Difference between revisions of "Wayland"

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[[Category:X Server]]
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[[Category:X server]]
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[[es:Wayland]]
 
[[fr:Wayland]]
 
[[fr:Wayland]]
 
[[ja:Wayland]]
 
[[ja:Wayland]]
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[[ru:Wayland]]
 
[[zh-CN:Wayland]]
 
[[zh-CN:Wayland]]
{{Article summary start}}
+
{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary text|A guide to installing and running the Wayland display server.}}
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{{Related|KMS}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
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{{Related|Xorg}}
{{Article summary wiki|KMS}}
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{{Related|Mir}}
{{Article summary wiki|Xorg}}
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{{Related articles end}}
{{Article summary end}}
+
  
'''Wayland''' is a new windowing protocol for Linux. Utilization of Wayland requires changes to and re-installation of parts of your system's software. For more information on Wayland see its [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/ homepage].
+
[http://wayland.freedesktop.org/ Wayland] is a protocol for a [[wikipedia:Compositing window manager|compositor]] to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing this protocol. All major Linux desktop systems like Gnome, KDE do support Wayland, and there is also a reference implementation for a compositor called "Weston". [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/xserver.html XWayland] implements a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy X11 applications on Wayland.
  
{{Warning|Wayland is under heavy development.  Support can not be guaranteed and it may not function as you expect.}}
+
{{Expansion|Link to bug report; does this really fit in the intro? This is the biggest issue according to whom?}}
 +
 
 +
The biggest issue is, in 2016, with screen recording, as applications do not see other applications contents any more.
  
 
== Requirements ==
 
== Requirements ==
Currently Wayland will only work with on a system that is utilizing [[KMS]].
 
  
== Installation ==
+
Wayland only works on systems using [[KMS]]. As Wayland is only a library, it is useless on its own: to replace the X Server you need a compositor such as [[#Weston]].
Wayland is most probably installed on your system already as it is an indirect dependency of {{pkg|gtk2}} and {{pkg|gtk3}}. If it is not installed, you will find the {{pkg|wayland}} package in extra.
+
 
+
== Usage ==
+
As Wayland is only a library, it is useless on its own. To use it, you need a compositor (like Weston), Weston demo applications, Qt5 with Wayland plugin, and/or GTK+ with Wayland support.
+
  
 
== Weston ==
 
== Weston ==
 +
 +
Weston is the reference implementation of a Wayland compositor.
 +
 
=== Installation ===
 
=== Installation ===
You need to install {{pkg|weston}} from community.
+
 
 +
Install the {{Pkg|weston}} package.
  
 
=== Usage ===
 
=== Usage ===
Now that Wayland and its requirements are installed you should be ready to test it out. Try switching to a terminal and running:
 
$ weston-launch
 
{{Note|You need to be in the video group for Weston to start; this command is not supposed to be run as root and doing that may freeze your VT. }}
 
{{Note|If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild {{Pkg|mesa}} without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed. This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM.}}
 
  
You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:  
+
{{Style|Violates [[Help:Style#Keyboard keys]].}}
$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so
+
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="float: right; width: 40%; margin-left: 1em"
 +
|+ '''''Keyboard Shortcuts''' (super = windows key - can be changed, see weston.ini)'' {{Ic|Ctrl-b}}
 +
!Cmd
 +
!Action
 +
|-
 +
|Ctrl + Alt + Backspace
 +
|Quit Weston
 +
|-
 +
|Super + Scroll (or PageUp/PageDown)
 +
|Zoom in/out of desktop
 +
|-
 +
|Super + Tab
 +
|Switch windows
 +
|-
 +
|Super + LMB
 +
|Move Window
 +
|-
 +
|Super + MMB
 +
|Rotate Window !
 +
|-
 +
|Super + RMB
 +
|Resize Window
 +
|-
 +
|Super + Alt + Scroll
 +
|Change window opacity
 +
|-
 +
|Super + K
 +
|Force Kill Active Window
 +
|-
 +
|Super + KeyUp/KeyDown
 +
|Switch Prev/Next Workspace
 +
|-
 +
|Super + Shift + KeyUp/KeyDown
 +
|Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace
 +
|-
 +
|Super + F'''''n'''''
 +
|Switch to Workspace '''''n'''''
 +
|-
 +
|Super + S
 +
|Take a screenshot
 +
|-
 +
|Super + R
 +
|Record a screencast.
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
Now that Wayland and its requirements are installed you should be ready to test it out.  
  
 
It is possible to run Weston inside a running X session:
 
It is possible to run Weston inside a running X session:
 
  $ weston
 
  $ weston
  
Then at a TTY you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:
+
Alternatively, to try to launch Weston natively, switch to a terminal and run:
 +
$ weston-launch
 +
 
 +
Then at a TTY within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:
 
  $ weston-terminal
 
  $ weston-terminal
  
 
To move flowers around the screen:
 
To move flowers around the screen:
 
  $ weston-flower  
 
  $ weston-flower  
 
To test the frame protocol (runs {{ic|glxgears}}):
 
$ weston-gears
 
  
 
To display images:
 
To display images:
 
  $ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...
 
  $ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...
  
To display PDF Files:
+
=== Configuration ===
$ weston-view doc1.pdf doc2.pdf...
+
Example configuration file for keyboard layout, module selection and UI modifications. See {{man|5|weston.ini|url=}} for full details. The Weston outputs differ slightly from {{ic|xorg.conf}}'s Monitors:
  
== GUI libraries ==
+
$ ls /sys/class/drm
([http://wayland.freedesktop.org/toolkits.html page from official website])
+
card0
 +
card0-VGA-1
 +
card1
 +
card1-DVI-I-1
 +
card1-HDMI-A-1
 +
card1-VGA-2
  
===GTK+===
+
{{ic|card0}} is the unused built-in video adapter. The add-on adapter {{ic|card1}} is cabled to one HDMI and one DVI monitor, so the output names are {{ic|HDMI-A-1}} and {{ic|DVI-I-1}}.
  
You need to install {{pkg|gtk3}} from extra, which now has the Wayland backend enabled.
+
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|<nowiki>
 +
[core]
 +
# xwayland support
 +
modules=xwayland.so
  
With GTK+ 3.0, GTK+ gained support for multiple backends at runtime and can switch between backends in the same way Qt can with lighthouse.
+
[libinput]
 +
enable_tap=true
  
When both Wayland and X backends are enabled, GTK+ will default to the X11 backend, but this can be overridden by setting the <code>GDK_BACKEND</code> environment variable to <code>wayland</code>.
+
[shell]
 +
background-image=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Aqua.jpg
 +
background-color=0xff002244
 +
panel-color=0x90ff0000
 +
locking=true
 +
animation=zoom
 +
close-animation=fade
 +
focus-animation=dim-layer
 +
#binding-modifier=ctrl
 +
#num-workspaces=6
 +
### for cursor themes install xcursor-themes pkg from Extra. ###
 +
#cursor-theme=whiteglass
 +
#cursor-size=24
  
Remove {{pkg|libcanberra}} if you get segmentation faults when running gtk applications. A [http://git.0pointer.de/?p=libcanberra.git;a=commit;h=c0620e432650e81062c1967cc669829dbd29b310 fix] for these segfaults has been committed as of 9 Nov 2012, so presumably as soon as 0.31.0 comes out, this should not be necessary anymore. The AUR contains a working git based {{aur|libcanberra-git}} if you want to keep the functionality.
+
### tablet options ###
 +
#lockscreen-icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/256x256/actions/lock.png
 +
#lockscreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Garden.jpg
 +
#homescreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Blinds.jpg
 +
#animation=fade
  
===Qt5===
+
###  for Laptop displays  ###
 +
#[output]
 +
#name=LVDS1
 +
#mode=1680x1050
 +
#transform=90
  
You need to install {{pkg|qt5-base}} and the wayland plugin - {{aur|qt5-qtwayland-git}}.
+
#[output]
 +
#name=VGA1
 +
# The following sets the mode with a modeline, you can get modelines for your preffered resolutions using the cvt utility
 +
#mode=173.00 1920 2048 2248 2576 1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync +vsync
 +
#transform=flipped
  
To run a Qt5 app with the Wayland plugin, set QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl.
+
#[output]
 +
#name=X1
 +
#mode=1024x768
 +
#transform=flipped-270
  
===Clutter===
+
[input-method]
 +
#path=/usr/lib/weston/weston-keyboard
  
The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is in the master branch of the [http://git.gnome.org/browse/clutter main repo] and can be activated by passing <code>--with-flavour=wayland</code> to the configure script.
+
[keyboard]
 +
keymap_rules=evdev
 +
#keymap_layout=gb,de
 +
#keymap_options=caps:ctrl_modifier,shift:both_capslock_cancel
 +
### keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst ###
 +
numlock-on=true
  
===SDL===
+
[terminal]
 +
#font=DroidSansMono
 +
#font-size=14
  
Benjamin Franzke is working on a port of SDL to Wayland, it's available in his [http://cgit.freedesktop.org/~bnf/sdl-wayland/ sdl-wayland repo] on freedesktop.org. Further development upon Benjamins work was done by Andre Heider in his [https://github.com/dhewg/libsdl/tree/wl wayland branch] of libsdl.
+
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal
  
===EFL===
+
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/gnome-terminal
  
EFL has complete Wayland support. Please see [http://trac.enlightenment.org/e/wiki/Wayland here] for details.
+
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/firefox
  
==Window managers and desktop shells==
+
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/weston/icon_flower.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/weston-flower
  
===KDE===
+
[screensaver]
 +
# Uncomment path to disable screensaver
 +
path=/usr/libexec/weston-screensaver
 +
duration=600
 +
</nowiki>
 +
}}
  
There is [http://blog.martin-graesslin.com/blog/2011/03/kwin-at-gsoc-2011/ early work] to make it possible to run KWin (KDE's window manager) on Wayland.
+
Minimal {{ic|weston.ini}} :
 +
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|<nowiki>
 +
[core]
 +
modules=xwayland.so
  
===GNOME===
+
[keyboard]
 +
keymap_layout=gb
  
GNOME is currently ported to Wayland and will be available in a future version. For details look into the [https://live.gnome.org/Wayland GNOME Wiki].
+
[output]
 +
name=LVDS1
 +
mode=1680x1050
 +
transform=90
  
===Pure Wayland===
+
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal
  
{{Warning|Some really quick notes on installing a pure (no X11) wayland system on Arch Linux. This is from source and installed into /usr/local. May break your system. You have been warned. (by elethiomel@gmail.com)}}
+
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/firefox
  
First install a base Arch Linux install with base and base-devel. Do not install xorg or any of its libraries
+
</nowiki>
 +
}}
  
 +
==== XWayland ====
 +
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} package.
  
===== Wayland =====
+
When you want to run an X application from within Weston, it spins up Xwayland to service the request. The following configuration is shown above:
  
$ pacman -S libffi
+
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland
+
<nowiki>[core]
$ cd wayland
+
modules=xwayland.so</nowiki>
$ ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local
+
}}
$ make
+
$ make install
+
  
===== DRM and Mesa =====
+
==== Screencast recording ====
 +
Weston has build-in screencast recording which can be started and stopped by pressing the {{ic|Super+r}} key combination. Screencasts are saved to the file {{ic|capture.wcap}} in the current working directory of Weston.
  
$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/git/mesa/drm
+
The WCAP format is a lossless video format specific to Weston, which only records the difference in frames. To be able to play the recorded screencast, the WCAP file will need to be converted to a format which a media player can understand. First, convert the capture to the YUV pixel format:
$ cd drm
+
$ ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local
+
$ make
+
$ make install
+
  
  $ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/mesa/mesa
+
  $ wcap-decode capture.wcap --yuv4mpeg2 > capture.y4m
$ cd mesa
+
$ CFLAGS=-DMESA_EGL_NO_X11_HEADERS ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local --enable-gles2 --disable-gallium-egl --with-egl-platforms=wayland,drm --enable-gbm --enable-shared-glapi --with-gallium-drivers=r300,r600,swrast,nouveau --disable-glx --disable-xlib
+
$ make
+
$ make install
+
  
===== xorg-macros =====
+
The YUV file can then be transcoded to other formats using [[FFmpeg]].
  
$ git clone http://anongit.freedesktop.org/git/xorg/util/macros.git
+
==== High DPI displays ====
$ cd macros/
+
$ ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local/
+
$ make
+
$ make install
+
  
===== libxkbcommon =====
+
For [[wikipedia:Retina_Display|Retina]] or [[HiDPI]] displays, use:
  
$ git clone git://people.freedesktop.org/xorg/lib/libxkbcommon.git
+
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
$ cd libxkbcommon/
+
<nowiki>[output]
$ export ACLOCAL_PATH=/usr/local/share/aclocal/
+
name=...
$ ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local/ --with-xkb-config-root=/usr/local/share/X11/xkb
+
scale=2</nowiki>
$ make
+
}}
$ make install
+
  
===== pixman =====
+
==== Shell font ====
  
$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/pixman
+
Weston uses the default sans-serif font for window title bars, clocks, etc. See [[Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts]] for instructions on how to change this font.
$ cd pixman/
+
$ ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local/
+
$ make
+
$ make install
+
 
+
===== cairo =====
+
  
Note - no glx/gl or xcb - EGL only.
+
== Gnome ==
  
$ pacman -S libpng
+
=== Install and test ===
$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/cairo
+
$ cd cairo
+
$ CFLAGS=-DMESA_EGL_NO_X11_HEADERS ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local/  --disable-xcb  --enable-glesv2
+
$ make
+
$ make install
+
  
===== xkb files =====
+
If you run Gnome, install XWayland with the {{Pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} package, then run it:
  
Either
+
$ dbus-run-session -- gnome-shell --display-server --wayland
  
a) Copy from an existing system a set of xkb layouts
+
To test, install the {{Pkg|weston}} package and run one of its applications, for example:
 +
$ weston-stacking
  
$ scp -r /usr/share/X11/xkb to /usr/local/share/X11/
+
This is still experimental (state 2016-11-18) and not everything will run as expected. Known issues:
  
or
+
* When launching without GDM, gnome-session needs to be started manual, no shutdown/restart buttons work ([https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=774774 gnome issue 774774])
 +
* Starting X11 on tty1, wayland on tty2: windows of gnome applications end up on tty2 no matter where started ([https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=774775 gnome issue 774775)]
 +
* Not all weston applications work, e.g. weston-terminal.
  
b) build {{ic|xkeyboard-config}} from git with {{ic|--prefix&#61;/usr/local}} and {{ic|--disable-runtime-deps}}
+
{{Expansion|Please add a link to easily keep this entry up to date.}}
 +
 
 +
* As of November 2016 there is an ongoing discussion how to implement screen recording. Currently the compositors implement at least basic functionality, so does gnome.
 +
 
 +
=== Autostart ===
 +
 
 +
To auto-start on login, only on virtual terminal 1, one can enter this into {{ic|.bash_profile}}:
 +
 
 +
<nowiki>[[ -z $DISPLAY && $XDG_VTNR -eq 1 ]] && dbus-run-session -- gnome-shell --display-server --wayland</nowiki>
 +
 
 +
More details on this way of starting are on [[Xinit#Autostart X at login]] (not using a display manager) and [[GNOME#Manually]] (resp via xinit in this case).
 +
 
 +
=== hints ===
 +
some practical settings. for nemo prevent that the desktop is created <ref>[https://github.com/linuxmint/nemo/issues/1343 nemo issue 1343]</ref>
 +
  gsettings set org.nemo.desktop show-desktop-icons false
 +
 
 +
== GUI libraries ==
 +
 
 +
See details on the [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/toolkits.html official website].
 +
 
 +
=== GTK+ 3 ===
 +
 
 +
The {{Pkg|gtk3}} package from the official repositories now has the Wayland backend enabled.
 +
 
 +
GTK+ 3 gained support for multiple backends at runtime and can switch between backends in the same way Qt can with lighthouse.
 +
 
 +
When both Wayland and X backends are enabled, GTK+ will default to the X11 backend, but this can be overridden by modifying an environment variable: {{ic|GDK_BACKEND&#61;wayland}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Qt 5 ===
 +
The {{Grp|qt5}} package from the repositories has the Wayland support if {{Pkg|qt5-wayland}} is installed.
 +
To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin, set the {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl}} [[environment variable]].
 +
 
 +
=== Clutter ===
 +
 
 +
The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the official package in extra.
 +
 
 +
To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set {{ic|CLUTTER_BACKEND&#61;wayland}}.
 +
 
 +
=== SDL ===
 +
 
 +
Experimental wayland support is now in SDL 2.0.2 and enabled by default on Arch Linux.
 +
 
 +
To run a SDL application on Wayland, set {{ic|SDL_VIDEODRIVER&#61;wayland}}.
 +
 
 +
=== GLFW ===
 +
 
 +
Experimental wayland support is now in GLFW 3.1 and can be enabled with the {{ic|-DGLFW_USE_WAYLAND&#61;ON}} CMake option at compile time. You can also install the package {{AUR|glfw-wayland-git}} from the AUR.
 +
 
 +
=== EFL ===
 +
 
 +
EFL has complete Wayland support.
 +
To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/efl.html project page].
 +
 
 +
== Window managers and desktop shells ==
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
! Name
 +
! Type
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| GNOME
 +
| Compositing
 +
| See [[GNOME#Starting GNOME]].
 +
|-
 +
| Hawaii
 +
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| See [[Hawaii]].
 +
|-
 +
| sway
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [[Sway]] is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. [https://github.com/SirCmpwn/sway Github]
 +
|-
 +
| Enlightenment
 +
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| Long running minimal Window Manager-turned Wayland compositor. E19 originally had Wayland support but this was removed and now only E20+ Wayland is considered stable enough for regular use. [https://www.enlightenment.org/about-wayland More Info]
 +
|-
 +
| KDE Plasma
 +
| Compositing
 +
| See [[KDE#Starting Plasma]]
 +
|-
 +
| Orbment
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [https://github.com/Cloudef/orbment orbment] (previously loliwm) is a tiling WM for Wayland.
 +
|-
 +
| Velox
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [[Velox]] is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by [[dwm]] and [[xmonad]].
 +
|-
 +
| Orbital
 +
| Compositing
 +
| [https://github.com/giucam/orbital Orbital] is a Wayland compositor and shell, using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple yet flexible and good looking Wayland desktop. It is not a full fledged DE but rather the analogue of a WM in the X11 world, such as [[Awesome]] or [[Fluxbox]].
 +
|-
 +
| Papyros Shell
 +
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| [https://github.com/papyros/papyros-shell Papyros Shell] is the desktop shell for [[Papyros]], built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
 +
|-
 +
| Maynard
 +
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard Maynard] is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti.
 +
|-
 +
| Motorcar
 +
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| [https://github.com/evil0sheep/motorcar Motorcar] is a wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing.
 +
|-
 +
| Way Cooler
 +
| Tiling
 +
|  {{AUR|way-cooler}} is a customizeable (lua config files) Wayland compositor written in Rust. Inspired by i3 and awesome.
 +
|-
 +
| Maze Compositor
 +
| Floating 3D
 +
| [https://github.com/capisce/mazecompositor Maze Compositor] is a 3D QT based wayland compositor
 +
|-
 +
| Grefsen
 +
| Floating
 +
| [https://github.com/ec1oud/grefsen Grefsen] is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
Some of installed wayland desktop clients might store information in {{ic|/usr/share/wayland-sessions/*.desktop}} files about how to start them in wayland.
 +
 
 +
==Troubleshooting==
 +
 
 +
=== LLVM assertion failure ===
 +
If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild {{Pkg|mesa}} without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.
 +
 
 +
This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM.
 +
You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:
 +
 
 +
$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so
  
===== weston =====
+
=== Applications using dbus crashes on startup ===
 +
For a temporary solution, use {{ic|dbus-launch}} to run the application. For example, to launch {{Pkg|gnome-terminal}} inside a weston session, this command is sufficient.
  
$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/wayland/weston
+
  dbus-launch gnome-terminal
$ cd weston/
+
$ CFLAGS="-I/usr/local/include/libdrm/ -DMESA_EGL_NO_X11_HEADERS" ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local/ --with-cairo-glesv2 --disable-xwayland --disable-x11-compositor --disable- xwayland-test
+
$ make
+
$ make install
+
  
==See also==
+
=== Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes ===
* [[Cursor Themes]]
+
Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the {{ic|1=CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling}} set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from {{ic|/etc/environment}} or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.
  
==External links==
+
== See also ==
 +
* [[Cursor themes]]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=107499 Arch Linux forum discussion]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=107499 Arch Linux forum discussion]
 
* [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/docs/html/ Wayland documentation online]
 
* [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/docs/html/ Wayland documentation online]

Latest revision as of 15:19, 27 November 2016

Related articles

Wayland is a protocol for a compositor to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing this protocol. All major Linux desktop systems like Gnome, KDE do support Wayland, and there is also a reference implementation for a compositor called "Weston". XWayland implements a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy X11 applications on Wayland.

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Link to bug report; does this really fit in the intro? This is the biggest issue according to whom? (Discuss in Talk:Wayland#)

The biggest issue is, in 2016, with screen recording, as applications do not see other applications contents any more.

Requirements

Wayland only works on systems using KMS. As Wayland is only a library, it is useless on its own: to replace the X Server you need a compositor such as #Weston.

Weston

Weston is the reference implementation of a Wayland compositor.

Installation

Install the weston package.

Usage

Tango-edit-clear.pngThis article or section needs language, wiki syntax or style improvements.Tango-edit-clear.png

Reason: Violates Help:Style#Keyboard keys. (Discuss in Talk:Wayland#)
Keyboard Shortcuts (super = windows key - can be changed, see weston.ini) Ctrl-b
Cmd Action
Ctrl + Alt + Backspace Quit Weston
Super + Scroll (or PageUp/PageDown) Zoom in/out of desktop
Super + Tab Switch windows
Super + LMB Move Window
Super + MMB Rotate Window !
Super + RMB Resize Window
Super + Alt + Scroll Change window opacity
Super + K Force Kill Active Window
Super + KeyUp/KeyDown Switch Prev/Next Workspace
Super + Shift + KeyUp/KeyDown Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace
Super + Fn Switch to Workspace n
Super + S Take a screenshot
Super + R Record a screencast.

Now that Wayland and its requirements are installed you should be ready to test it out.

It is possible to run Weston inside a running X session:

$ weston

Alternatively, to try to launch Weston natively, switch to a terminal and run:

$ weston-launch

Then at a TTY within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:

$ weston-terminal

To move flowers around the screen:

$ weston-flower 

To display images:

$ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...

Configuration

Example configuration file for keyboard layout, module selection and UI modifications. See weston.ini(5) for full details. The Weston outputs differ slightly from xorg.conf's Monitors:

$ ls /sys/class/drm
card0
card0-VGA-1
card1
card1-DVI-I-1
card1-HDMI-A-1
card1-VGA-2

card0 is the unused built-in video adapter. The add-on adapter card1 is cabled to one HDMI and one DVI monitor, so the output names are HDMI-A-1 and DVI-I-1.

~/.config/weston.ini
[core]
# xwayland support
modules=xwayland.so

[libinput]
enable_tap=true

[shell]
background-image=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Aqua.jpg
background-color=0xff002244
panel-color=0x90ff0000
locking=true
animation=zoom
close-animation=fade
focus-animation=dim-layer
#binding-modifier=ctrl
#num-workspaces=6
### for cursor themes install xcursor-themes pkg from Extra. ###
#cursor-theme=whiteglass
#cursor-size=24

### tablet options ###
#lockscreen-icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/256x256/actions/lock.png
#lockscreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Garden.jpg
#homescreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Blinds.jpg
#animation=fade

###  for Laptop displays  ###
#[output]
#name=LVDS1
#mode=1680x1050
#transform=90

#[output]
#name=VGA1
# The following sets the mode with a modeline, you can get modelines for your preffered resolutions using the cvt utility
#mode=173.00 1920 2048 2248 2576 1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync +vsync
#transform=flipped

#[output]
#name=X1
#mode=1024x768
#transform=flipped-270

[input-method]
#path=/usr/lib/weston/weston-keyboard

[keyboard]
keymap_rules=evdev
#keymap_layout=gb,de
#keymap_options=caps:ctrl_modifier,shift:both_capslock_cancel
### keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst ###
numlock-on=true

[terminal]
#font=DroidSansMono
#font-size=14

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
path=/usr/bin/gnome-terminal

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
path=/usr/bin/firefox

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/weston/icon_flower.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-flower

[screensaver]
# Uncomment path to disable screensaver
path=/usr/libexec/weston-screensaver
duration=600

Minimal weston.ini :

~/.config/weston.ini
[core]
modules=xwayland.so

[keyboard]
keymap_layout=gb

[output]
name=LVDS1
mode=1680x1050
transform=90

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
path=/usr/bin/firefox


XWayland

Install the xorg-server-xwayland package.

When you want to run an X application from within Weston, it spins up Xwayland to service the request. The following configuration is shown above:

~/.config/weston.ini
[core]
modules=xwayland.so

Screencast recording

Weston has build-in screencast recording which can be started and stopped by pressing the Super+r key combination. Screencasts are saved to the file capture.wcap in the current working directory of Weston.

The WCAP format is a lossless video format specific to Weston, which only records the difference in frames. To be able to play the recorded screencast, the WCAP file will need to be converted to a format which a media player can understand. First, convert the capture to the YUV pixel format:

$ wcap-decode capture.wcap --yuv4mpeg2 > capture.y4m

The YUV file can then be transcoded to other formats using FFmpeg.

High DPI displays

For Retina or HiDPI displays, use:

~/.config/weston.ini
[output]
name=...
scale=2

Shell font

Weston uses the default sans-serif font for window title bars, clocks, etc. See Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts for instructions on how to change this font.

Gnome

Install and test

If you run Gnome, install XWayland with the xorg-server-xwayland package, then run it:

$ dbus-run-session -- gnome-shell --display-server --wayland

To test, install the weston package and run one of its applications, for example:

$ weston-stacking

This is still experimental (state 2016-11-18) and not everything will run as expected. Known issues:

  • When launching without GDM, gnome-session needs to be started manual, no shutdown/restart buttons work (gnome issue 774774)
  • Starting X11 on tty1, wayland on tty2: windows of gnome applications end up on tty2 no matter where started (gnome issue 774775)
  • Not all weston applications work, e.g. weston-terminal.

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Please add a link to easily keep this entry up to date. (Discuss in Talk:Wayland#)
  • As of November 2016 there is an ongoing discussion how to implement screen recording. Currently the compositors implement at least basic functionality, so does gnome.

Autostart

To auto-start on login, only on virtual terminal 1, one can enter this into .bash_profile:

[[ -z $DISPLAY && $XDG_VTNR -eq 1 ]] && dbus-run-session -- gnome-shell --display-server --wayland

More details on this way of starting are on Xinit#Autostart X at login (not using a display manager) and GNOME#Manually (resp via xinit in this case).

hints

some practical settings. for nemo prevent that the desktop is created <ref>nemo issue 1343</ref>

gsettings set org.nemo.desktop show-desktop-icons false

GUI libraries

See details on the official website.

GTK+ 3

The gtk3 package from the official repositories now has the Wayland backend enabled.

GTK+ 3 gained support for multiple backends at runtime and can switch between backends in the same way Qt can with lighthouse.

When both Wayland and X backends are enabled, GTK+ will default to the X11 backend, but this can be overridden by modifying an environment variable: GDK_BACKEND=wayland.

Qt 5

The qt5 package from the repositories has the Wayland support if qt5-wayland is installed. To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin, set the QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl environment variable.

Clutter

The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the official package in extra.

To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set CLUTTER_BACKEND=wayland.

SDL

Experimental wayland support is now in SDL 2.0.2 and enabled by default on Arch Linux.

To run a SDL application on Wayland, set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland.

GLFW

Experimental wayland support is now in GLFW 3.1 and can be enabled with the -DGLFW_USE_WAYLAND=ON CMake option at compile time. You can also install the package glfw-wayland-gitAUR from the AUR.

EFL

EFL has complete Wayland support. To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland project page.

Window managers and desktop shells

Name Type Description
GNOME Compositing See GNOME#Starting GNOME.
Hawaii (Unclear) See Hawaii.
sway Tiling Sway is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. Github
Enlightenment (Unclear) Long running minimal Window Manager-turned Wayland compositor. E19 originally had Wayland support but this was removed and now only E20+ Wayland is considered stable enough for regular use. More Info
KDE Plasma Compositing See KDE#Starting Plasma
Orbment Tiling orbment (previously loliwm) is a tiling WM for Wayland.
Velox Tiling Velox is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by dwm and xmonad.
Orbital Compositing Orbital is a Wayland compositor and shell, using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple yet flexible and good looking Wayland desktop. It is not a full fledged DE but rather the analogue of a WM in the X11 world, such as Awesome or Fluxbox.
Papyros Shell (Unclear) Papyros Shell is the desktop shell for Papyros, built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
Maynard (Unclear) Maynard is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti.
Motorcar (Unclear) Motorcar is a wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing.
Way Cooler Tiling way-coolerAUR is a customizeable (lua config files) Wayland compositor written in Rust. Inspired by i3 and awesome.
Maze Compositor Floating 3D Maze Compositor is a 3D QT based wayland compositor
Grefsen Floating Grefsen is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.

Some of installed wayland desktop clients might store information in /usr/share/wayland-sessions/*.desktop files about how to start them in wayland.

Troubleshooting

LLVM assertion failure

If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild mesa without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.

This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM. You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:

$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so

Applications using dbus crashes on startup

For a temporary solution, use dbus-launch to run the application. For example, to launch gnome-terminal inside a weston session, this command is sufficient.

 dbus-launch gnome-terminal

Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes

Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from /etc/environment or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.

See also