as a drop in replacement. The only difference is that it is sourced from the Wayland branch of the xorg-server repository and as such has the Wayland extensions. These extensions allow it to run as a client of Weston.

When you want to run an X application from within Weston, it spins up this modified X server to service the request.

GUI libraries

(See details on the official website)


You need to install gtk3 from the official repositories, which now has the Wayland backend enabled.

With GTK+ 3.0, GTK+ gained support for multiple backends at runtime and can switch between backends in the same way Qt can with lighthouse.

When both Wayland and X backends are enabled, GTK+ will default to the X11 backend, but this can be overridden by modifying an environment variable: GDK_BACKEND=wayland.


You need to install qt5-base and the wayland plugin qtwayland-gitAUR.

To run a Qt5 app with the Wayland plugin, set QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl.


The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the official package in extra.

To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set CLUTTER_BACKEND=wayland.


Benjamin Franzke is working on a port of SDL to Wayland, it is available in his sdl-wayland repo on freedesktop.org. Further development upon Benjamins work was done by Andre Heider in his wayland branch of libsdl. Scott Moreau picked up where others left and fixed the library to work with 1.0 protocol. You can find his work in wayland branch of SDL repository.

To run a SDL application on Wayland, set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland.


EFL has complete Wayland support. To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland project page.

Window managers and desktop shells


KDE 4.11 beta supports starting KWin under Wayland system compositor. There is currently no support for using KWin as a session compositor.


Since version 3.10, Gnome has experimental Wayland support but you have to install xwayland-gitAUR and a equivalent patched graphics driver, e.g. xf86-video-intel-xwayland-gitAUR to get Mutter to work. For details look into the GNOME wiki.

gnome-session --session=gnome-wayland


Some developers from i3 have sprouted a completely new project for implementing a shell plugin for Weston to implement the same features and style of i3.

Pure Wayland

Warning: Some really quick notes on installing a pure (no X11) Wayland system on Arch Linux. This is from source and installed into /usr/local. May break your system. You have been warned.

First install a base Arch Linux install with base and base-devel. Do not install xorg or any of its libraries.

Wayland, DRM, Pixman, libxkbcommon

$ pacman -S wayland libdrm pixman libxkbcommon


$ sudo pacman -S python2 libxml2 llvm
$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/mesa/mesa
$ cd mesa
$ CFLAGS=-DMESA_EGL_NO_X11_HEADERS ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local --enable-gles2 --disable-gallium-egl --with-egl-platforms=wayland,drm --enable-gbm --enable-shared-glapi --with-gallium-drivers=r300,r600,swrast,nouveau --disable-glx --disable-xlib
$ make
$ sudo make install


Note - no glx/gl or xcb - EGL only.

$ pacman -S libpng
$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/cairo
$ cd cairo
$ CFLAGS=-DMESA_EGL_NO_X11_HEADERS ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local/  --disable-xcb  --enable-glesv2 
$ make
$ sudo make install


$ sudo pacman -S gegl mtdev
(choose mesa-gl from options for libgl)
$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/wayland/weston
$ cd weston/
$ CFLAGS="-DMESA_EGL_NO_X11_HEADERS" ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local/ --with-cairo-glesv2 --disable-xwayland --disable-x11-compositor --disable-xwayland-test
$ make
$ sudo make install


LLVM assertion failure

If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild mesa without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.

This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM. You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:

$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so

See also