(Wine Is Not an Emulator) è un software scritto con lo scopo di permettere il funzionamento dei programmi sviluppati per il sistema operativo Microsoft Windows Sui sistemi GNU/Linux e altri sistemi compatibili. Wine consente infatti di utilizzare applicazioni per Windows come se fossero applicazioni scritte appositamente per sistemi GNU/Linux senza dover emulare la struttura, ma implementando di un layer di compatibilità fornendo così il collegamento alle API necessarie per il funzionamento delle applicazioni. (ecco perché Wine non è da intendersi un emulatore)
- 1 Installazione
- 2 Configurazione
- 3 Running Windows applications
- 4 Tips and tricks
- 5 Third-party interfaces
- 6 See also
Per installare Wine è necessario scaricare il pacchetto Multilib., disponibile nei repository ufficiali. Nel caso in cui si desideri effettuare l'installazione su un sistema a 64-bit è necessario abilitare il repository
Probabilmente si vorrà installaree per le applicazioni che richiedono il supporto rispettivamente per Internet Explorer e .NET. Questi pacchetti non sono strettamente richiesti da Wine ma ne ampliano le funzioni.
Differenze tra architetture
Wine per default è un'applicazione a 32-bit, perciò, non è in grado di eseguire qualsiasi applicazione di Windows a 64-bit.
Il pacchetto per sistemi x86_64 viene compilato con l'opzione
--enable-win64. In questo modo viene attivata la versione di Wine di WoW64.
- In Windows, questo complicato sottosistema permette all'utente di eseguire programmi a 32-bit o 64-bit in contemporanea e nella stessa cartella.
- In Wine, l'utente avrà cartelle separate. Per maggiori informazioni vedere Wine64.
Se in un ambiente a 64-bit si riscontrano problemi con
winetricks o con programmi, provare a creare un nuovo ambiente a 32-bit
WINEPREFIX. Leggere: #Using WINEARCH. Utilizzando il pacchetto a 64-bit con
WINEARCH=win32 si dovrà agire come se si stesse lavorando con il pacchetto per i686.
Tipicamente la configurazione di Wine avviene attraverso i seguenti strumenti:
- winecfg è uno strumento di configurazione ad interfaccia grafica. Per avviarlo da console digitare:
$ winecfg, oppure
$ WINEPREFIX=~/.some_prefix winecfg.
- control.exe è un'implementazione di Wine nel Pannello di controllo di Windows a cui è possibile accedere con:
$ wine control
- regedit è l'editor di registro di Wine. Se winecfg e il Pannello di Controllo non sono abbastanza ricchi di funzionalità, leggere WineHQ's article on Useful Registry Keys
By default, Wine stores its configuration files and installed Windows programs in
~/.wine. This directory is commonly called a "Wine prefix" or "Wine bottle" It is created/updated automatically whenever you run a Windows program or one of Wine's bundled programs such as
winecfg. The prefix directory also contains a tree which your Windows programs will see as
C: (the C-drive).
You can override the location Wine uses for a prefix with the
WINEPREFIX environment variable. This is useful if you want to use separate configurations for different Windows programs. The first time a program is run with a new Wine prefix, Wine will automatically create a directory with a bare C-drive and registry.
For example, if you run one program with
$ env WINEPREFIX=~/.win-a wine program-a.exe, and another with
$ env WINEPREFIX=~/.win-b wine program-b.exe, the two programs will each have a separate C-drive and separate registries.
Z:is mapped to
/, regardless of the Wine prefix.)
To create a default prefix without running a Windows program or other GUI tool you can use:
$ env WINEPREFIX=~/.customprefix wineboot -u
If you have a 64-bit system, Wine will start an 64-bit environment by default. You can change this behavior using the
WINEARCH environment variable. Rename your
~/.wine directory and create a new wine environment by running
$ WINEARCH=win32 winecfg. This will get you a 32-bit wine environment. Not setting
WINEARCH will get you a 64-bit one.
You can combine this with
WINEPREFIX to make a separate win32 and win64 environment:
$ WINEARCH=win32 WINEPREFIX=~/win32 winecfg $ WINEPREFIX=~/win64 winecfg
You can also use
WINEARCH in combination with other Wine programs, such as winetricks (using Steam as an example):
env WINEARCH=win32 WINEPREFIX=~/.local/share/wineprefixes/steam winetricks steam
WINEARCHpersistent by using ~/.bashrc.
For most games, Wine requires high performance accelerated graphics drivers. This likely means using proprietary NVIDIA or AMD Catalyst drivers, although the open source ATI driver is increasingly become proficient for use with Wine. Intel drivers should mostly work as well as they are going to out of the box.
See Gaming On Wine: The Good & Bad Graphics Drivers for more details.
A good sign that your drivers are inadequate or not properly configured is when Wine reports the following in your terminal window:
Direct rendering is disabled, most likely your OpenGL drivers have not been installed correctly
By default sound issues may arise when running Wine applications. Ensure only one sound device is selected in
winecfg. Currently, the Alsa driver is the most supported.
If you want to use Alsa driver in Wine, and are using x86_64, you'll need to install the . If you are also using PulseAudio, you will need to install .
If you want to use OSS driver in Wine, you will need to install the package. The OSS driver in the kernel will not suffice.
winecfg still fails to detect the audio driver (Selected driver: (none)), configure it via the registry.
Games that use advanced sound systems may require installations of.
MIDI was a quite popular system for video games music in the 90. If you are trying out old games, it is not uncommon that the music will not play out of the box. Wine has excellent MIDI support. However you first need to make it work on your host system. See the wiki page for more details. Last but not least you need to make sure Wine will use the correct MIDI output. See the Wine Wiki for a detailed setup.
- Some applications (e.g. Office 2003/2007) require the MSXML library to parse HTML or XML, in such cases you need to install .
- Some applications that play music may require .
- Some applications that use native image manipulation libraries may require and .
- Some applications that require encryption support may require .
If Wine applications are not showing easily readable fonts, you may not have Microsoft's Truetype fonts installed. See MS Fonts. If this does not help, try running
After running such programs, kill all wine servers and run
winecfg. Fonts should be legible now.
If the fonts look somehow smeared, import the following text file into the Wine registry with regedit:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Wine\X11 Driver] "ClientSideWithRender"="N"
When installing Windows programs with Wine, should result in the appropriate menu/desktop icons being created. For example, if the installation program (e.g.
setup.exe) would normally add an icon to your Desktop or "Start Menu" on Windows, then Wine should create corresponding freedesktop.org style
.desktop files for launching your programs with Wine.
By default, installation of Wine does not create desktop menus/icons for the software which comes with Wine (e.g. for
winebrowser, etc). These instructions will add entries for these applications.
First, install a Windows program using Wine to create the base menu. After the base menu is created, you can create the following files in
[Desktop Entry] Name=Browse C: Drive Comment=Browse your virtual C: drive Exec=wine winebrowser c: Terminal=false Type=Application Icon=folder-wine Categories=Wine;
[Desktop Entry] Name=Uninstall Wine Software Comment=Uninstall Windows applications for Wine Exec=wine uninstaller Terminal=false Type=Application Icon=wine-uninstaller Categories=Wine;
[Desktop Entry] Name=Configure Wine Comment=Change application-specific and general Wine options Exec=winecfg Terminal=false Icon=wine-winecfg Type=Application Categories=Wine;
And create the following file in
<!DOCTYPE Menu PUBLIC "-//freedesktop//DTD Menu 1.0//EN" "http://www.freedesktop.org/standards/menu-spec/menu-1.0.dtd"> <Menu> <Name>Applications</Name> <Menu> <Name>wine-wine</Name> <Directory>wine-wine.directory</Directory> <Include> <Category>Wine</Category> </Include> </Menu> </Menu>
If these settings produce a ugly/non-existent icon, it means that there are no icons for these launchers in the icon set that you have enabled. You should replace the icon settings with the explicit location of the icon that you want. Clicking the icon in the launcher's properties menu will have the same effect. A great icon set that supports these shortcuts is GNOME-colors.
Menu entries created by Wine are located in
~/.local/share/applications/wine/Programs/. Remove the program's
.desktop entry to remove the application from the menu.
The Wine menu items may appear in
"Lost & Found" instead of the Wine menu in KDE 4. This is because
kde-applications.menu is missing the
At the end of the file add
<DefaultMergeDirs/>, it should look like this:
<Menu> <Include> <And> <Category>KDE</Category> <Category>Core</Category> </And> </Include> <DefaultMergeDirs/> <MergeDir>applications-merged</MergeDir> <MergeFile>applications-kmenuedit.menu</MergeFile> </Menu>
Alternatively you can create a symlink to a folder that KDE does see:
$ ln -s ~/.config/menus/applications-merged ~/.config/menus/kde-applications-merged
This has the added bonus that an update to KDE won't change it, but is per user instead of system wide.
Running Windows applications
To run a windows application:
$ wine <path to exe>
To install using an MSI installer, use the included msiexec utility:
$ msiexec installername.msi
Tips and tricks
Changing the language
Some programs may not offer a language selection, they will guess the desired language upon the sytem locales. Wine will transfer the current environment (including the locales) to the application, so it should work out of the box. If you want to force a program to run in a specific locale (which is fully generated on your system), you can call Wine with the following setting:
LC_ALL=xx_XX.encoding wine /my/program
LC_ALL=it_IT.UTF-8 wine /my/program
Installing Microsoft Office 2010
Microsoft Office 2010 works without any problems (tested with Microsoft Office Home and Student 2010, Wine 1.5.27 and 1.7.5). Activation over Internet also works.
Start by installing, , , and .
Proceed with launching the installer:
$ export WINEPREFIX=.wine # any path to a writable folder on your home directory will do $ export WINEARCH="win32" $ wine /path/to/office_cd/setup.exe
You could also put the above exports into your
Once installation completes, open Word or Excel to activate over the Internet. Once activated, close the application. Then run
winecfg, and set riched20 (under libraries) to (native,builtin). This will enable Powerpoint to work.
For additional info, see the WineHQ article.
Proper mounting of optical media images
Some applications will check for the optical media to be in drive. They may check for data only, in which case it might be enough to configure the corresponding path as being a CD-ROM drive in
However, other applications will look for a media name and/or a serial number, in which case the image has to be mounted with these special properties.
Some virtual drive tools do not handle these metadata, like fuse-based virtual drives (Acetoneiso for instance). CDEmu will handle it correctly.
Burning optical media
To burn CDs or DVDs, you will need to load the
sg kernel module.
Many games have an OpenGL mode which may perform better than their default DirectX mode. While the steps to enable OpenGL rendering is application specific, many games accept the
$ wine /path/to/3d_game.exe -opengl
You should of course refer to your application's documentation and Wine's AppDB for such application specific information.
Using Wine as an interpreter for Win16/Win32 binaries
It is also possible to tell the kernel to use wine as an interpreter for all Win16/Win32 binaries:
echo ':DOSWin:M::MZ::/usr/bin/wine:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
To make the setting permanent, create a
/etc/binfmt.d/wine.conf file with the following content:
# Start WINE on Windows executables :DOSWin:M::MZ::/usr/bin/wine:
systemd automatically mounts the
/proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc filesystem using
proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.mount (and automount) and runs the
systemd-binfmt.service to load your settings.
Try it out by running a Windows program:
chmod +x exefile.exe ./exefile.exe
If all went well, exefile.exe should run.
Often you may need to run
.exes to patch game files, for example a widescreen mod for an old game, and running the
.exe normally through wine might yield nothing happening. In this case, you can open a terminal and run the following command:
$ wineconsole cmd
Then navigate to the directory and run the
.exe file from there.
Winetricks is a script to allow one to install base requirements needed to run Windows programs. Installable components include DirectX 9.x, MSXML (required by Microsoft Office 2007 and Internet Explorer), Visual Runtime libraries and many more.
These have their own sites, and are not supported in the Wine forums.
PlayOnLinux is a graphical Windows and DOS program manager. It contains scripts to assist the configuration and running of programs, it can manage multiple Wine versions and even use a specific version for each executable (eg. because of regressions). If you need to know which Wine version works best for a certain game, try the Wine Application Database. You can find the package in community.
PyWinery is a graphical and simple wine-prefix manager which allows you to launch apps and manage configuration of separate prefixes, also have a button to open winetricks in the same prefix, to open prefix dir,
winecfg, application uninstaller and wineDOS. You can install PyWinery from AUR. It is especially useful for having differents settings like DirectX games, office, programming, etc, and choose which prefix to use before you open an application or file.
It's recommended using winetricks by default to open .exe files, so you can choose between any wine configuration you have.
Q4Wine is a graphical wine-prefix manager which allows you to manage configuration of prefixes. Notably it allows exporting QT themes into the wine configuration so that they can integrate nicely. You can find the package in multilib.
- Official Wine website
- Wine application database
- Advanced configuring your gfx card and OpenGL settings on wine; Speed up wine
- FileInfo - Find Win32 PE/COFF headers in EXE/DLL/OCX files under linux/unix environment.
- Gentoo's Wine Wiki Page