Difference between revisions of "Wayland"

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[[Category:X Server]]
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[[Category:X server]]
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[[es:Wayland]]
 
[[fr:Wayland]]
 
[[fr:Wayland]]
 
[[ja:Wayland]]
 
[[ja:Wayland]]
[[zh-CN:Wayland]]
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[[ru:Wayland]]
{{Article summary start}}
+
[[zh-hans:Wayland]]
{{Article summary text|A guide to installing and running the Wayland display server.}}
+
{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
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{{Related|KMS}}
{{Article summary wiki|KMS}}
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{{Related|Xorg}}
{{Article summary wiki|Xorg}}
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{{Related|Mir}}
{{Article summary end}}
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{{Related articles end}}
'''Wayland''' is a new windowing protocol for Linux. Utilization of Wayland requires changes to and re-installation of parts of your system's software. For more information on Wayland see its [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/ homepage].
+
  
{{Warning|Wayland is under heavy development. Support can not be guaranteed and it may not function as you expect.}}
+
[http://wayland.freedesktop.org/ Wayland] is a protocol for a [[wikipedia:Compositing window manager|compositor]] to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing this protocol. All major Linux desktop systems like Gnome, KDE do support Wayland, and there is also a reference implementation for a compositor called "Weston". [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/xserver.html XWayland] implements a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy X11 applications on Wayland.
  
 
== Requirements ==
 
== Requirements ==
  
Currently Wayland will only work with on a system that is utilizing [[KMS]].
+
Wayland only works on systems using [[KMS]]. As Wayland is only a library, it is useless on its own: to replace the X Server you need a compositor such as [[#Weston]].
  
== Installation ==
+
=== Buffer API support ===
  
Wayland is most probably installed on your system already as it is an indirect dependency of {{Pkg|gtk2}} and {{Pkg|gtk3}}.  If it is not installed, you will find the {{Pkg|wayland}} package in  the [[official repositories]].
+
For the GPU driver and Wayland composer to be compatible they must support the same buffer API. There are two main APIs: [[Wikipedia:Generic Buffer Management|GBM]] and [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=XDC2016-Device-Memory-API EGLStreams].
  
== Usage ==
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Buffer API !! GPU driver support !! Wayland compositor support
 +
|-
 +
| GBM || Most* || All
 +
|-
 +
| EGLStreams || [[Nvidia]] || [[GNOME]] ([https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=773629 from 3.24])
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
As Wayland is only a library, it is useless on its own. To use it, you need a compositor (like Weston), Weston demo applications, Qt5 with Wayland plugin, and/or GTK+ with Wayland support.
+
<nowiki>*</nowiki>: "Most" GPU drivers (supporting GBM) include [[AMDGPU]], [[ATI]], [[Intel]] and [[Nouveau]]. '''Not included''' are [[AMD Catalyst]] and [[Nvidia]]
  
 
== Weston ==
 
== Weston ==
 +
 +
Weston is the reference implementation of a Wayland compositor.
  
 
=== Installation ===
 
=== Installation ===
  
You need to install {{Pkg|weston}} from the official repositories.
+
Install the {{Pkg|weston}} package.
  
 
=== Usage ===
 
=== Usage ===
  
Now that Wayland and its requirements are installed you should be ready to test it out. Try switching to a terminal and running:
+
{{Style|Violates [[Help:Style#Keyboard keys]].}}
$ weston-launch
+
{{Note|
+
* You need to be in the video group for Weston to start; this command is not supposed to be run as root and doing that may freeze your VT.
+
* If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild {{Pkg|mesa}} without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed. This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM.
+
}}
+
  
You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:  
+
{| class="wikitable" style="float: right; width: 40%; margin-left: 1em"
$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so
+
|+ '''''Keyboard Shortcuts''' (super = windows key - can be changed, see weston.ini)'' {{Ic|Ctrl-b}}
 +
!Cmd
 +
!Action
 +
|-
 +
|Ctrl + Alt + Backspace
 +
|Quit Weston
 +
|-
 +
|Super + Scroll (or PageUp/PageDown)
 +
|Zoom in/out of desktop
 +
|-
 +
|Super + Tab
 +
|Switch windows
 +
|-
 +
|Super + LMB
 +
|Move Window
 +
|-
 +
|Super + MMB
 +
|Rotate Window !
 +
|-
 +
|Super + RMB
 +
|Resize Window
 +
|-
 +
|Super + Alt + Scroll
 +
|Change window opacity
 +
|-
 +
|Super + K
 +
|Force Kill Active Window
 +
|-
 +
|Super + KeyUp/KeyDown
 +
|Switch Prev/Next Workspace
 +
|-
 +
|Super + Shift + KeyUp/KeyDown
 +
|Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace
 +
|-
 +
|Super + F'''''n'''''
 +
|Switch to Workspace '''''n'''''
 +
|-
 +
|Super + S
 +
|Take a screenshot
 +
|-
 +
|Super + R
 +
|Record a screencast.
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
Now that Wayland and its requirements are installed you should be ready to test it out.  
  
 
It is possible to run Weston inside a running X session:
 
It is possible to run Weston inside a running X session:
 
  $ weston
 
  $ weston
  
Then at a TTY you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:
+
Alternatively, to try to launch Weston natively, switch to a terminal and run:
 +
$ weston-launch
 +
 
 +
Then at a TTY within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:
 
  $ weston-terminal
 
  $ weston-terminal
  
 
To move flowers around the screen:
 
To move flowers around the screen:
 
  $ weston-flower  
 
  $ weston-flower  
 
To test the frame protocol (runs {{ic|glxgears}}):
 
$ weston-gears
 
  
 
To display images:
 
To display images:
 
  $ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...
 
  $ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...
  
To display PDF Files:
+
=== Configuration ===
$ weston-view doc1.pdf doc2.pdf...
+
Example configuration file for keyboard layout, module selection and UI modifications. See {{man|5|weston.ini|url=}} for full details. The Weston outputs differ slightly from {{ic|xorg.conf}}'s Monitors:
  
== GUI libraries ==
+
$ ls /sys/class/drm
 +
card0
 +
card0-VGA-1
 +
card1
 +
card1-DVI-I-1
 +
card1-HDMI-A-1
 +
card1-VGA-2
  
(See details on the [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/toolkits.html official website])
+
{{ic|card0}} is the unused built-in video adapter. The add-on adapter {{ic|card1}} is cabled to one HDMI and one DVI monitor, so the output names are {{ic|HDMI-A-1}} and {{ic|DVI-I-1}}.
  
=== GTK+ ===
+
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|<nowiki>
 +
[core]
 +
# xwayland support
 +
modules=xwayland.so
  
You need to install {{Pkg|gtk3}} from the official repositories, which now has the Wayland backend enabled.
+
[libinput]
 +
enable_tap=true
  
With GTK+ 3.0, GTK+ gained support for multiple backends at runtime and can switch between backends in the same way Qt can with lighthouse.
+
[shell]
 +
background-image=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Aqua.jpg
 +
background-color=0xff002244
 +
panel-color=0x90ff0000
 +
locking=true
 +
animation=zoom
 +
close-animation=fade
 +
focus-animation=dim-layer
 +
#binding-modifier=ctrl
 +
#num-workspaces=6
 +
### for cursor themes install xcursor-themes pkg from Extra. ###
 +
#cursor-theme=whiteglass
 +
#cursor-size=24
  
When both Wayland and X backends are enabled, GTK+ will default to the X11 backend, but this can be overridden by modifying an environment variable: {{ic|GDK_BACKEND&#61;wayland}}.
+
### tablet options ###
 +
#lockscreen-icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/256x256/actions/lock.png
 +
#lockscreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Garden.jpg
 +
#homescreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Blinds.jpg
 +
#animation=fade
  
=== Qt5 ===
+
###  for Laptop displays  ###
 +
#[output]
 +
#name=LVDS1
 +
#mode=1680x1050
 +
#transform=90
  
You need to install {{Pkg|qt5-base}} and the wayland plugin {{AUR|qt5-qtwayland-git}}.
+
#[output]
 +
#name=VGA1
 +
# The following sets the mode with a modeline, you can get modelines for your preffered resolutions using the cvt utility
 +
#mode=173.00 1920 2048 2248 2576 1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync +vsync
 +
#transform=flipped
  
To run a Qt5 app with the Wayland plugin, set {{ic|QT_QPA_PLATFORM&#61;wayland-egl}}.
+
#[output]
 +
#name=X1
 +
#mode=1024x768
 +
#transform=flipped-270
 +
 
 +
[input-method]
 +
#path=/usr/lib/weston/weston-keyboard
 +
 
 +
[keyboard]
 +
keymap_rules=evdev
 +
#keymap_layout=gb,de
 +
#keymap_options=caps:ctrl_modifier,shift:both_capslock_cancel
 +
### keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst ###
 +
numlock-on=true
 +
 
 +
[terminal]
 +
#font=DroidSansMono
 +
#font-size=14
 +
 
 +
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal
 +
 
 +
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/gnome-terminal
 +
 
 +
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/firefox
 +
 
 +
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/weston/icon_flower.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/weston-flower
 +
 
 +
[screensaver]
 +
# Uncomment path to disable screensaver
 +
path=/usr/libexec/weston-screensaver
 +
duration=600
 +
</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Minimal {{ic|weston.ini}} :
 +
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|<nowiki>
 +
[core]
 +
modules=xwayland.so
 +
 
 +
[keyboard]
 +
keymap_layout=gb
 +
 
 +
[output]
 +
name=LVDS1
 +
mode=1680x1050
 +
transform=90
 +
 
 +
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal
 +
 
 +
[launcher]
 +
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
 +
path=/usr/bin/firefox
 +
 
 +
</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==== XWayland ====
 +
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} package.
 +
 
 +
When you want to run an X application from within Weston, it spins up Xwayland to service the request. The following configuration is shown above:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
 +
<nowiki>[core]
 +
modules=xwayland.so</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==== Screencast recording ====
 +
Weston has build-in screencast recording which can be started and stopped by pressing the {{ic|Super+r}} key combination. Screencasts are saved to the file {{ic|capture.wcap}} in the current working directory of Weston.
 +
 
 +
The WCAP format is a lossless video format specific to Weston, which only records the difference in frames. To be able to play the recorded screencast, the WCAP file will need to be converted to a format which a media player can understand. First, convert the capture to the YUV pixel format:
 +
 
 +
$ wcap-decode capture.wcap --yuv4mpeg2 > capture.y4m
 +
 
 +
The YUV file can then be transcoded to other formats using [[FFmpeg]].
 +
 
 +
==== High DPI displays ====
 +
 
 +
For [[wikipedia:Retina_Display|Retina]] or [[HiDPI]] displays, use:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
 +
<nowiki>[output]
 +
name=...
 +
scale=2</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==== Shell font ====
 +
 
 +
Weston uses the default sans-serif font for window title bars, clocks, etc. See [[Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts]] for instructions on how to change this font.
 +
 
 +
== GUI libraries ==
 +
 
 +
See details on the [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/toolkits.html official website].
 +
 
 +
=== GTK+ 3 ===
 +
 
 +
The {{Pkg|gtk3}} package from the official repositories now has the Wayland backend enabled.
 +
 
 +
GTK+ 3 gained support for multiple backends at runtime and can switch between backends in the same way Qt can with lighthouse.
 +
 
 +
When both Wayland and X backends are enabled, GTK+ will default to the X11 backend, but this can be overridden by modifying an environment variable: {{ic|GDK_BACKEND&#61;wayland}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Qt 5 ===
 +
The {{Grp|qt5}} package from the repositories has the Wayland support if {{Pkg|qt5-wayland}} is installed.
 +
To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin, set the {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl}} [[environment variable]]. For Arch, most QT applications do not work because of QTBUG-58423, will be fixed with qt-5.8.1: https://codereview.qt-project.org/#/c/184278/ .
  
 
=== Clutter ===
 
=== Clutter ===
Line 87: Line 283:
 
=== SDL ===
 
=== SDL ===
  
Benjamin Franzke is working on a port of SDL to Wayland, it's available in his [http://cgit.freedesktop.org/~bnf/sdl-wayland/ sdl-wayland repo] on freedesktop.org. Further development upon Benjamins work was done by Andre Heider in his [https://github.com/dhewg/libsdl/tree/wl wayland branch] of libsdl. Scott Moreau picked up where others left and fixed the library to work with 1.0 protocol. You can find his work in [https://github.com/soreau/SDL/tree/wayland wayland branch] of SDL repository.
+
Experimental wayland support is now in SDL 2.0.2 and enabled by default on Arch Linux.
  
 
To run a SDL application on Wayland, set {{ic|SDL_VIDEODRIVER&#61;wayland}}.
 
To run a SDL application on Wayland, set {{ic|SDL_VIDEODRIVER&#61;wayland}}.
 +
 +
=== GLFW ===
 +
 +
Experimental wayland support is now in GLFW 3.1 and can be enabled with the {{ic|-DGLFW_USE_WAYLAND&#61;ON}} CMake option at compile time. You can also install the package {{AUR|glfw-wayland-git}} from the AUR.
  
 
=== EFL ===
 
=== EFL ===
Line 98: Line 298:
 
== Window managers and desktop shells ==
 
== Window managers and desktop shells ==
  
=== KDE ===
+
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
! Name
 +
! Type
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| GNOME
 +
| Compositing
 +
| See [[GNOME#Starting GNOME]].
 +
|-
 +
| sway
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [[Sway]] is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. [https://github.com/SirCmpwn/sway Github]
 +
|-
 +
| Enlightenment
 +
| Compositing
 +
| Long running minimal Window Manager-turned Wayland compositor. E19 originally had Wayland support but this was removed and now only E20+ Wayland is considered stable enough for regular use. [https://www.enlightenment.org/about-wayland More Info]
 +
|-
 +
| KDE Plasma
 +
| Compositing
 +
| See [[KDE#Starting Plasma]]
 +
|-
 +
| Orbment
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [https://github.com/Cloudef/orbment orbment] (previously loliwm) is a tiling WM for Wayland.
 +
|-
 +
| Velox
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [[Velox]] is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by [[dwm]] and [[xmonad]].
 +
|-
 +
| Orbital
 +
| Compositing
 +
| [https://github.com/giucam/orbital Orbital] is a Wayland compositor and shell, using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple yet flexible and good looking Wayland desktop. It is not a full fledged DE but rather the analogue of a WM in the X11 world, such as [[Awesome]] or [[Fluxbox]].
 +
|-
 +
| Liri Shell
 +
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| [https://github.com/lirios/shell Liri Shell] is the desktop shell for [[Liri]], built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
 +
|-
 +
| Maynard
 +
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard Maynard] is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti.
 +
|-
 +
| Motorcar
 +
| ''(Unclear)''
 +
| [https://github.com/evil0sheep/motorcar Motorcar] is a wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing using Virtual Reality.
 +
|-
 +
| Way Cooler
 +
| Tiling
 +
|  {{AUR|way-cooler}} is a customizeable (lua config files) Wayland compositor written in Rust. Inspired by i3 and awesome.
 +
|-
 +
| Maze Compositor
 +
| Floating 3D
 +
| [https://github.com/capisce/mazecompositor Maze Compositor] is a 3D Qt based wayland compositor
 +
|-
 +
| Grefsen
 +
| Floating
 +
| [https://github.com/ec1oud/grefsen Grefsen] is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.
 +
|}
  
KDE 4.11 beta supports starting [http://blog.martin-graesslin.com/blog/2013/06/starting-a-full-kde-plasma-session-in-wayland/ KWin under Wayland system compositor]. There is currently no support for using KWin as a session compositor.
+
Some of installed wayland desktop clients might store information in {{ic|/usr/share/wayland-sessions/*.desktop}} files about how to start them in wayland.
  
=== GNOME ===
+
==Troubleshooting==
  
GNOME is currently ported to Wayland and will be available in a future version. For details look into the [https://live.gnome.org/Wayland GNOME wiki].
+
{{Style|Many of these subsections should go into a "Known issues" section (i.e., there is no solution currently). Additionally prepending a date is not needed.}}
  
=== Pure Wayland ===
+
=== LLVM assertion failure ===
 +
If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild {{Pkg|mesa}} without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.
  
{{Warning|Some really quick notes on installing a pure (no X11) Wayland system on Arch Linux. This is from source and installed into {{ic|/usr/local}}. May break your system. You have been warned. (by elethiomel@gmail.com)}}
+
This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM.
 +
You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:
  
First install a base Arch Linux install with base and base-devel. Do not install xorg or any of its libraries
+
$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so
  
===== Wayland, DRM, Pixman, libxkbcommon =====
+
=== Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes ===
 +
Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the {{ic|1=CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling}} set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from {{ic|/etc/environment}} or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.
  
  $ pacman -S wayland libdrm pixman libxkbcommon
+
=== nemo ===
 +
(20161229) prevent that the desktop is created <ref>[https://github.com/linuxmint/nemo/issues/1343 nemo issue 1343]</ref>
 +
  gsettings set org.nemo.desktop show-desktop-icons false
  
===== Mesa =====
+
=== gparted ===
 +
(20161229) gparted wants to run as root, before starting it allow all local users to display applications on your desktop by typing in a command line:
 +
  xhost +local:
  
$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/mesa/mesa
+
=== X11 on tty1, wayland on tty2 ===
$ cd mesa
+
(20161209) windows of gnome applications end up on tty2 no matter where started ([https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=774775 gnome issue 774775)]
$ CFLAGS=-DMESA_EGL_NO_X11_HEADERS ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local --enable-gles2 --disable-gallium-egl --with-egl-platforms=wayland,drm --enable-gbm --enable-shared-glapi --with-gallium-drivers=r300,r600,swrast,nouveau --disable-glx --disable-xlib
+
$ make
+
$ make install
+
 
+
===== cairo =====
+
  
Note - no glx/gl or xcb - EGL only.
+
=== gnome wayland on tty1, weston on tty2 ===
 +
(20170106) apps started on gnome with WAYLAND_DISPLAY set to westen make it not respond any more ([https://bugs.freedesktop.org/show_bug.cgi?id=99489 wayland issue 99489])
  
$ pacman -S libpng
+
=== weston-terminal ===
$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/cairo
+
(20161229) core dump when started on gnome
$ cd cairo
+
$ CFLAGS=-DMESA_EGL_NO_X11_HEADERS ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local/  --disable-xcb  --enable-glesv2
+
$ make
+
$ make install
+
  
===== weston =====
+
=== liteide ===
 +
(20161229) [https://github.com/visualfc/liteide/issues/734 core dump]] on gnome and weston.
  
$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/wayland/weston
+
=== screen recording ===
$ cd weston/
+
(20161229) As of November 2016 there is an ongoing discussion how to implement screen recording. Currently the compositors implement at least basic functionality.  
$ CFLAGS="-DMESA_EGL_NO_X11_HEADERS" ./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr/local/ --with-cairo-glesv2 --disable-xwayland --disable-x11-compositor --disable-xwayland-test
+
$ make
+
$ make install
+
  
== See also ==
+
=== remote display ===
* [[Cursor Themes]]
+
(20161229) there was a merge of FreeRDP into weston in 2013, enabled via compile time switch. The arch linux weston package currently has it not enabled.
 +
 
 +
=== Remote desktop and vm applications don't grab input ===
 +
Per design Wayland doesn't allow for an application to grab input devices and constrict the region of the input device to the application, a much wanted feature when using a remote dekstop app or running a desktop vm, which means that modifier keys and hotkeys will not be sent correctly to the remote machine or vm and also tge mouse pointer will not be restricted to the application's user interface (which might cause a parallax effect). [https://bugs.freedesktop.org/show_bug.cgi?id=97333] [https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1285770]
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
 +
* [[Cursor themes]]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=107499 Arch Linux forum discussion]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=107499 Arch Linux forum discussion]
 
* [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/docs/html/ Wayland documentation online]
 
* [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/docs/html/ Wayland documentation online]

Latest revision as of 03:25, 19 February 2017

Related articles

Wayland is a protocol for a compositor to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing this protocol. All major Linux desktop systems like Gnome, KDE do support Wayland, and there is also a reference implementation for a compositor called "Weston". XWayland implements a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy X11 applications on Wayland.

Requirements

Wayland only works on systems using KMS. As Wayland is only a library, it is useless on its own: to replace the X Server you need a compositor such as #Weston.

Buffer API support

For the GPU driver and Wayland composer to be compatible they must support the same buffer API. There are two main APIs: GBM and EGLStreams.

Buffer API GPU driver support Wayland compositor support
GBM Most* All
EGLStreams Nvidia GNOME (from 3.24)

*: "Most" GPU drivers (supporting GBM) include AMDGPU, ATI, Intel and Nouveau. Not included are AMD Catalyst and Nvidia

Weston

Weston is the reference implementation of a Wayland compositor.

Installation

Install the weston package.

Usage

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Reason: Violates Help:Style#Keyboard keys. (Discuss in Talk:Wayland#)
Keyboard Shortcuts (super = windows key - can be changed, see weston.ini) Ctrl-b
Cmd Action
Ctrl + Alt + Backspace Quit Weston
Super + Scroll (or PageUp/PageDown) Zoom in/out of desktop
Super + Tab Switch windows
Super + LMB Move Window
Super + MMB Rotate Window !
Super + RMB Resize Window
Super + Alt + Scroll Change window opacity
Super + K Force Kill Active Window
Super + KeyUp/KeyDown Switch Prev/Next Workspace
Super + Shift + KeyUp/KeyDown Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace
Super + Fn Switch to Workspace n
Super + S Take a screenshot
Super + R Record a screencast.

Now that Wayland and its requirements are installed you should be ready to test it out.

It is possible to run Weston inside a running X session:

$ weston

Alternatively, to try to launch Weston natively, switch to a terminal and run:

$ weston-launch

Then at a TTY within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:

$ weston-terminal

To move flowers around the screen:

$ weston-flower 

To display images:

$ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...

Configuration

Example configuration file for keyboard layout, module selection and UI modifications. See weston.ini(5) for full details. The Weston outputs differ slightly from xorg.conf's Monitors:

$ ls /sys/class/drm
card0
card0-VGA-1
card1
card1-DVI-I-1
card1-HDMI-A-1
card1-VGA-2

card0 is the unused built-in video adapter. The add-on adapter card1 is cabled to one HDMI and one DVI monitor, so the output names are HDMI-A-1 and DVI-I-1.

~/.config/weston.ini
[core]
# xwayland support
modules=xwayland.so

[libinput]
enable_tap=true

[shell]
background-image=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Aqua.jpg
background-color=0xff002244
panel-color=0x90ff0000
locking=true
animation=zoom
close-animation=fade
focus-animation=dim-layer
#binding-modifier=ctrl
#num-workspaces=6
### for cursor themes install xcursor-themes pkg from Extra. ###
#cursor-theme=whiteglass
#cursor-size=24

### tablet options ###
#lockscreen-icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/256x256/actions/lock.png
#lockscreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Garden.jpg
#homescreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Blinds.jpg
#animation=fade

###  for Laptop displays  ###
#[output]
#name=LVDS1
#mode=1680x1050
#transform=90

#[output]
#name=VGA1
# The following sets the mode with a modeline, you can get modelines for your preffered resolutions using the cvt utility
#mode=173.00 1920 2048 2248 2576 1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync +vsync
#transform=flipped

#[output]
#name=X1
#mode=1024x768
#transform=flipped-270

[input-method]
#path=/usr/lib/weston/weston-keyboard

[keyboard]
keymap_rules=evdev
#keymap_layout=gb,de
#keymap_options=caps:ctrl_modifier,shift:both_capslock_cancel
### keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst ###
numlock-on=true

[terminal]
#font=DroidSansMono
#font-size=14

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
path=/usr/bin/gnome-terminal

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
path=/usr/bin/firefox

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/weston/icon_flower.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-flower

[screensaver]
# Uncomment path to disable screensaver
path=/usr/libexec/weston-screensaver
duration=600

Minimal weston.ini :

~/.config/weston.ini
[core]
modules=xwayland.so

[keyboard]
keymap_layout=gb

[output]
name=LVDS1
mode=1680x1050
transform=90

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
path=/usr/bin/firefox


XWayland

Install the xorg-server-xwayland package.

When you want to run an X application from within Weston, it spins up Xwayland to service the request. The following configuration is shown above:

~/.config/weston.ini
[core]
modules=xwayland.so

Screencast recording

Weston has build-in screencast recording which can be started and stopped by pressing the Super+r key combination. Screencasts are saved to the file capture.wcap in the current working directory of Weston.

The WCAP format is a lossless video format specific to Weston, which only records the difference in frames. To be able to play the recorded screencast, the WCAP file will need to be converted to a format which a media player can understand. First, convert the capture to the YUV pixel format:

$ wcap-decode capture.wcap --yuv4mpeg2 > capture.y4m

The YUV file can then be transcoded to other formats using FFmpeg.

High DPI displays

For Retina or HiDPI displays, use:

~/.config/weston.ini
[output]
name=...
scale=2

Shell font

Weston uses the default sans-serif font for window title bars, clocks, etc. See Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts for instructions on how to change this font.

GUI libraries

See details on the official website.

GTK+ 3

The gtk3 package from the official repositories now has the Wayland backend enabled.

GTK+ 3 gained support for multiple backends at runtime and can switch between backends in the same way Qt can with lighthouse.

When both Wayland and X backends are enabled, GTK+ will default to the X11 backend, but this can be overridden by modifying an environment variable: GDK_BACKEND=wayland.

Qt 5

The qt5 package from the repositories has the Wayland support if qt5-wayland is installed. To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin, set the QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl environment variable. For Arch, most QT applications do not work because of QTBUG-58423, will be fixed with qt-5.8.1: https://codereview.qt-project.org/#/c/184278/ .

Clutter

The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the official package in extra.

To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set CLUTTER_BACKEND=wayland.

SDL

Experimental wayland support is now in SDL 2.0.2 and enabled by default on Arch Linux.

To run a SDL application on Wayland, set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland.

GLFW

Experimental wayland support is now in GLFW 3.1 and can be enabled with the -DGLFW_USE_WAYLAND=ON CMake option at compile time. You can also install the package glfw-wayland-gitAUR from the AUR.

EFL

EFL has complete Wayland support. To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland project page.

Window managers and desktop shells

Name Type Description
GNOME Compositing See GNOME#Starting GNOME.
sway Tiling Sway is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. Github
Enlightenment Compositing Long running minimal Window Manager-turned Wayland compositor. E19 originally had Wayland support but this was removed and now only E20+ Wayland is considered stable enough for regular use. More Info
KDE Plasma Compositing See KDE#Starting Plasma
Orbment Tiling orbment (previously loliwm) is a tiling WM for Wayland.
Velox Tiling Velox is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by dwm and xmonad.
Orbital Compositing Orbital is a Wayland compositor and shell, using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple yet flexible and good looking Wayland desktop. It is not a full fledged DE but rather the analogue of a WM in the X11 world, such as Awesome or Fluxbox.
Liri Shell (Unclear) Liri Shell is the desktop shell for Liri, built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
Maynard (Unclear) Maynard is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti.
Motorcar (Unclear) Motorcar is a wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing using Virtual Reality.
Way Cooler Tiling way-coolerAUR is a customizeable (lua config files) Wayland compositor written in Rust. Inspired by i3 and awesome.
Maze Compositor Floating 3D Maze Compositor is a 3D Qt based wayland compositor
Grefsen Floating Grefsen is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.

Some of installed wayland desktop clients might store information in /usr/share/wayland-sessions/*.desktop files about how to start them in wayland.

Troubleshooting

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Reason: Many of these subsections should go into a "Known issues" section (i.e., there is no solution currently). Additionally prepending a date is not needed. (Discuss in Talk:Wayland#)

LLVM assertion failure

If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild mesa without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.

This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM. You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:

$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so

Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes

Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from /etc/environment or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.

nemo

(20161229) prevent that the desktop is created <ref>nemo issue 1343</ref>

gsettings set org.nemo.desktop show-desktop-icons false

gparted

(20161229) gparted wants to run as root, before starting it allow all local users to display applications on your desktop by typing in a command line:

 xhost +local:

X11 on tty1, wayland on tty2

(20161209) windows of gnome applications end up on tty2 no matter where started (gnome issue 774775)

gnome wayland on tty1, weston on tty2

(20170106) apps started on gnome with WAYLAND_DISPLAY set to westen make it not respond any more (wayland issue 99489)

weston-terminal

(20161229) core dump when started on gnome

liteide

(20161229) core dump] on gnome and weston.

screen recording

(20161229) As of November 2016 there is an ongoing discussion how to implement screen recording. Currently the compositors implement at least basic functionality.

remote display

(20161229) there was a merge of FreeRDP into weston in 2013, enabled via compile time switch. The arch linux weston package currently has it not enabled.

Remote desktop and vm applications don't grab input

Per design Wayland doesn't allow for an application to grab input devices and constrict the region of the input device to the application, a much wanted feature when using a remote dekstop app or running a desktop vm, which means that modifier keys and hotkeys will not be sent correctly to the remote machine or vm and also tge mouse pointer will not be restricted to the application's user interface (which might cause a parallax effect). [1] [2]

See also