Difference between revisions of "Wayland"

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(Partial Undo revision 515560 by Soloturn (talk) No, this section is also about native Wayland clients, and don't edit multiple unrelated sections with a single "commit")
(SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland breaks some games.)
 
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[[Category:X server]]
+
[[Category:Graphical user interfaces]]
 
[[es:Wayland]]
 
[[es:Wayland]]
 
[[fr:Wayland]]
 
[[fr:Wayland]]
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{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
  
[http://wayland.freedesktop.org/ Wayland] is a protocol for a [[wikipedia:Compositing window manager|compositor]] to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing this protocol. Many major Linux desktop environments, like Gnome and KDE, support Wayland. There is also a compositor reference implementation called "Weston". [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/xserver.html XWayland] implements a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy X11 applications on Wayland.
+
[https://wayland.freedesktop.org/ Wayland] is a protocol for a [[wikipedia:Compositing window manager|compositing window manager]] to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing the protocol. It is supported on some desktop environments like [[GNOME]] and [[KDE]]. There is also a compositor reference implementation called Weston. XWayland provides a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy [[X11]] applications in Wayland.
  
 
== Requirements ==
 
== Requirements ==
  
Most Wayland compositors only work on systems using [[KMS]].
+
Most Wayland compositors only work on systems using [[Kernel mode setting]]. Wayland by itself does not provide a graphical environment; for this you also need a compositor such as [[#Weston]] or [[Sway]], or a desktop environment that includes a compositor like [[GNOME]] or [[KDE]].
  
Wayland by itself does not provide a graphical environment; for this you also need a compositor such as [[#Weston]] or [[Sway]], or a desktop environment that includes a compositor such as [[GNOME]] or [[KDE]].
+
For the GPU driver and Wayland compositor to be compatible they must support the same buffer API. There are two main APIs: [[Wikipedia:Generic Buffer Management|GBM]] and [https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=XDC2016-Device-Memory-API EGLStreams].
 
 
=== Buffer API support ===
 
 
 
For the GPU driver and Wayland compositor to be compatible they must support the same buffer API. There are two main APIs: [[Wikipedia:Generic Buffer Management|GBM]] and [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=XDC2016-Device-Memory-API EGLStreams].
 
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
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| GBM || All except [[NVIDIA]] || All
 
| GBM || All except [[NVIDIA]] || All
 
|-
 
|-
| EGLStreams || [[NVIDIA]] || [[GNOME]], [[Grefsen]], [[Sway]] ([https://sircmpwn.github.io/2017/10/26/Fuck-you-nvidia.html will be removed])
+
| EGLStreams || [[NVIDIA]] || [[GNOME]], [[KDE]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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=== Installation ===
 
=== Installation ===
  
Install the {{Pkg|weston}} package.
+
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|weston}} package.
  
 
=== Usage ===
 
=== Usage ===
  
{| class="wikitable" style="float: right; width: 40%; margin-left: 1em"
+
{{tip|Super (windows key) can be changed, see [[#Configuration|weston.ini]]}}
|+ '''''Keyboard Shortcuts''' (super = windows key - can be changed, see weston.ini)'' {{Ic|Ctrl-b}}
+
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|+ '''Keyboard Shortcuts'''
 
!Cmd
 
!Cmd
 
!Action
 
!Action
Line 60: Line 58:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|{{ic|Super+MMB}}
 
|{{ic|Super+MMB}}
|Rotate Window !
+
|Rotate Window
 
|-
 
|-
 
|{{ic|Super+RMB}}
 
|{{ic|Super+RMB}}
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|Change window opacity
 
|Change window opacity
 
|-
 
|-
|{{ic|Super+K}}
+
|{{ic|Super+k}}
 
|Force Kill Active Window
 
|Force Kill Active Window
 
|-
 
|-
|{{ic|Super+KeyUp/KeyDown}}
+
|{{ic|Super+Up/Down}}
 
|Switch Prev/Next Workspace
 
|Switch Prev/Next Workspace
 
|-
 
|-
|{{ic|Super+Shift+KeyUp/KeyDown}}
+
|{{ic|Super+Shift+Up/Down}}
 
|Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace
 
|Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace
 
|-
 
|-
|{{ic|Super+F'''''n'''''}}
+
|{{ic|Super+F''n''}}
|Switch to Workspace '''''n'''''
+
|Switch to Workspace ''n'' (e.g. F2)
 
|-
 
|-
|{{ic|Super+S}}
+
|{{ic|Super+s}}
 
|Take a screenshot
 
|Take a screenshot
 
|-
 
|-
|{{ic|Super+R}}
+
|{{ic|Super+r}}
|Record a screencast.
+
|Record a screencast
 
|}
 
|}
  
Now that Wayland and its requirements are installed you should be ready to test it out.
+
To launch Weston natively (from a TTY) or to run Weston inside a running X session:
  
It is possible to run Weston inside a running X session:
 
 
  $ weston
 
  $ weston
  
Alternatively, to try to launch Weston natively, switch to a terminal and run:
+
Then within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:
$ weston-launch
 
  
Then at a TTY within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:
 
 
  $ weston-terminal
 
  $ weston-terminal
  
 
To move flowers around the screen:
 
To move flowers around the screen:
 +
 
  $ weston-flower  
 
  $ weston-flower  
  
 
To display images:
 
To display images:
 +
 
  $ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...
 
  $ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...
  
 
=== Configuration ===
 
=== Configuration ===
Example configuration file for keyboard layout, module selection and UI modifications. See {{man|5|weston.ini}} for full details. The Weston outputs differ slightly from {{ic|xorg.conf}}'s Monitors:
+
 
 +
Weston's outputs differ slightly from those of {{ic|xorg.conf}} Monitors:
  
 
  $ ls /sys/class/drm
 
  $ ls /sys/class/drm
Line 116: Line 114:
  
 
{{ic|card0}} is the unused built-in video adapter. The add-on adapter {{ic|card1}} is cabled to one HDMI and one DVI monitor, so the output names are {{ic|HDMI-A-1}} and {{ic|DVI-I-1}}.
 
{{ic|card0}} is the unused built-in video adapter. The add-on adapter {{ic|card1}} is cabled to one HDMI and one DVI monitor, so the output names are {{ic|HDMI-A-1}} and {{ic|DVI-I-1}}.
 +
 +
Following is an example configuration file. See {{man|5|weston.ini}} for more.
  
 
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|<nowiki>
 
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|<nowiki>
Line 123: Line 123:
  
 
[libinput]
 
[libinput]
enable_tap=true
+
enable-tap=true
  
 
[shell]
 
[shell]
background-image=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Aqua.jpg
+
#background-image=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Aqua.jpg
background-color=0xff002244
+
background-type=scale-crop
panel-color=0x90ff0000
+
background-color=0xff000000
locking=true
+
#background-color=0xff002244
animation=zoom
+
#panel-color=0x90ff0000
close-animation=fade
+
panel-color=0x00ffffff
 +
panel-position=bottom
 +
#clock-format=none
 +
#animation=zoom
 +
#startup-animation=none
 +
close-animation=none
 
focus-animation=dim-layer
 
focus-animation=dim-layer
 
#binding-modifier=ctrl
 
#binding-modifier=ctrl
#num-workspaces=6
+
num-workspaces=6
### for cursor themes install xcursor-themes pkg from Extra. ###
+
locking=false
#cursor-theme=whiteglass
+
cursor-theme=Adwaita
#cursor-size=24
+
cursor-size=24
  
### tablet options ###
+
# tablet options
 
#lockscreen-icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/256x256/actions/lock.png
 
#lockscreen-icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/256x256/actions/lock.png
 
#lockscreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Garden.jpg
 
#lockscreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Garden.jpg
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#animation=fade
 
#animation=fade
  
###  for Laptop displays ###
+
# for Laptop displays
#[output]
+
[output]
#name=LVDS1
+
name=LVDS1
 +
mode=preferred
 
#mode=1680x1050
 
#mode=1680x1050
 
#transform=90
 
#transform=90
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#transform=flipped-270
 
#transform=flipped-270
  
[input-method]
+
# on screen keyboard input method
 +
#[input-method]
 
#path=/usr/lib/weston/weston-keyboard
 
#path=/usr/lib/weston/weston-keyboard
  
 
[keyboard]
 
[keyboard]
 
keymap_rules=evdev
 
keymap_rules=evdev
#keymap_layout=gb,de
+
#keymap_layout=us,de
 +
#keymap_variant=colemak,
 +
#keymap_options=grp:shifts_toggle
 
#keymap_options=caps:ctrl_modifier,shift:both_capslock_cancel
 
#keymap_options=caps:ctrl_modifier,shift:both_capslock_cancel
### keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst ###
+
repeat-rate=30
numlock-on=true
+
repeat-delay=300
 +
 
 +
# keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst
 +
#numlock-on=true
  
 
[terminal]
 
[terminal]
#font=DroidSansMono
+
font=monospace
#font-size=14
+
font-size=18
  
 
[launcher]
 
[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
+
icon=/usr/share/weston/icon_flower.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal
+
path=/usr/bin/weston-flower
  
 
[launcher]
 
[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
+
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/32x32/apps/utilities-terminal.png
path=/usr/bin/gnome-terminal
+
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal --shell=/usr/bin/bash
  
[launcher]
+
#[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
+
#icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/32x32/apps/utilities-terminal.png
path=/usr/bin/firefox
+
#path=/usr/bin/gnome-terminal
  
 
[launcher]
 
[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/weston/icon_flower.png
+
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/32x32/apps/firefox.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-flower
+
path=MOZ_GTK_TITLEBAR_DECORATION=client /usr/bin/firefox
  
[screensaver]
+
#[launcher]
# Uncomment path to disable screensaver
+
#icon=/usr/share/icons/Adwaita/32x32/apps/multimedia-volume-control.png
path=/usr/libexec/weston-screensaver
+
#path=/usr/bin/st alsamixer -c0
duration=600
 
 
</nowiki>
 
</nowiki>
 
}}
 
}}
  
Minimal {{ic|weston.ini}} :
+
Minimal {{ic|weston.ini}}:
 +
 
 
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|<nowiki>
 
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|<nowiki>
 
[core]
 
[core]
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==== XWayland ====
 
==== XWayland ====
 +
 
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} package.
 
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} package.
  
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{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
 
{{hc|~/.config/weston.ini|
 
<nowiki>[core]
 
<nowiki>[core]
modules=xwayland.so</nowiki>
+
xwayland=true</nowiki>
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Note| if X is not already configured you may need to configure a keymap: [[Keyboard configuration in Xorg]]}}
 
{{Note| if X is not already configured you may need to configure a keymap: [[Keyboard configuration in Xorg]]}}
 
==== Screencast recording ====
 
Weston has build-in screencast recording which can be started and stopped by pressing the {{ic|Super+r}} key combination. Screencasts are saved to the file {{ic|capture.wcap}} in the current working directory of Weston.
 
 
The WCAP format is a lossless video format specific to Weston, which only records the difference in frames. To be able to play the recorded screencast, the WCAP file will need to be converted to a format which a media player can understand. First, convert the capture to the YUV pixel format:
 
 
$ wcap-decode capture.wcap --yuv4mpeg2 > capture.y4m
 
 
The YUV file can then be transcoded to other formats using [[FFmpeg]].
 
  
 
==== High DPI displays ====
 
==== High DPI displays ====
Line 256: Line 260:
  
 
Weston uses the default sans-serif font for window title bars, clocks, etc. See [[Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts]] for instructions on how to change this font.
 
Weston uses the default sans-serif font for window title bars, clocks, etc. See [[Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts]] for instructions on how to change this font.
 +
 +
=== Tips and tricks ===
 +
 +
==== Screencast recording ====
 +
 +
Weston has built-in screencast recording which can be started and stopped by pressing the {{ic|Super}}+{{ic|r}} key combination. Screencasts are saved to the file {{ic|capture.wcap}} in the current working directory of Weston. The WCAP format is a lossless video format specific to Weston, which only records the difference in frames. To be able to play the recorded screencast, the WCAP file will need to be converted to a format which a media player can understand. First, convert the capture to the YUV pixel format:
 +
 +
$ wcap-decode --yuv4mpeg2 capture.wcap > capture.y4m
 +
 +
The YUV file can then be transcoded to other formats using [[FFmpeg]] or {{Pkg|x264}} (see {{ic|x264 -h}} for more).
 +
 +
==== Window switching ====
 +
 +
To switch windows with {{ic|Super+Space}} instead of {{ic|Super+Tab}} change {{ic|KEY_TAB}} to {{ic|KEY_SPACE}} in {{ic|desktop-shell/shell.c}} and recompile {{Pkg|weston}}.
  
 
== GUI libraries ==
 
== GUI libraries ==
  
See details on the [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/toolkits.html official website].
+
See details on the [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/toolkits.html official website].
  
=== GTK+ 3 ===
+
=== GTK 3 ===
  
The {{Pkg|gtk3}} package has the Wayland backend enabled. GTK+ will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: {{ic|GDK_BACKEND&#61;x11}}.
+
The {{Pkg|gtk3}} package has the Wayland backend enabled. GTK will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: {{ic|GDK_BACKEND&#61;x11}}.
  
 
=== Qt 5 ===
 
=== Qt 5 ===
 +
 
To enable Wayland support in Qt 5, install the {{Pkg|qt5-wayland}} package.
 
To enable Wayland support in Qt 5, install the {{Pkg|qt5-wayland}} package.
  
To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin, use {{ic|1=-platform wayland}} or set the {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl}} [[environment variable]].
+
To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin [https://wiki.qt.io/QtWayland#How_do_I_use_QtWayland.3F], use {{ic|1=-platform wayland}} or {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl}} [[environment variable]]. To force the usage of [[X11]] on a Wayland session, use {{ic|1=QT_QPA_PLATFORM=xcb}}.
  
 
=== Clutter ===
 
=== Clutter ===
Line 279: Line 298:
  
 
To run a SDL2 application on Wayland, set {{ic|SDL_VIDEODRIVER&#61;wayland}}.
 
To run a SDL2 application on Wayland, set {{ic|SDL_VIDEODRIVER&#61;wayland}}.
 +
 +
{{Note|Many proprietary games come bundled with old versions of SDL, which don't support Wayland and might break entirely if you set {{ic|SDL_VIDEODRIVER&#61;wayland}}. To force the application to run with XWayland, set {{ic|SDL_VIDEODRIVER&#61;x11}}.}}
  
 
=== GLFW ===
 
=== GLFW ===
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=== EFL ===
 
=== EFL ===
  
EFL has complete Wayland support.  
+
EFL has complete Wayland support. To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/efl.html project page].
To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/efl.html project page].
+
 
 +
== Display managers ==
 +
 
 +
Below listed display managers which supports running Wayland compositors. The Type column indicates whether the display manager supports running on Wayland or not.
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
! Name
 +
! Type
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| GDM
 +
| Runs on Wayland
 +
| [[GNOME]] display manager.
 +
|-
 +
| LightDM
 +
| Runs on X11
 +
| Cross-desktop display manager.
 +
|-
 +
| Ly
 +
| Runs in console
 +
| TUI display manager written in C
 +
|-
 +
| SDDM
 +
| Runs on X11
 +
| QML-based display manager.
 +
|}
  
 
== Compositors ==
 
== Compositors ==
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| GNOME
 
| GNOME
 
| Stacking
 
| Stacking
| See [[GNOME#Starting GNOME]].
+
| See [[GNOME#Starting]].
 
|-
 
|-
 
| sway
 
| sway
Line 309: Line 355:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Enlightenment
 
| Enlightenment
| Stacking
+
| Stacking and tiling
 
| [https://www.enlightenment.org/about-wayland More Info]
 
| [https://www.enlightenment.org/about-wayland More Info]
 
|-
 
|-
Line 318: Line 364:
 
| Orbment
 
| Orbment
 
| Tiling
 
| Tiling
| [https://github.com/Cloudef/orbment orbment] (previously loliwm) is an abandonned tiling WM for Wayland.
+
| [https://github.com/Cloudef/orbment orbment] (previously loliwm) is an abandoned tiling WM for Wayland.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Velox
 
| Velox
Line 326: Line 372:
 
| Orbital
 
| Orbital
 
| Stacking
 
| Stacking
| [https://github.com/giucam/orbital Orbital] is a Wayland compositor and shell, using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple yet flexible and good looking Wayland desktop. It is not a full fledged DE but rather the analogue of a WM in the X11 world, such as [[Awesome]] or [[Fluxbox]].
+
| [https://github.com/giucam/orbital Orbital] is a Wayland compositor and shell (more akin to a WM than a DE) using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple but flexible and good looking Wayland desktop.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Liri Shell
 
| Liri Shell
Line 334: Line 380:
 
| Maynard
 
| Maynard
 
| ''(Unclear)''
 
| ''(Unclear)''
| [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard Maynard] is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti.
+
| [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard Maynard] is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti. Not under development. [https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard/issues/54#issuecomment-303422302][https://github.com/raspberrypi/maynard/issues/55#issuecomment-373808518]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Motorcar
 
| Motorcar
Line 342: Line 388:
 
| Way Cooler
 
| Way Cooler
 
| Tiling
 
| Tiling
| {{AUR|way-cooler}} is a customizable (Lua config files) Wayland compositor written in Rust. Inspired by i3 and awesome.
+
| [https://github.com/way-cooler/way-cooler Way Cooler] is a customizable (Lua config files) Wayland compositor written in Rust. Inspired by i3 and awesome.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Maze Compositor
 
| Maze Compositor
 
| Floating 3D
 
| Floating 3D
| [https://github.com/capisce/mazecompositor Maze Compositor] is a 3D Qt based Wayland compositor
+
| [https://github.com/imbavirus/mazecompositor Maze Compositor] is a 3D Qt based Wayland compositor
 +
|-
 +
| Cage
 +
| Kiosk
 +
| [https://www.hjdskes.nl/projects/cage/ Cage] is a Wayland compositor that displays a single fullscreen application
 +
|-
 +
| Greenfield
 +
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/udevbe/greenfield Greenfield] is a Wayland compositor that runs in a web browser and can display remote applications
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Grefsen
 
| Grefsen
 
| Floating
 
| Floating
 
| [https://github.com/ec1oud/grefsen Grefsen] is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.
 
| [https://github.com/ec1oud/grefsen Grefsen] is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.
 +
|-
 +
| Waymonad
 +
| Tiling
 +
| [https://github.com/waymonad/waymonad Waymonad] is a Wayland compositor based on ideas from and inspired by xmonad
 +
|-
 +
| wayfire
 +
| Stacking
 +
| [https://github.com/WayfireWM/wayfire Wayfire] is a general purpose compositor.
 
|}
 
|}
  
Some of installed wayland desktop clients might store information in {{ic|/usr/share/wayland-sessions/*.desktop}} files about how to start them in wayland.
+
Some of the above may support [[display manager]]s. Check {{ic|/usr/share/wayland-sessions/''compositor''.desktop}} to see how they are started.
  
 
==Troubleshooting==
 
==Troubleshooting==
  
 +
=== Gamma ===
  
=== Running graphical applications as root ===
+
While [[Redshift]] doesn't support Wayland (without a patch) it is possible to apply the desired temperature in [[tty]] before starting a compositor. For example:
  
Trying to run a graphical application as root via [[su]], [[sudo]] or [[polkit|pkexec]] in a Wayland session (''e.g.'' [[GParted]] or [[Gedit]]), be it in a terminal emulator or from a graphical component, will fail with an error similar to this:
+
redshift -m drm -PO 3000
  
{{bc|$ sudo gedit
+
Otherwise some compositors feature this option during runtime:
No protocol specified
 
Unable to init server: Could not connect: Connection refused
 
  
(gedit:2349): Gtk-WARNING **: cannot open display: :0
+
* [[GNOME]] provides features like [[Redshift]] out-of-the-box and has Wayland support. Enable [[GNOME#Night_Light|Night Light]] in Display settings.
}}
+
* Likewise, [[KDE Plasma]] provides ''Night Color'' which is Wayland-only.
 +
* On Sway 1.0 and other wlroots-based compositors, {{AUR|redshift-wlr-gamma-control-git}} can be used.
 +
* On Orbital, {{AUR|redshift-wayland-git}} can be used.
  
Before Wayland, running GUI applications with elevated privileges could be properly implemented by creating a [[Polkit]] policy, or more dangerously done by running the command in a terminal by prepending the command with {{ic|sudo}}; but under (X)Wayland this does not work anymore as the default has been made to only allow the user who started the X server to connect clients to it (see the [https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1266771 bug report] and [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/xorg/xserver/commit/?id=c4534a3 the] [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/xorg/xserver/commit/?id=4b4b908 upstream] [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/xorg/xserver/commit/?id=76636ac commits] it refers to).
+
=== LLVM assertion failure ===
 
 
The most straightforward workaround is to use [[xhost]] to temporarily allow the root user to access the local user's X session. To do so, execute the following command as the current (unprivileged) user[https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1274451#c64]:
 
  xhost si:localuser:root
 
 
 
To remove this access after the application has been closed:
 
  xhost -si:localuser:root
 
  
{{Note|1=This [https://bugzilla.gnome.org//show_bug.cgi?id=772875 GNOME bug report] suggests two other workarounds, with one specific to editing text files.}}
 
 
{{Style|Many of these subsections should go into a "Known issues" section (i.e., there is no solution currently). Additionally prepending a date is not needed.}}
 
 
=== LLVM assertion failure ===
 
 
If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild {{Pkg|mesa}} without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.  
 
If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild {{Pkg|mesa}} without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.  
  
This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM.
+
This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM. You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:  
You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:  
 
  
 
  $ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so
 
  $ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so
  
 
=== Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes ===
 
=== Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes ===
 +
 
Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the {{ic|1=CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling}} set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from {{ic|/etc/environment}} or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.
 
Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the {{ic|1=CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling}} set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from {{ic|/etc/environment}} or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.
  
=== nemo ===
+
=== Cannot open display: :0 with Electron-based applications ===
(20161229) prevent that the desktop is created <ref>[https://github.com/linuxmint/nemo/issues/1343 nemo issue 1343]</ref>
 
gsettings set org.nemo.desktop show-desktop-icons false
 
  
=== X11 on tty1, wayland on tty2 ===
+
Make sure you haven't set GDK_BACKEND=wayland. Setting it globally will break Electron apps.
(20161209) windows of gnome applications end up on tty2 no matter where started ([https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=774775 gnome issue 774775)]
 
  
=== gnome wayland on tty1, weston on tty2 ===
+
=== Screen recording ===
(20170106) apps started on gnome with WAYLAND_DISPLAY set to westen make it not respond any more ([https://bugs.freedesktop.org/show_bug.cgi?id=99489 wayland issue 99489])
 
  
=== weston-terminal ===
+
{{AUR|green-recorder}} and {{AUR|obs-gnome-screencast}} support screen recording on Wayland using GNOME screencast feature.
(20161229) core dump when started on gnome
 
  
=== liteide ===
+
{{AUR|wf-recorder-git}} is a video recorder for wlroots-based compositors.
(20161229) [https://github.com/visualfc/liteide/issues/734 core dump]] on gnome and weston.
 
  
=== screen recording ===
+
{{AUR|wlrobs-hg}} is obs-studio plugin that allows you to screen capture on wlroots-based compositors.
Currently only {{AUR|green-recorder}} supports screen recording on Wayland (requires a GNOME session).
 
  
=== remote display ===
+
=== Remote display ===
(20180401) mutter has now remote desktop enabled at compile time, see https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/Mutter/RemoteDesktop and https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/gnome-remote-desktop/ for details.
+
 
(20161229) there was a merge of FreeRDP into weston in 2013, enabled via compile time switch. The arch linux weston package currently has it not enabled.
+
* (20190503) {{pkg|wlroots}} (used by [[sway]]) offers an RDP backend since version 0.6 [https://github.com/swaywm/wlroots/blob/master/docs/env_vars.md].
 +
* (20180401) mutter has now remote desktop enabled at compile time, see [https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/Mutter/RemoteDesktop] and {{Pkg|gnome-remote-desktop}} for details.
 +
* There was a merge of FreeRDP into Weston in 2013, enabled via a compile flag. The {{Pkg|weston}} package has it enabled since version 6.0.0.
 +
* {{AUR|waypipe-git}} is a transparent proxy for Wayland applications, with a wrapper command to run over [[SSH]]
  
 
=== Input grabbing in games, remote desktop and VM windows  ===
 
=== Input grabbing in games, remote desktop and VM windows  ===
Line 420: Line 468:
  
 
This change in input grabbing breaks current applications' behavior, meaning:
 
This change in input grabbing breaks current applications' behavior, meaning:
 +
 
* Hotkey combinations and modifiers will be caught by the compositor and won't be sent to remote desktop and virtual machine windows.
 
* Hotkey combinations and modifiers will be caught by the compositor and won't be sent to remote desktop and virtual machine windows.
 
* The mouse pointer will not be restricted to the application's window which might cause a parallax effect where the location of the mouse pointer inside the window of the virtual machine or remote desktop is displaced from the host's mouse pointer.
 
* The mouse pointer will not be restricted to the application's window which might cause a parallax effect where the location of the mouse pointer inside the window of the virtual machine or remote desktop is displaced from the host's mouse pointer.
  
Wayland solves this by adding protocol extensions for Wayland and XWayland. Support for these extensions is needed to be added to Wayland compositors, and in the case of native Wayland clients to widget toolkits (e.g GTK, QT) and probably also to the applications themselves.
+
Wayland solves this by adding protocol extensions for Wayland and XWayland. Support for these extensions is needed to be added to the Wayland compositors. In the case of native Wayland clients, the used widget toolkits (e.g GTK, QT) needs to support these extensions or the applications themselves if no widget toolkit is being used. In the case of Xorg applications, no changes in the applications or widget toolkits are needed as the XWayland support is enough.
 +
 
 +
These extensions are already included in {{pkg|wayland-protocols}}, and supported by {{pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} 1.20.
  
 
The related extensions are:
 
The related extensions are:
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/xwayland-keyboard-grab/xwayland-keyboard-grab-unstable-v1.xml XWayland keyboard grabbing protocol], XWayland support [https://lists.x.org/archives/xorg-devel/2017-August/054231.html has been added] to xorg-server 1.20 development tree
+
 
 +
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/xwayland-keyboard-grab/xwayland-keyboard-grab-unstable-v1.xml XWayland keyboard grabbing protocol]
 
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/keyboard-shortcuts-inhibit/keyboard-shortcuts-inhibit-unstable-v1.xml Compositor shortcuts inhibit protocol]
 
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/keyboard-shortcuts-inhibit/keyboard-shortcuts-inhibit-unstable-v1.xml Compositor shortcuts inhibit protocol]
 
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/relative-pointer/relative-pointer-unstable-v1.xml Relative pointer protocol]
 
* [https://cgit.freedesktop.org/wayland/wayland-protocols/tree/unstable/relative-pointer/relative-pointer-unstable-v1.xml Relative pointer protocol]
Line 432: Line 484:
  
 
Supporting Wayland compositors:
 
Supporting Wayland compositors:
* Mutter, [[GNOME|GNOME's]] compositor [https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=783342 since release 3.28].
+
 
 +
* Mutter, [[GNOME]]'s compositor [https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=783342 since release 3.28].
  
 
Supporting widget toolkits:
 
Supporting widget toolkits:
 +
 
* GTK since release 3.22.18.
 
* GTK since release 3.22.18.
 +
 +
==== wlroots input inhibitor protocol ====
 +
 +
[https://github.com/swaywm/wlr-protocols/blob/master/unstable/wlr-input-inhibitor-unstable-v1.xml Input inhibitor] is a Wayland protocol which was defined the by developers of Sway and wlroots and is overlapping Wayland's {{ic|Compositor shortcuts inhibit}} protocol.<br/>
 +
Sway and wlroots do not support the {{ic|Compositor shortcuts inhibit}} and {{ic|XWayland keyboard grabbing}} protocols, and it seems they are against adding support for the latter [https://github.com/swaywm/wlroots/pull/635#issuecomment-366385856] [https://github.com/swaywm/wlroots/issues/624#issuecomment-367276476].<br/>
 +
No widget toolkit or application is known to support this protocol.
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
 +
 
* [https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/How_to_debug_Wayland_problems Article about Wayland debugging on Fedora Wiki]
 
* [https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/How_to_debug_Wayland_problems Article about Wayland debugging on Fedora Wiki]
 
* [[Cursor themes]]
 
* [[Cursor themes]]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=107499 Arch Linux forum discussion]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=107499 Arch Linux forum discussion]
* [http://wayland.freedesktop.org/docs/html/ Wayland documentation online]
+
* [https://wayland.freedesktop.org/docs/html/ Wayland documentation online]

Latest revision as of 14:46, 12 October 2019

Wayland is a protocol for a compositing window manager to talk to its clients, as well as a library implementing the protocol. It is supported on some desktop environments like GNOME and KDE. There is also a compositor reference implementation called Weston. XWayland provides a compatibility layer to seamlessly run legacy X11 applications in Wayland.

Requirements

Most Wayland compositors only work on systems using Kernel mode setting. Wayland by itself does not provide a graphical environment; for this you also need a compositor such as #Weston or Sway, or a desktop environment that includes a compositor like GNOME or KDE.

For the GPU driver and Wayland compositor to be compatible they must support the same buffer API. There are two main APIs: GBM and EGLStreams.

Buffer API GPU driver support Wayland compositor support
GBM All except NVIDIA All
EGLStreams NVIDIA GNOME, KDE

Weston

Weston is the reference implementation of a Wayland compositor.

Installation

Install the weston package.

Usage

Tip: Super (windows key) can be changed, see weston.ini
Keyboard Shortcuts
Cmd Action
Ctrl+Alt+Backspace Quit Weston
Super+Scroll (or PageUp/PageDown) Zoom in/out of desktop
Super+Tab Switch windows
Super+LMB Move Window
Super+MMB Rotate Window
Super+RMB Resize Window
Super+Alt+Scroll Change window opacity
Super+k Force Kill Active Window
Super+Up/Down Switch Prev/Next Workspace
Super+Shift+Up/Down Grab Current Window and Switch Workspace
Super+Fn Switch to Workspace n (e.g. F2)
Super+s Take a screenshot
Super+r Record a screencast

To launch Weston natively (from a TTY) or to run Weston inside a running X session:

$ weston

Then within Weston, you can run the demos. To launch a terminal emulator:

$ weston-terminal

To move flowers around the screen:

$ weston-flower 

To display images:

$ weston-image image1.jpg image2.jpg...

Configuration

Weston's outputs differ slightly from those of xorg.conf Monitors:

$ ls /sys/class/drm
card0
card0-VGA-1
card1
card1-DVI-I-1
card1-HDMI-A-1
card1-VGA-2

card0 is the unused built-in video adapter. The add-on adapter card1 is cabled to one HDMI and one DVI monitor, so the output names are HDMI-A-1 and DVI-I-1.

Following is an example configuration file. See weston.ini(5) for more.

~/.config/weston.ini
[core]
# xwayland support
xwayland=true

[libinput]
enable-tap=true

[shell]
#background-image=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Aqua.jpg
background-type=scale-crop
background-color=0xff000000
#background-color=0xff002244
#panel-color=0x90ff0000
panel-color=0x00ffffff
panel-position=bottom
#clock-format=none
#animation=zoom
#startup-animation=none
close-animation=none
focus-animation=dim-layer
#binding-modifier=ctrl
num-workspaces=6
locking=false
cursor-theme=Adwaita
cursor-size=24

# tablet options
#lockscreen-icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/256x256/actions/lock.png
#lockscreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Garden.jpg
#homescreen=/usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/Blinds.jpg
#animation=fade

# for Laptop displays
[output]
name=LVDS1
mode=preferred
#mode=1680x1050
#transform=90

#[output]
#name=VGA1
# The following sets the mode with a modeline, you can get modelines for your preffered resolutions using the cvt utility
#mode=173.00 1920 2048 2248 2576 1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync +vsync
#transform=flipped

#[output]
#name=X1
#mode=1024x768
#transform=flipped-270

# on screen keyboard input method
#[input-method]
#path=/usr/lib/weston/weston-keyboard

[keyboard]
keymap_rules=evdev
#keymap_layout=us,de
#keymap_variant=colemak,
#keymap_options=grp:shifts_toggle
#keymap_options=caps:ctrl_modifier,shift:both_capslock_cancel
repeat-rate=30
repeat-delay=300

# keymap_options from /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst
#numlock-on=true

[terminal]
font=monospace
font-size=18

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/weston/icon_flower.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-flower

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/32x32/apps/utilities-terminal.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal --shell=/usr/bin/bash

#[launcher]
#icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/32x32/apps/utilities-terminal.png
#path=/usr/bin/gnome-terminal

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/32x32/apps/firefox.png
path=MOZ_GTK_TITLEBAR_DECORATION=client /usr/bin/firefox

#[launcher]
#icon=/usr/share/icons/Adwaita/32x32/apps/multimedia-volume-control.png
#path=/usr/bin/st alsamixer -c0

Minimal weston.ini:

~/.config/weston.ini
[core]
xwayland=true

[keyboard]
keymap_layout=gb

[output]
name=LVDS1
mode=1680x1050
transform=90

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/gnome/24x24/apps/utilities-terminal.png
path=/usr/bin/weston-terminal

[launcher]
icon=/usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/apps/firefox.png
path=/usr/bin/firefox


XWayland

Install the xorg-server-xwayland package.

When you want to run an X application from within Weston, it spins up Xwayland to service the request. The following configuration is shown above:

~/.config/weston.ini
[core]
xwayland=true
Note: if X is not already configured you may need to configure a keymap: Keyboard configuration in Xorg

High DPI displays

For Retina or HiDPI displays, use:

~/.config/weston.ini
[output]
name=...
scale=2

Shell font

Weston uses the default sans-serif font for window title bars, clocks, etc. See Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts for instructions on how to change this font.

Tips and tricks

Screencast recording

Weston has built-in screencast recording which can be started and stopped by pressing the Super+r key combination. Screencasts are saved to the file capture.wcap in the current working directory of Weston. The WCAP format is a lossless video format specific to Weston, which only records the difference in frames. To be able to play the recorded screencast, the WCAP file will need to be converted to a format which a media player can understand. First, convert the capture to the YUV pixel format:

$ wcap-decode --yuv4mpeg2 capture.wcap > capture.y4m

The YUV file can then be transcoded to other formats using FFmpeg or x264 (see x264 -h for more).

Window switching

To switch windows with Super+Space instead of Super+Tab change KEY_TAB to KEY_SPACE in desktop-shell/shell.c and recompile weston.

GUI libraries

See details on the official website.

GTK 3

The gtk3 package has the Wayland backend enabled. GTK will default to the Wayland backend, but it is possible to override it to Xwayland by modifying an environment variable: GDK_BACKEND=x11.

Qt 5

To enable Wayland support in Qt 5, install the qt5-wayland package.

To run a Qt 5 app with the Wayland plugin [1], use -platform wayland or QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland-egl environment variable. To force the usage of X11 on a Wayland session, use QT_QPA_PLATFORM=xcb.

Clutter

The Clutter toolkit has a Wayland backend that allows it to run as a Wayland client. The backend is enabled in the clutter package.

To run a Clutter app on Wayland, set CLUTTER_BACKEND=wayland.

SDL2

To run a SDL2 application on Wayland, set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland.

Note: Many proprietary games come bundled with old versions of SDL, which don't support Wayland and might break entirely if you set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=wayland. To force the application to run with XWayland, set SDL_VIDEODRIVER=x11.

GLFW

To use GLFW with the Wayland backend, install the glfw-wayland package (instead of glfw-x11).

GLEW

To use GLEW with the Wayland backend, install the glew-wayland package (instead of glew).

EFL

EFL has complete Wayland support. To run a EFL application on Wayland, see Wayland project page.

Display managers

Below listed display managers which supports running Wayland compositors. The Type column indicates whether the display manager supports running on Wayland or not.

Name Type Description
GDM Runs on Wayland GNOME display manager.
LightDM Runs on X11 Cross-desktop display manager.
Ly Runs in console TUI display manager written in C
SDDM Runs on X11 QML-based display manager.

Compositors

Name Type Description
GNOME Stacking See GNOME#Starting.
sway Tiling Sway is an i3-compatible window manager for Wayland. GitHub
Enlightenment Stacking and tiling More Info
KDE Plasma Stacking See KDE#Starting Plasma
Orbment Tiling orbment (previously loliwm) is an abandoned tiling WM for Wayland.
Velox Tiling Velox is a simple window manager based on swc. It is inspired by dwm and xmonad.
Orbital Stacking Orbital is a Wayland compositor and shell (more akin to a WM than a DE) using Qt5 and Weston. The goal of the project is to build a simple but flexible and good looking Wayland desktop.
Liri Shell Stacking Liri Shell is the desktop shell for Liri, built using QtQuick and QtCompositor as a compositor for Wayland.
Maynard (Unclear) Maynard is a desktop shell client for Weston based on GTK. It was based on weston-gtk-shell, a project by Tiago Vignatti. Not under development. [2][3]
Motorcar (Unclear) Motorcar is a Wayland compositor to explore 3D windowing using virtual reality.
Way Cooler Tiling Way Cooler is a customizable (Lua config files) Wayland compositor written in Rust. Inspired by i3 and awesome.
Maze Compositor Floating 3D Maze Compositor is a 3D Qt based Wayland compositor
Cage Kiosk Cage is a Wayland compositor that displays a single fullscreen application
Greenfield Stacking Greenfield is a Wayland compositor that runs in a web browser and can display remote applications
Grefsen Floating Grefsen is a Qt/Wayland compositor providing a minimal desktop environment.
Waymonad Tiling Waymonad is a Wayland compositor based on ideas from and inspired by xmonad
wayfire Stacking Wayfire is a general purpose compositor.

Some of the above may support display managers. Check /usr/share/wayland-sessions/compositor.desktop to see how they are started.

Troubleshooting

Gamma

While Redshift doesn't support Wayland (without a patch) it is possible to apply the desired temperature in tty before starting a compositor. For example:

redshift -m drm -PO 3000

Otherwise some compositors feature this option during runtime:

LLVM assertion failure

If you get an LLVM assertion failure, you need to rebuild mesa without Gallium LLVM until this problem is fixed.

This may imply disabling some drivers which require LLVM. You may also try exporting the following, if having problems with hardware drivers:

$ export EGL_DRIVER=/usr/lib/egl/egl_gallium.so

Slow motion, graphical glitches, and crashes

Gnome-shell users may experience display issues when they switch to Wayland from X. One of the root cause might be the CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling set by yourself for Xorg-based gnome-shell. Just try to remove it from /etc/environment or other rc files to see if everything goes back to normal.

Cannot open display: :0 with Electron-based applications

Make sure you haven't set GDK_BACKEND=wayland. Setting it globally will break Electron apps.

Screen recording

green-recorderAUR and obs-gnome-screencastAUR support screen recording on Wayland using GNOME screencast feature.

wf-recorder-gitAUR is a video recorder for wlroots-based compositors.

wlrobs-hgAUR is obs-studio plugin that allows you to screen capture on wlroots-based compositors.

Remote display

  • (20190503) wlroots (used by sway) offers an RDP backend since version 0.6 [4].
  • (20180401) mutter has now remote desktop enabled at compile time, see [5] and gnome-remote-desktop for details.
  • There was a merge of FreeRDP into Weston in 2013, enabled via a compile flag. The weston package has it enabled since version 6.0.0.
  • waypipe-gitAUR is a transparent proxy for Wayland applications, with a wrapper command to run over SSH

Input grabbing in games, remote desktop and VM windows

In contrast to Xorg, Wayland does not allow exclusive input device grabbing, also known as active or explicit grab (e.g. keyboard, mouse), instead, it depends on the Wayland compositor to pass keyboard shortcuts and confine the pointer device to the application window.

This change in input grabbing breaks current applications' behavior, meaning:

  • Hotkey combinations and modifiers will be caught by the compositor and won't be sent to remote desktop and virtual machine windows.
  • The mouse pointer will not be restricted to the application's window which might cause a parallax effect where the location of the mouse pointer inside the window of the virtual machine or remote desktop is displaced from the host's mouse pointer.

Wayland solves this by adding protocol extensions for Wayland and XWayland. Support for these extensions is needed to be added to the Wayland compositors. In the case of native Wayland clients, the used widget toolkits (e.g GTK, QT) needs to support these extensions or the applications themselves if no widget toolkit is being used. In the case of Xorg applications, no changes in the applications or widget toolkits are needed as the XWayland support is enough.

These extensions are already included in wayland-protocols, and supported by xorg-server-xwayland 1.20.

The related extensions are:

Supporting Wayland compositors:

Supporting widget toolkits:

  • GTK since release 3.22.18.

wlroots input inhibitor protocol

Input inhibitor is a Wayland protocol which was defined the by developers of Sway and wlroots and is overlapping Wayland's Compositor shortcuts inhibit protocol.
Sway and wlroots do not support the Compositor shortcuts inhibit and XWayland keyboard grabbing protocols, and it seems they are against adding support for the latter [6] [7].
No widget toolkit or application is known to support this protocol.

See also