Difference between revisions of "Windows PE"

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(Network boot performance: Added a concrete time of load I experienced (on an old laptop from 2008), because that warning is unnecessarily scary.)
(From Network: Update syslinux copy command: there is a bios subfolder now and need all files, in my experience.)
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Copy needed PXELINUX files to the [[Tftpd server|TFTP server]] root directory.
Copy needed PXELINUX files to the [[Tftpd server|TFTP server]] root directory.
  # cp /usr/lib/syslinux/{pxelinux.0,menu.c32,memdisk} /var/tftpboot
  # rsync -aq /usr/lib/syslinux/bios/ /var/tftpboot/
Put {{ic|winpe.iso}} in the [[Tftpd server|TFTP server]] root directory.
Put {{ic|winpe.iso}} in the [[Tftpd server|TFTP server]] root directory.

Revision as of 04:49, 27 August 2016

Windows PE is a lightweight version of Windows intended to be used for installation of Windows Vista and later versions of Windows, as well as for system maintenance. It runs entirely from memory and can be booted from the network. This page describes how customized Windows PE images can be created, and optionally published on the network, using only free software packages on an Arch Linux machine along with Microsoft's Windows Automated Installation Kit (WAIK). The WAIK can be downloaded at no cost and is only needed to extract the boot.wim file that contains the initial copy of Windows PE, along with a couple boot files.


If you boot Windows PE on a physical computer, you are placing Microsoft's closed-source code in control of that computer. You do so at your own risk.

In addition, by downloading the Windows Automated Installation Kit, you may be bound by its license, which prevents you from, among other things, using Windows PE as a general-purpose operating system.

Use cases

Normally, an image of Windows PE can only be created using the Windows Automated Installation Kit (WAIK) on a Windows machine. However, it is also possible to create and modify images of Windows PE using an (Arch) Linux machine, and optionally publish them on the network for PXE booting. No Windows machine is necessary. You may want to do this if:

  • you need to install Windows from the network, or boot Windows PE from the network for system administration, using an Arch Linux-based server. This may be because you do not have a Windows-based server, or you prefer using a Linux server because of its improved security and configurability, or you are already using a Linux server for other purposes.
  • you need to run a Windows environment to run Win32 programs, you do not have a Windows machine available, and you do not want to use Wine or the programs will not run correctly with Wine.

Creating a bootable Windows PE ISO

Download the Windows Automated Installation Kit (WAIK) from Microsoft's website.

Warning: The entire download, KB3AIK_EN.iso, is 1.7GB.
  • It may be possible to use httpfs to avoid downloading the entire file. Only around 118MB of it is actually needed.
  • If you have an installation media of Windows 7 or later versions, you can use that iso file / optical disc instead of WAIK. mkwinpeimg accepts both WAIK image and Windows installation media. Note that different versions of Windows installation media contains different versions of Windows PE. For the relationship between Windows versions and Windows PE versions, refer to Wikipedia.
  • WAIK has been renamed to WADK since Windows 8 and is now distributed via adksetup.exe. In order to get Windows PE 4.0 and later versions, you have to use installation media of Windows 8 and later versions. The installation media iso files are avaiable for MSDN subscribers, but you can download otherwhere and compare the hash value with the those published on MSDN.

Install fuse, cdrkit, and cabextract from official repositories.

Install wimlibAUR from the AUR.

Mount the WAIK ISO:

# mkdir /media/waik
# mount KB3AIK_EN.iso /media/waik

Use the mkwinpeimg script provided with wimlibAUR to create a bootable Windows PE ISO winpe.iso:

$ mkwinpeimg --iso --waik-dir=/media/waik winpe.iso

See the man mkwinpeimg for more information.

Unmount the WAIK ISO:

# umount /media/waik

Booting Windows PE

After creating a bootable ISO of Windows PE (winpe.iso) as described in the previous section, you may want to boot Windows PE in the following ways:

In virtual machine

Run a virtual machine with winpe.iso attached as a CD-ROM. Be sure to give it adequate memory, definitely more than the size of the ISO, since Windows PE runs from memory. See Category:Hypervisors for a list of available virtualization software.

From CD

Simply burn winpe.iso onto a CD, and you can boot from it.

From Network

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with PXE.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: The PXE article already describes most of this stuff, no need for duplication. Also rc.d? Just make sure that configuration file is not lost if it's necessary for windows. Besides that everything is dupe. (Discuss in Talk:Windows PE#)

Windows PE can be booted from the network using PXELINUX and its MEMDISK module on BIOS systems. For UEFI systems, wimboot and iPXE can be used.

Install syslinux and tftp-hpa.

Copy needed PXELINUX files to the TFTP server root directory.

# rsync -aq /usr/lib/syslinux/bios/ /var/tftpboot/

Put winpe.iso in the TFTP server root directory.

# mv winpe.iso /var/tftpboot

Create a configuration file[broken link: invalid section] for PXELINUX similar to the following:

UI         menu.c32
MENU TITLE Network Boot

LABEL      winpe
MENU LABEL Boot Windows PE from network
KERNEL     /memdisk
INITRD     winpe.iso
APPEND     iso raw

LABEL      localboot
MENU LABEL Boot from local disk

Start the TFTP server.

Configure your DHCP server (such as Dhcpd or Dnsmasq) to point to pxelinux.0 as the boot file, with the Linux server's IP address. Beware: if your DHCP server is on a router, it may not be possible to do this without installing custom firmware.

After completing the above steps, you should be able to boot Windows PE from the network.

Note: With the given PXELINUX configuration file, Windows PE will start by default after 5 seconds.

Network boot performance

TFTP is not designed to be used to transfer large files, such as winpe.iso, which may be 118MB or more and take about 30 seconds to load. Performance may be improved by using the gpxelinux.0 bootloader instead of pxelinux.0 and loading winpe.iso using HTTP rather than TFTP.

Customizing Windows PE

The mkwinpeimg script provided with wimlibAUR supports making modifications to Windows PE using the --start-script or --overlay options. See the manual page for mkwinpeimg for more information.

You may want to do this to add additional Windows applications that you want to run in Windows PE, or to add any additional drivers that Windows PE needs (drivers can be loaded using the drvload command within Windows PE).

See also