Wine

Wine is a compatibility layer capable of running Microsoft Windows applications on Unix-like operating systems. Programs running in Wine act as native programs would, without the performance/memory penalties of an emulator.

Warning: If you can access a file or resource with your user account, programs running in Wine can too. See #Running Wine under a separate user account and Security#Sandboxing applications for possible precautions.

Installation

Wine can be installed by enabling the Multilib repository and installing the wine (stable) or wine-staging (testing) package. Wine Staging is a patched version of Wine, which contains bug fixes and features that have not been integrated into the stable branch yet. See also #Graphics drivers and #Sound.

Consider installing wine_gecko and wine-mono for applications that depend on Internet Explorer and .NET, respectively. These packages are not strictly required as Wine will download the relevant files as needed. However, having the files downloaded in advance allows you to work off-line and makes it so Wine does not download the files for each Wine prefix needing them.

Configuration

Configuring Wine is typically accomplished using:

• winecfg is a GUI configuration tool for Wine, which can be started by running winecfg.
• regedit is Wine's registry editing tool, which can be started by running regedit. See WineHQ's article on Useful Registry Keys.
• control is Wine's implementation of the Windows Control Panel, which can be started by running wine control.
• See WineHQ's List of Commands for the full list.

WINEPREFIX

By default, Wine stores its configuration files and installed Windows programs in ~/.wine. This directory is commonly called a "Wine prefix" or "Wine bottle". It is created/updated automatically whenever you run a Windows program or one of Wine's bundled programs such as winecfg. The prefix directory also contains a tree which your Windows programs will see as C: (the C-drive).

You can override the location Wine uses for a prefix with the WINEPREFIX environment variable. This is useful if you want to use separate configurations for different Windows programs. The first time a program is run with a new Wine prefix, Wine will automatically create a directory with a bare C-drive and registry.

For example, if you run one program with $env WINEPREFIX=~/.win-a wine program-a.exe, and another with $ env WINEPREFIX=~/.win-b wine program-b.exe, the two programs will each have a separate C-drive and separate registries.

Note: Wine prefixes are not sandboxes! Programs running under Wine can still access the rest of the system! (for example, Z: is mapped to /, regardless of the Wine prefix).

To create a default prefix without running a Windows program or other GUI tool you can use:

$env WINEPREFIX=~/.customprefix wineboot -u  WINEARCH Wine will start an 64-bit environment by default. You can change this behavior using the WINEARCH environment variable. Rename your ~/.wine directory and create a new Wine environment by running $ WINEARCH=win32 winecfg. This will get you a 32-bit Wine environment. Not setting WINEARCH will get you a 64-bit one.

You can combine this with WINEPREFIX to make a separate win32 and win64 environment:

$WINEARCH=win32 WINEPREFIX=~/win32 winecfg$ WINEPREFIX=~/win64 winecfg


You can also use WINEARCH in combination with other Wine programs, such as winetricks (using Steam as an example):

WINEARCH=win32 WINEPREFIX=~/.local/share/wineprefixes/steam winetricks steam


Graphics drivers

You need to install the 32-bit version of your graphics driver. Please install the package that is listed in the OpenGL (Multilib) column in the table in Xorg#Driver installation.

A good sign that your drivers are inadequate or not properly configured is when Wine reports the following in your terminal window:

Direct rendering is disabled, most likely your OpenGL drivers have not been installed correctly

Note: You might need to restart X after having installed the correct library.

Sound

By default sound issues may arise when running Wine applications. Ensure only one sound device is selected in winecfg.

• If you want to use the ALSA driver in Wine, you will need to install lib32-alsa-lib and lib32-alsa-plugins.
• If you want to use the PulseAudio driver in Wine, you will need to install the lib32-libpulse package.
• If you want to use the OSS driver in Wine, you will need to install the lib32-alsa-oss package. The OSS driver in the kernel will not suffice.
• Games that use advanced sound systems (e.g. TESV: Skyrim) may additionally require installations of lib32-openal.

If winecfg still fails to detect the audio driver (Selected driver: (none)), configure it via the registry. For example, in a case where the microphone was not working in a 32-bit Windows application on a 64-bit stock install of wine-1.9.7, this provided full access to the sound hardware (sound playback and mic): open regedit, look for the key HKEY_CURRENT_USER → Software → Wine → Drivers, and add a string called Audio and give it the value alsa. Also, it may help to recreate the prefix.

MIDI support

MIDI was a quite popular system for video games music in the 90's. If you are trying out old games, it is not uncommon that the music will not play out of the box. Wine has excellent MIDI support. However you first need to make it work on your host system, as explained in MIDI. Last but not least you need to make sure Wine will use the correct MIDI output.

Other libraries

• Some applications (e.g. Office 2003/2007) require the MSXML library to parse HTML or XML, in such cases you need to install lib32-libxml2.
• Some applications that use a color management engine (e.g. pdf viewers, image viewers, etc) may require lib32-lcms2.
• Some applications that require encryption support may require lib32-gnutls.

Fonts

If Wine applications are not showing easily readable fonts, you may not have any fonts installed. To easily link all of the system fonts so they are accessible from wine:

 cd ${WINEPREFIX:-~/.wine}/drive_c/windows/Fonts && for i in /usr/share/fonts/**/*.{ttf,otf}; do ln -s "$i" ; done


Another possibility is to install Microsoft's Truetype fonts into your wine prefix. See MS Fonts. If this does not help, try running winetricks corefonts first, then winetricks allfonts as a last resort.

After running such programs, kill all Wine servers and run winecfg. Fonts should be legible now.

If the fonts look somehow smeared, import the following text file into the Wine registry with regedit:

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Wine\X11 Driver]
"ClientSideWithRender"="N"


For high resolution displays, you can adjust dpi values in winecfg.

When a Windows application installer creates a shortcut Wine creates a .desktop file instead. The default locations for those files in Arch Linux are:

• Desktop shortcuts are put in ~/Desktop
• Start menu shortcuts are put in ~/.local/share/applications/wine/Programs/
Note: Wine does not support installing Windows applications for all users, so it will not put .desktop files in /usr/share/applications. See WineHQ bug 11112
Tip: If menu items were not created while installing software or have been lost, wine winemenubuilder may be of some use.

Creating menu entries for Wine utilities

By default, installation of Wine does not create desktop menus/icons for the software which comes with Wine (e.g. for winecfg, winebrowser, etc). These instructions will add entries for these applications.

First, install a Windows program using Wine to create the base menu. After the base menu is created, you can create the following files in ~/.local/share/applications/wine/:

wine-browsedrive.desktop
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Browse C: Drive
Exec=wine winebrowser c:
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Icon=folder-wine
Categories=Wine;
wine-uninstaller.desktop
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Uninstall Wine Software
Comment=Uninstall Windows applications for Wine
Exec=wine uninstaller
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Icon=wine-uninstaller
Categories=Wine;
wine-winecfg.desktop
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Configure Wine
Comment=Change application-specific and general Wine options
Exec=winecfg
Terminal=false
Icon=wine-winecfg
Type=Application
Categories=Wine;

And create the following file in ~/.config/menus/applications-merged/:

wine.menu
<!DOCTYPE Menu PUBLIC "-//freedesktop//DTD Menu 1.0//EN"
<Name>Applications</Name>
<Name>wine-wine</Name>
<Directory>wine-wine.directory</Directory>
<Include>
<Category>Wine</Category>
</Include>


If these settings produce a ugly/non-existent icon, it means that there are no icons for these launchers in the icon set that you have enabled. You should replace the icon settings with the explicit location of the icon that you want. Clicking the icon in the launcher's properties menu will have the same effect. A great icon set that supports these shortcuts is GNOME-colors.

Menu entries created by Wine are located in ~/.local/share/applications/wine/Programs/. Remove the program's .desktop entry to remove the application from the menu.

In addition to remove unwanted extensions binding by Wine, execute the following commands (taken from the Wine website):

$rm ~/.local/share/mime/packages/x-wine*$ rm ~/.local/share/applications/wine-extension*
$rm ~/.local/share/icons/hicolor/*/*/application-x-wine-extension*$ rm ~/.local/share/mime/application/x-wine-extension*


Printing

In order to use your installed printers (both local and network) with wine applications in win32 prefixes (e.g. MS Word), install the lib32-libcups package, reboot wine (wineboot) and restart your wine application.

Usage

Warning: Do not run or install Wine applications as root! See Wine FAQ for details.

See Wine FAQ and Wine User's Guide for general information on Wine usage.

See Wine Application Database (AppDB) for information on running Windows applications in Wine.

Tips and tricks

Wineconsole

Often you may need to run .exe's to patch game files, for example a widescreen mod for an old game, and running the .exe normally through Wine might yield nothing happening. In this case, you can open a terminal and run the following command:



CSMT

CSMT is a technology used by Wine to use a separate thread for the OpenGL calls to improve performance noticeably. Since Wine 3.3, CSMT is enabled by default. However, CSMT support needs to be enabled manually for Wine versions lower than 3.3. For vanilla Wine run wine regedit and set the DWORD value for HKEY_CURRENT_USER -> Software > Wine > Direct3D > csmt to 0x01 (enabled). For wine-staging run winecfg and enable it in the staging tab.

Further information:

Unregister existing Wine file associations

By default, Wine takes over as the default application for a lot of formats. Some (e.g. vbs or chm) are Windows-specific, and opening them with Wine can be a convenience. However, having other formats (e.g. gif, jpeg, txt, js) open in Wine's bare-bones simulations of Internet Explorer and Notepad can be annoying.

Wine's file associations are set in ~/.local/share/applications/ as wine-extension-extension.desktop files. Delete the files corresponding to the extensions you want to unregister. Or, to remove all wine extensions:

$rm -f ~/.local/share/applications/wine-extension*.desktop$ rm -f ~/.local/share/icons/hicolor/*/*/application-x-wine-extension*


Next, remove the old cache:

$rm -f ~/.local/share/applications/mimeinfo.cache$ rm -f ~/.local/share/mime/packages/x-wine*
$rm -f ~/.local/share/mime/application/x-wine-extension*  And, update the cache: $ update-desktop-database ~/.local/share/applications
$update-mime-database ~/.local/share/mime/  Alternatively you can delete all wine related stuff: $ find ~/.local/share -name "*wine*" | xargs --no-run-if-empty rm -r


And update the cache as above.

Please note Wine will still create new file associations and even recreate the file associations if the application sets the file associations again.

Prevent new Wine file associations

Prevent wine from creating any file associations by editing the registry:

associations.reg
Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunServices]
"winemenubuilder"="C:\\windows\\system32\\winemenubuilder.exe -r"

Add this to your Wine registry, by running wine regedit associations.reg, or alternatively by running wine regedit and importing it from the menu in Registry > Import Registry File.

This has to be done for each WINEPREFIX which should not update file associations.

You can disable winemenubuilder for all WINEPREFIXes by setting an environment variable:

$export WINEDLLOVERRIDES="winemenubuilder.exe=d"  Execute Windows binaries with Wine implicitly The wine package installs a binfmt file which will allow you to run Windows programs directly, e.g. ./myprogram.exe will launch as if you had typed wine ./myprogram.exe. All you have to do in order to use this is to start/enable systemd-binfmt.service. Note: Make sure the Windows binary is executable, otherwise the binary will not be executed: e.g. run chmod +x windows-binary. Dual Head with different resolutions If you have issues with dual-head setups and different display resolutions you are probably missing lib32-libxrandr. Also installing lib32-libxinerama might fix dual-head issues with wine. 16-bit programs Upon running older Windows 9x programs, the following error may be encountered: modify_ldt: Invalid argument err:winediag:build_module Failed to create module for "krnl386.exe", 16-bit LDT support may be missing. err:module:attach_process_dlls "krnl386.exe16" failed to initialize, aborting  If you need to run these programs under Wine, you will have to compile and install a custom kernel (unless bug FS#57408 is fixed). Your kernel config will need the following options: CONFIG_X86_16BIT=y CONFIG_X86_ESPFIX64=y CONFIG_MODIFY_LDT_SYSCALL=y  Burning optical media To burn CDs or DVDs, you will need to load the sg kernel module. Proper mounting of optical media images Some applications will check for the optical media to be in drive. They may check for data only, in which case it might be enough to configure the corresponding path as being a CD-ROM drive in winecfg. However, other applications will look for a media name and/or a serial number, in which case the image has to be mounted with these special properties. Some virtual drive tools do not handle these metadata, like fuse-based virtual drives (Acetoneiso for instance). CDEmu will handle it correctly. Force OpenGL mode in games Some games might have an OpenGL mode which may perform better than their default DirectX mode. While the steps to enable OpenGL rendering is application specific, many games accept the -opengl parameter. $ wine /path/to/3d_game.exe -opengl


You should of course refer to your application's documentation and Wine's AppDB for such application specific information.

Show FPS overlay in games

Wine features an embedded FPS monitor which works for all graphical applications if the environment variable WINEDEBUG=fps is set. This will output the framerate to stdout. You can display the FPS on top of the window thanks to osd_cat from the xosd package. See winefps.sh for a helper script.

Running Wine under a separate user account

Note: The following approach only works when enabling root for Xorg. See Xorg#Rootless Xorg for more information.

It may be desirable to run Wine under a specifically created user account in order to reduce concerns about Windows applications having access to your home directory.

First, create a user account for Wine:

# useradd -m -s /bin/bash wineuser


Afterwards, in order to open Wine applications using this new user account you need to add the new user to the X server permissions list:

$xhost +SI:localuser:wineuser  Finally, you can run Wine via the following command, which uses env to launch Wine with the environment variables it expects: $ sudo -u wineuser env HOME=/home/wineuser USER=wineuser USERNAME=wineuser LOGNAME=wineuser wine arguments


It is possible to automate the process of running Windows applications with Wine via this method by using a shell script as follows:

/usr/local/bin/runaswine
#!/bin/bash
xhost +SI:localuser:wineuser
sudo -u wineuser env HOME=/home/wineuser USER=wineuser USERNAME=wineuser LOGNAME=wineuser wine "$@" Wine applications can then be launched via: $ runaswine "C:\path\to\application.exe"


In order to not be asked for a password each time Wine is run as another user the following entry can be added to the sudoers file: mainuser ALL=(wineuser) NOPASSWD: ALL. See Sudo#Configuration for more information.

It is recommended to run winecfg as the Wine user and remove all bindings for directories outside the home directory of the Wine user in the "Desktop Integration" section of the configuration window so no program run with Wine has read access to any file outside the special user's home directory.

Keep in mind that audio will probably be non-functional in Wine programs which are run this way if PulseAudio is used. See PulseAudio/Examples#Allowing multiple users to use PulseAudio at the same time for information about allowing the Wine user to access the PulseAudio daemon of the principal user.

Temp directory on tmpfs

To prevent Wine from writing its temporary files to a physical disk, one can define an alternative location, like tmpfs. Remove Wine's default directory for temporary files and creating a symlink:

$rm -r ~/.wine/drive_c/users/$USER/Temp
$ln -s /tmp/ ~/.wine/drive_c/users/$USER/Temp


Prevent installing Mono/Gecko

If Gecko and/or Mono are not present on the system nor in the Wine prefix, Wine will prompt to download them from the internet. If you do not need Gecko and/or Mono, you might want to disable this dialog, by setting the WINEDLLOVERRIDES environment variable to mscoree=d;mshtml=d.

DXVK

DXVK is a promising new implementation for DirectX 11 over Vulkan. This should allow for greater performance, and in some cases, even better compatibility. Battlefield 1 for example, only runs under DXVK. On the other hand, DXVK does not support all Wine games (yet).

To use it, install dxvk-binAUR for official binaries, or dxvk-gitAUR for the development version. Then run the following command to activate it in your Wineprefix (by default ~/.wine):

\$ WINEPREFX=your-prefix setup_dxvk64


Use setup_dxvk32 for 32-bit applications.

Note: For Wine versions below 3.5 you need to configure Vulkan support manually, following the instructions at GitHub. wine, wine-staging and wine-staging-nine work out of the box.
Warning: DXVK overrides the DirectX 11 DLLS, which may be considered cheating in online multiplayer games, and may get your account banned. Use at your own risk!

Vulkan

Vulkan support is included, since Wine 3.3. The default Wine Vulkan ICD loader works fine for most applications, but does not support advanced features, like Vulkan layers. To use these features, you have to install the official Vulkan SDK, see step 2-4 on the original Vulkan patches author's GitHub page.

Note: The Wine ICD loader was added in Wine 3.5, you need to install the official Vulkan SDK to use Vulkan in Wine 3.3 and 3.4

Third-party applications

These have their own communities and websites, and are not supported by greater Wine community. See Wine Wiki for more details.

• CrossOver — Paid, commercialized version of Wine which provides more comprehensive end-user support.
crossoverAUR || https://www.codeweavers.com/
• exe-thumbnailer — Generates thumbnails for Windows executable files (.exe, .lnk, .msi, and .dll).
exe-thumbnailerAUR || https://github.com/exe-thumbnailer/exe-thumbnailer
• Lutris — Gaming launcher for all types of games, including Wine games (with prefix management), native Linux games and emulators.
lutrisAUR || https://lutris.net/
• PlayOnLinux — Graphical prefix manager for Wine. Contains scripts to assist with program installation and configuration.
playonlinux || https://www.playonlinux.com/
• PyWinery — Simple graphical prefix manager for Wine.
pywineryAUR || https://github.com/ergoithz/pywinery
• Q4Wine — Graphical prefix manager for Wine. Can export Qt themes into the Wine configuration for better integration.
q4wineAUR || https://sourceforge.net/projects/q4wine/