Difference between revisions of "Wireless network configuration"

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{{Bad translation|Searching for the English Wireless page brings this up in Italian.}}
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[[Category:Wireless Networking]]
[[Category:Wireless Networking (Italiano)]]
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[[cs:Wireless Setup]]
 
[[cs:Wireless Setup]]
 
[[de:(W)LAN_und_Arch_Linux]]
 
[[de:(W)LAN_und_Arch_Linux]]
[[en:Wireless Setup]]
 
 
[[es:Wireless Setup]]
 
[[es:Wireless Setup]]
 
[[fr:Wifi]]
 
[[fr:Wifi]]
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[[it:Wireless Setup]]
 
[[ja:Wireless Setup]]
 
[[ja:Wireless Setup]]
 
[[nl:Wireless Setup]]
 
[[nl:Wireless Setup]]
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[[zh-CN:Wireless Setup]]
 
[[zh-CN:Wireless Setup]]
 
{{Article summary start}}
 
{{Article summary start}}
{{Article summary text|Una guida completa per l'attivazione e la configurazione di reti wireless.}}
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{{Article summary text|A complete guide to enabling and configuring wireless networking.}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Overview}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Overview}}
{{Article summary text|{{Networking overview (Italiano)}}}}
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{{Article summary text|{{Networking overview}}}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
{{Article summary wiki|Configuring Network (Italiano)}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Network Configuration}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Software Access Point}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Software Access Point}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Ad-hoc networking}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Ad-hoc networking}}
{{Article summary wiki|Internet Share (Italiano)}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Internet Share}}
 
{{Article summary end}}
 
{{Article summary end}}
 +
Configuring wireless is a two-part process; the first part is to identify and ensure the correct driver for your wireless device is installed (they are available on the installation media, so make sure you install them), and to configure the interface. The second is choosing a method of managing wireless connections. This article covers both parts, and provides additional links to wireless management tools.
  
La configurazione dei dispositivi wireless è un processo suddiviso in due parti: innanzitutto occorre identificare la propria scheda di rete wireless e assicurarsi che i relativi driver (reperibili sull'immagine di installazione) siano caricati, quindi occorre configurarla.
+
== Device driver ==
La seconda parte consiste nella scelta di un metodo di gestione delle connessioni wireless.
+
Questa pagina coprirà entrambi i punti e fornirà link aggiuntivi ai vari tool di gestione.
+
  
==Drivers==
+
The default Arch Linux kernel is ''modular'', meaning many of the drivers for machine hardware reside on the hard drive and are available as ''[[Kernel modules|modules]]''. At boot, [[udev]] takes an inventory of your hardware and loads appropriate modules (drivers) for your corresponding hardware, which will in turn allow creation of a network ''interface''.
  
Il kernel di Arch è ''modulare'', il che significa che la maggior parte dei driver per l'hardware della macchina risiedono sull'hard disk e sono disponibili come ''[[Kernel modules (Italiano)|moduli]]''. All'avvio, [[udev (Italiano)|udev]] fa un inventario dell'hardware presente. Lo stesso udev carica quindi i moduli (i driver) per l'hardware corrispondente, e il driver, di contro, permette la creazione di una ''kernel interface''.  
+
Some wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. Many firmware images are provided by the {{Pkg|linux-firmware}} package which is installed by default, however, proprietary firmware images are not included and have to be installed separately. This is described in [[#Installing driver/firmware]].
  
Alcuni chipset wireless richiedono oltre al driver l'installazione di un firmware, alcuni dei quali sono contenuti nel pacchetto {{Pkg|linux-firmware}}, installato di default. Tuttavia, alcuni firmware sono proprietari e dovranno essere installati separatamente, come spiegato in [[#Installazione drivers/firmware]]
+
{{Note|
 
+
* Udev is not perfect. If the proper module is not loaded by udev on boot, simply [[Kernel modules#Loading|load it manually]]. Note also that udev may occasionally load more than one driver for a device, and the resulting conflict will prevent successful configuration. Be sure to [[Kernel modules#Blacklisting|blacklist]] the unwanted module.
{{Nota|
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* The interface name for different drivers and chipsets will vary. Some examples are {{ic|wlan0}}, {{ic|eth1}}, and {{ic|ath0}}. See also [[Network Configuration#Device names]].
* Udev non è perfetto. Se il modulo appropriato non è caricato all'avvio, basta [[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Caricamento|caricarlo manualmente]]. Si noti inoltre che udev può occasionalmente caricare più di un driver per una periferica, e il conflitto risultante impedirebbe una configurazione corretta della periferica. Asicurarsi quindi di mettere in [[Kernel_modules_(Italiano)#Blacklist|blacklist]] eventuali moduli non necessari.
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}}
* Il nome dell'interfaccia varia in base al driver e al chipset installato. Alcuni esempi sono {{ic|wlan0}}, {{ic|eth1}}, o {{ic|ath0}}.}}
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{{Suggerimento|Benchè non sia strettamente necessario, è utile installare innanzitutto i tools in user-space menzionati alla sezione [[#Configurazione Manuale]], soprattutto nel caso in cui dovessero verificarsi problemi.}}
+
  
===Verificare se il driver per la propria periferica è stato caricato===
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{{Tip|Though not strictly required, it's a good idea to first install user-space tools mentioned in [[#Manual setup]], especially when some problem should appear.}}
  
Per verificare che il driver per la propria scheda di rete wireless sia stato caricato, si controlli l'output del comando {{ic|lspci -k}}, dal quale si può desumere il driver del kernel in uso.
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=== Check the driver status ===
  
Ad esempio:
+
To check if the driver for your card has been loaded, check the output of {{ic|lspci -k}} command. You should see that some kernel driver is in use, for example:
  
 
{{hc|$ lspci -k|<nowiki>
 
{{hc|$ lspci -k|<nowiki>
Line 53: Line 48:
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
  
{{Nota|La scheda Wi-Fi integrata in alcuni portatili potrebbe essere un dispositivo USB, perciò è utile controllare l'output dei seguenti comandi:
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{{Note|The internal Wi-Fi card in some laptops may actually be a USB device, so you should check these commands too:
 
+
 
* {{ic|lsusb -v}}
 
* {{ic|lsusb -v}}
* {{ic|<nowiki>dmesg | grep usbcore</nowiki>}} (dovrebbe essere visualizzato un messaggio simile a {{ic|usbcore: registered new interface driver rtl8187}}.
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* {{ic|<nowiki>dmesg | grep usbcore</nowiki>}}, you should see something like {{ic|usbcore: registered new interface driver rtl8187}} in the output
 
}}
 
}}
  
Controllare inoltre l'output del comando {{ic|ip link}} per verificare l'avvenuta creazione di un'interfaccia wireless (ad esempio {{ic|wlan0}}, {{ic|wlp2s1}}, {{ic|ath0}}) ed attivarla con {{ic|ip link set <interfaccia> up}}. Ad esempio, se l'interfaccia è {{ic|wlan0}}:
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Also check the output of {{ic|ip link}} command to see if a wireless interface (e.g. {{ic|wlan0}}, {{ic|wlp2s1}}, {{ic|ath0}}) was created. Then bring the interface up with {{ic|ip link set <interface> up}}. For example, assuming the interface is {{ic|wlan0}}:
 +
# ip link set wlan0 up
  
# ip link set dev wlan0 up
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If you get this error message: {{ic|SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory}}, it most certainly means your wireless chipset requires a firmware to function.
  
Se si ottiene un messaggio d'errore simile al seguente: {{ic|SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory}}, sarà quasi sicuramente necessario caricare il firmware adeguato.
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Check kernel messages for firmware being loaded
 
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{{hc|$ dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki>grep firmware|<nowiki>
Si controllino eventuali messaggi del kernel relativi al caricamento del firmware:
+
 
+
{{hc|<nowiki>$ dmesg | grep firmware</nowiki>|<nowiki>
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[  7.148259] iwlwifi 0000:02:00.0: loaded firmware version 39.30.4.1 build 35138 op_mode iwldvm
 
[  7.148259] iwlwifi 0000:02:00.0: loaded firmware version 39.30.4.1 build 35138 op_mode iwldvm
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
 +
The relevant {{ic|dmesg}} output should be prefixed by the module autodetected for the hardware, which can further help in identifying issues.
  
L'output di {{ic|dmesg}} dovrebbe essere corredato dal nome del modulo in uso, il che può essere d'aiuto nel risolvere eventuali problemi.
+
If the kernel module is successfully loaded and the interface is up, you can skip the next section.
  
Se il modulo del kernel è stato correttamente caricato e l'interfaccia è attiva, si salti tranquillamente la prossima sezione.
+
=== Installing driver/firmware ===
  
===Installazione drivers/firmware===
+
Check the following lists to discover if your card is supported:
  
* Sul [https://help.ubuntu.com/community/WifiDocs/WirelessCardsSupported Wiki di Ubuntu] c'è una buona lista di schede wireless con relativa indicazione del supporto o meno da parte del Kernel o sulla disponibilità di un driver in user-space (incluso il nome del driver).
+
* The [https://help.ubuntu.com/community/WifiDocs/WirelessCardsSupported Ubuntu Wiki] has a good list of wireless cards and whether or not they are supported either in the Linux kernel or by a user-space driver (includes driver name).
* Anche [http://linux-wless.passys.nl/ Linux Wireless Support] e le "Linux Questions" in [http://www.linuxquestions.org/hcl/index.php?cat=10 Hardware Compatibility List] (HCL) contengono un elenco di hardware wireless supportato.
+
* [http://linux-wless.passys.nl/ Linux Wireless Support] and The Linux Questions' [http://www.linuxquestions.org/hcl/index.php?cat=10 Hardware Compatibility List] (HCL) also have a good database of kernel-friendly hardware.
* Inoltre, questa [http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Devices pagina] contiene una matrice addizionale di hardware supportato.
+
* The [http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Devices kernel page] additionally has a matrix of supported hardware.
  
Se la propria scheda di rete wireless compare in uno degli elenchi di cui sopra, si consulti la sezione [[#Risoluzione dei problemi di drivers e firmware]], che contiene informazioni sull'installazione di drivers e firmware per schede specifiche. Si effettuino quindi nuovamente le operazioni descritte in [[#Verificare se il driver per la propria periferica è stato caricato]].
+
If your wireless card is listed above, follow the [[#Troubleshooting drivers and firmware]] subsection of this page, which contains information about installing drivers and firmware of some specific wireless cards. Then [[#Check the driver status|check the driver status]] again.
  
Se la scheda wireless non è elencata sopra, è probabile che sia supportata solo da Windows (come alcune Broadcom, 3com, ecc). Per queste schede è possibile provare ad utilizzare ''ndiswrapper''. Si consulti la sezione [[#ndiswrapper]] per ulteriori informazioni.
+
If your wireless card is not listed above, it is likely supported only under Windows (some Broadcom, 3com, etc). For these, you can try to use ''ndiswrapper''. See [[#ndiswrapper]] for details.
  
==Gestione Wireless==
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== Wireless management ==
  
Dando per scontato che abbiate installato correttamente i driver, ora si avrà bisogno di un metodo per gestire la connettività wifi. Le seguenti sottosezioni vi aiuteranno a capire quale di essi sarà più adatto alle vostre necessità.
+
Assuming that your drivers are installed and working properly, you will need to choose a method of managing your wireless connections. The following subsections will help you decide.
  
La procedure e gli strumenti di cui avrete bisogno dipendono da una pluralità di fattori:
+
Procedure and tools required will depend on several factors:
* La facilità di configurazione e gestione, da un approccio completamente manuale che dovrete ripetere ad ogni riavvio fino alla gestione automatica tramite frontend grafici
+
* The desired nature of configuration management; from a completely manual command line procedure to an automated solution with graphical front-ends.
* Il tipo di protezione (o nessuna) che protegge la vostra rete wireless.
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* The encryption type (or lack thereof) which protects the wireless network.
* La necessità o meno dei profili di rete, es. se il vostro pc cambia frequentemente la rete a cui connettersi (come fa un portatile).
+
* The need for network profiles, if the computer will frequently change networks (such as a laptop).
  
{{Suggerimento|
+
{{Tip|
* Qualunque sia la scelta, dovreste provare a connettervi innanzitutto col metodo manuale. Questo vi aiuterà a capire i vari passi necessari per una connessione, oltre ad individuare più facilmente eventuali problemi che possono sorgere. Un altro consiglio.
+
* Whatever is your choice, '''you should try to connect using the manual method first'''. This will help you understand the different steps that are required and troubleshoot possible problems.
* Se possibile (es. se avete i poteri di amministrazione del vostro access point), provate innanzitutto a connettervi senza crittazione, per assicurarvi che tutto funzioni. Quindi provare a utilizzare la crittografia, sia WEP (più semplice da configurare, ma violabile in pochi minuti, anche se quasi più sicura di una connessione non crittografata), sia WPA o WPA2.}}
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* If possible (e.g. if you manage your Wi-Fi access point), try connecting with no encryption, to check everything works. Then try using encryption, either WEP (simple to configure, but crackable in a matter of seconds), WPA or WPA2.
 +
}}
  
===Metodi di gestione===
+
=== Management methods ===
  
Questa tabella mostra i differenti metodi che possono essere utilizzati per attivare e gestire una connessione wireless, a seconda del tipo di crittazione e del metodo di gestione che si vuole utilizzare, e i vari strumenti che sono necessari per ogni caso. Anche se ci sono possibilità ulteriori, queste sono quelle utilizzate più di frequente:
+
The following table shows the different methods that can be used to activate and manage a wireless network connection, depending on the encryption and management types, and the various tools that are required. Although there may be other possibilities, these are the most frequently used:
 
{| border="1"
 
{| border="1"
! Gestione || Senza Crittazione/WEP || WPA/WPA2 PSK
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! Management || No encryption/WEP || WPA/WPA2 PSK
 
|-
 
|-
| Manuale || {{Pkg|iproute2}} + {{ic|iwconfig}} + {{ic|dhcpcd}}/{{ic|iproute2}} || {{ic|iproute2}} + {{ic|iwconfig}} + [[WPA Supplicant (Italiano) | wpa_supplicant]] + {{ic|dhcpcd}}/{{ic|iproute2}}
+
| Manual || {{pkg|iproute2}} + {{ic|iwconfig}} + {{ic|dhcpcd}}/{{ic|iproute2}} || {{ic|iproute2}} + {{ic|iwconfig}} + [[WPA supplicant|wpa_supplicant]] + {{ic|dhcpcd}}/{{ic|iproute2}}
 
|-
 
|-
| Automatica, con supporto ai profili di rete || colspan="2" align="center" | [[netctl|netctl]], [[Wicd (Italiano) | wicd]], [[NetworkManager (Italiano)|NetworkManager]], ecc…
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| Automatically managed, with network profiles support || colspan="2" align="center" | [[netctl]], [[Wicd]], [[NetworkManager]], etc.
 
|}
 
|}
  
Altri metodi:  
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More choice guide:
 
+
 
{| border="1"
 
{| border="1"
! Gestione || Connessione automatica al boot || Riconnessione automatica se si perde la connessione <br> o si cambia posizione || Supporta i Modem 3G || GUI || Tool da riga di comando
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! Management || Auto connect at boot || Auto connect if dropped <br>or changed location || support 3G Modem || GUI || Console tools
 
+
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Netctl|Netctl]] || || || - || || {{ic|netctl}}
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| [[Netctl]] || Yes || Yes || - || Yes || {{ic|netctl}}
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Wicd (Italiano)|Wicd]] || || || - || || {{ic|wicd-curses}}
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| [[Wicd]] || Yes || Yes || - || Yes || {{ic|wicd-curses}}
 
|-
 
|-
| [[NetworkManager (Italiano)|NetworkManager]] + <br> {{Pkg|network-manager-applet}} || || || || || {{ic|nmcli}}
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| [[NetworkManager]] +<br> {{pkg|network-manager-applet}} || Yes || Yes || Yes || Yes || {{ic|nmcli}}
 
+
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Configurazione Manuale===
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=== Manual setup ===
  
Il pacchetto {{Pkg|wireless_tools}} fornisce un set base di strumenti utili a configurare una rete wireless, anche se questi ultimi sono deprecati in favore del tool {{Pkg|iw}}. Se {{ic|iw}} non funziona con la propria scheda di rete, è comunque possibile utilizzare {{ic|wireless_tools}}.
+
The package {{Pkg|wireless_tools}} provides basic set of tools for managing wireless connection, however, these tools are deprecated in favor of the {{Pkg|iw}} tool. If ''iw'' does not work with your card, you can use ''wireless_tools'', table below should draw a parallel between the tools (see [http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Documentation/iw/replace-iwconfig] for more examples). Additionally, the {{Pkg|wpa_supplicant}} package is required for WPA/WPA2 encryption. These powerful user-space tools work extremely well and allow complete manual control of wireless connection.
La tabella presentata sotto fornisce una comparazione tra i due tool; si veda [http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Documentation/iw/replace-iwconfig questa] pagina per ulteriori informazioni.
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Se necessitate di crittazione WPA\WPA2, sarà inoltre necessario il pacchetto {{Pkg|wpa_supplicant}}. Questi potenti strumenti funzionano egregiamente e permettono un controllo pressochè totale delle connessioni da linea di comando.
+
  
{{Nota|
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{{Note|
* Negli esempi seguenti, si presume che la periferica wireless sia {{ic|wlan0}} e che ci si stia connettendo all'access point {{ic|"your_essid"}}. Si sostituiscano i due valori di conseguenza.
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* Examples in this section assume that your wireless device is {{ic|wlan0}} to connect to {{ic|''your_essid''}} wifi accesspoint. Replace both accordingly.  
* Si noti inoltre che la maggior parte dei comandi proposti dovrà essere eseguita con [[Users and Groups (Italiano)|i permessi di root]]. In caso contrario, alcuni comandi come {{ic|iwlist}} potrebbero terminare correttamente ma senza produrre l'output corretto, creando confusione.
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* Note that most of the commands have to be executed with [[Users and Groups|root permissions]]. Executed with normal user rights, some of the commands (e.g. {{ic|iwlist}}), will exit without error but not produce the correct output either, which can be confusing.
}}
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}}  
  
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
! Comando ''iw''
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! ''iw'' command
! Comando ''wireless_tools''
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! ''wireless_tools'' command
! Descrizione
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! Description
 
|-
 
|-
 
| iw dev wlan0 link
 
| iw dev wlan0 link
 
| iwconfig wlan0
 
| iwconfig wlan0
| Informazioni sullo stato del collegamento.
+
| Getting link status.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| iw dev wlan0 scan
 
| iw dev wlan0 scan
 
| iwlist wlan0 scan
 
| iwlist wlan0 scan
| Scansione degli access points disponibili.
+
| Scanning for available access points.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| iw wlan0 set type ibss
 
| iw wlan0 set type ibss
 
| iwconfig wlan0 mode ad-hoc
 
| iwconfig wlan0 mode ad-hoc
| Attiva la modalità ''ad-hoc''.
+
| Setting the operation mode to ''ad-hoc''.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| iw wlan0 connect ''your_essid''
 
| iw wlan0 connect ''your_essid''
 
| iwconfig wlan0 essid ''your_essid''
 
| iwconfig wlan0 essid ''your_essid''
| Connessione ad una rete senza password.
+
| Connecting to open network.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| iw wlan0 connect ''your_essid'' 2432
 
| iw wlan0 connect ''your_essid'' 2432
 
| iwconfig wlan0 essid ''your_essid'' freq 2432M
 
| iwconfig wlan0 essid ''your_essid'' freq 2432M
| Connessione ad una rete senza password specificando il canale.
+
| Connecting to open network specifying channel.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| iw wlan0 connect ''your_essid'' key 0:''your_key''
 
| iw wlan0 connect ''your_essid'' key 0:''your_key''
 
| iwconfig wlan0 essid ''your_essid'' key ''your_key''
 
| iwconfig wlan0 essid ''your_essid'' key ''your_key''
| Connessione ad una rete protetta tramite WEP con una chiave esadecimale.
+
| Connecting to WEP encrypted network using hexadecimal key.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| iw wlan0 connect ''your_essid'' key 0:''your_key''
 
| iw wlan0 connect ''your_essid'' key 0:''your_key''
 
| iwconfig wlan0 essid ''your_essid'' key s:''your_key''
 
| iwconfig wlan0 essid ''your_essid'' key s:''your_key''
| Connessione ad una rete protetta tramite WEP con una chiave ASCII.
+
| Connecting to WEP encrypted network using ASCII key.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| iw dev wlan0 set power_save on
 
| iw dev wlan0 set power_save on
 
| iwconfig wlan0 power on
 
| iwconfig wlan0 power on
| Abilita il risparmio energetico.
+
| Enabling power save.
 
|}
 
|}
  
{{Nota| A seconda del vostro hardware e del metodo di protezione scelto, alcuni dei passi seguenti potrebbero non essere necessari. Alcune schede sono famose per necessitare dell'attivazione dell'interfaccia e/o della rilevazione degli access points prima di essere associate ad un access point ed a un indirizzo IP. Potrebbe dunque essere necessario qualche tentativo. Ad esempio, chi utilizza WPA/WPA2, può direttamente seguire i passi a partire dalla sezione [[#Associazione]].}}
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{{Note|Depending on your hardware and encryption type, some of these steps may not be necessary. Some cards are known to require interface activation and/or access point scanning before being associated to an access point and being given an IP address. Some experimentation may be required. For instance, WPA/WPA2 users may try to directly activate their wireless network from step [[#Association]].}}
  
====Ottenere informazioni utili====
+
==== Getting some useful information ====
  
{{Suggerimento|Si consulti la [http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Documentation/iw documentazione ufficiale] di {{ic|iw}} per ulteriori informazioni.}}
+
{{Tip|See [http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Documentation/iw official documentation] of the ''iw'' tool for more examples.}}
  
* La prima cosa da fare è trovare il nome della propria scheda di rete wireless. È possibile farlo con il seguente comando:
+
* First you need to find the name of wireless interface. You can do it with following command:
  
{{hc|$ iw dev|<nowiki>
+
{{hc|$ iw dev|
Connected to 12:34:56:78:9a:bc (on wlan0)
+
phy#0
SSID: MyESSID
+
Interface '''wlan0'''
freq: 2412
+
ifindex 3
RX: 33016518 bytes (152703 packets)
+
wdev 0x1
TX: 2024638 bytes (11477 packets)
+
addr 12:34:56:78:9a:bc
signal: -53 dBm
+
type managed
tx bitrate: 150.0 MBit/s MCS 7 40MHz short GI
+
channel 1 (2412 MHz), width: 40 MHz, center1: 2422 MHz
 +
}}
  
bss flags: short-preamble short-slot-time
+
* To check link status, use following command. Example output when not connected to an AP:
dtim period: 1
+
beacon int: 100
+
</nowiki>}}
+
  
* Per verificare lo stato del collegamento, utilizzare il seguente comando. Se si è associati ad un Access Point, l'output sarà il seguente:
+
{{hc|$ iw dev wlan0 link|
 
+
{{hc|$ iw dev wlan0 link|<nowiki>
+
 
Not connected.
 
Not connected.
</nowiki>}}
+
}}
  
Quando si è associati, l'output diventa:
+
When connected to an AP, you will see something like:
  
{{hc|$ iw dev wlan0 link|<nowiki>
+
{{hc|$ iw dev wlan0 link|
 
Connected to 12:34:56:78:9a:bc (on wlan0)
 
Connected to 12:34:56:78:9a:bc (on wlan0)
 
SSID: MyESSID
 
SSID: MyESSID
Line 214: Line 199:
 
dtim period: 1
 
dtim period: 1
 
beacon int: 100
 
beacon int: 100
</nowiki>}}
+
}}
  
* È possibile visualizzare varie statistiche, come il numero di byte trasmessi/ricevuti, la potenza del segnale e altro. con il seguente comando:
+
* You can get statistic information, such as the amount of tx/rx bytes, signal strength etc., with following command:
  
{{hc|$ iw dev wlan0 station dump|<nowiki>
+
{{hc|$ iw dev wlan0 station dump|
 
Station 12:34:56:78:9a:bc (on wlan0)
 
Station 12:34:56:78:9a:bc (on wlan0)
 
inactive time: 1450 ms
 
inactive time: 1450 ms
Line 236: Line 221:
 
MFP: no
 
MFP: no
 
TDLS peer: no
 
TDLS peer: no
</nowiki>}}
+
}}
  
====Attivazione dell'interfaccia====
+
==== Interface activation ====
  
''(Opzionale, ma può essere richiesto)''
+
''(Optional, but may be required)''
  
Molte schede necessitano che l'interfaccia del kernel venga attivata prima di poter utilizzare i {{Ic|wireless_tools}}:
+
Some cards require that the kernel interface be activated before you can use the ''iw'' tool or ''wireless_tools'':
  
 
  # ip link set wlan0 up
 
  # ip link set wlan0 up
  
{{Nota|Se si ottengono errori simili a {{ic|RTNETLINK answers: Operation not possible due to RF-kill}}, assicurarsi che l'interruttore hardware che controlla la scheda wireless sia su "ON". È anche possibile che la scheda sia bloccata via software, nel qual caso sarà necessario installare {{Pkg|rfkill}} e controllare con {{ic|rfkill list all}}.}}
+
{{Note|If you get errors like {{ic|RTNETLINK answers: Operation not possible due to RF-kill}}, make sure that hardware switch is ''on''. Also, your wireless network card may be soft-blocked. Try getting {{Pkg|rfkill}} and running {{ic|rfkill list all}} to check.}}
  
====Ricerca degli Access Points====
+
==== Access point discovery ====
  
Controllate quali access points sono disponibili:
+
See what access points are available:
  
 
  # iw dev wlan0 scan | less
 
  # iw dev wlan0 scan | less
Comando alternativo:
 
$ iwlist wlan0 scanning | less
 
  
{{Nota| Se viene visualizzato ''''Interface doesn't support scanning'''' probabilmente non si è installato il firmware. In alcuni casi lo stesso messaggio potrebbe apparire se il comando non viene eseguito come utente root.}}
+
{{Note|If it displays "''Interface doesn't support scanning''" then you probably forgot to install the firmware. In some cases this message is also displayed when not running iw as root.}}
  
Voci importanti:
+
The important points to check:
 +
* ESSID: the "name" of the access point.
 +
* Quality: in general try something above 40/70.
 +
* Encryption key: if it is "on", check if you can see any line regarding
 +
** WEP, WPA, or RSN. Note that RSN and WPA2 are different names for the protocol.
 +
** Group cipher: value in TKIP, CCMP, both, others.
 +
** Pairwise ciphers: value in TKIP, CCMP, both, others. Not necessarily the same value than Group cipher.
 +
** Authentication Suites: value in PSK, 802.1x, others. For home router, you'll usually find PSK (''i.e.'' passphrase). In universities, you are more likely to find 802.1x suite which requires login and password. Then you will need to know which key management is in use (e.g. EAP), and what encapsulation it uses (e.g. PEAP). Find more details at [[Wikipedia:Authentication protocol]] and the sub-articles.
  
* ESSID: indica il nome dell'access point.
+
==== Operating mode ====
* Quality: è generalmente consigliabile connettersi ad una rete con un valore pari o superiore a 40/70
+
* Encryption key: se ha valore "on", si controlli la presenza di linee riguardanti:
+
** WEP, WPA o RSN. Si noti che RSN e WPA2 sono nomi differenti dello stesso protocollo.
+
** Group cipher: ha valori TKIP, CCMP, entrambi, altri.
+
** Pairwise ciphers: ha valori: TKIP, CCMP, entrambi, altri. Non ha necessariamente lo stesso valore di "Group cipher.
+
** Authentication Suites: ha valore PSK, 802.1x, altri. Utilizzando un router domestico, sarà solitamente visualizzato il valore PSK (ovvero "passphrase"). Nelle università, è più probabile trovare la suite 802.1x, che richiede un login ed una password. Sarà poi necessario conoscere il tipo di metodo per la gestione delle chiavi da utilizzare (ad esempio EAP) e quale incapsulazione esso utilizza (ad esempio PEAP). Per ulteriori dettagli consultare http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_authentication_protocols.
+
  
====Modalità di funzionamento====
+
''(Optional, but may be required)''
  
''(Opzionale, ma può essere richiesto)''
+
At this step you might need to set the proper operating mode of the wireless card. More specifically, if you are going to connect an [[Ad-hoc networking|ad-hoc network]], you need to set the operating mode to ''ad-hoc'':
 
+
A questo punto potrebbe essere necessario impostare la corretta modalità di funzionamento della scheda wireless. Più specificamente, se avete intenzione di collegarvi ad una rete ad-hoc, potrebbe essere necessario impostare la modalità di funzionamento a ''ad-hoc:''
+
  
 
  # iw wlan0 set type ibss
 
  # iw wlan0 set type ibss
  
{{Nota|Prima di cambiare la modalità di funzionamento potrebbe essere necessario disattivare la scheda prima di procedere: {{ic|ip link set wlan0 down}}.}}
+
{{Note|Changing the operating mode on some cards might require the wireless interface to be ''down'' ({{ic|ip link set wlan0 down}}).}}
  
====Associazione====
+
==== Association ====
  
A seconda del tipo di crittazione, sarà necessario associare la vostra scheda wifi con l'access point da utilizzare, e inserire la chiave di crittazione.
+
Depending on the encryption, you need to associate your wireless device with the access point to use and pass the encryption key.
  
* '''Nessuna crittazione'''
+
* '''No encryption'''
  
  # iw dev wlan0 connect MyEssid
+
  # iw wlan0 connect ''your_essid''
  
 
* '''WEP'''
 
* '''WEP'''
  
con una chiave esadecimale:
+
using a hexadecimal or ASCII key:
  
 
  # iw wlan0 connect your_essid key 0:''your_key''
 
  # iw wlan0 connect your_essid key 0:''your_key''
+
 
con una chiave ASCII, specificando la terza chiave come default (le chiavi sono contate a partire da 0):
+
using a hexadecimal or ASCII key, specifying the third set up key as default (keys are counted from zero):
  
 
  # iw wlan0 connect your_essid key d:2:''your_key''
 
  # iw wlan0 connect your_essid key d:2:''your_key''
Line 298: Line 280:
 
* '''WPA/WPA2'''
 
* '''WPA/WPA2'''
  
Sarà necessario modificare il file {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}} come descritto nella pagina [[WPA_Supplicant (Italiano)|WPA Supplicant]]. Quindi, eseguire il comando:
+
You need to edit the {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}} file as described in [[WPA_Supplicant]] and according to what you got from [[#Access point discovery]]. Then, issue this command:
  
 
  # wpa_supplicant -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
 
  # wpa_supplicant -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
  
Ciò è valido presupponendo che la periferica utilizzi il driver {{Ic|wext}}. In caso di problemi, si controllino le opzioni. Se la connessione funziona correttamente, continuare in un nuovo terminale (o uscire da {{Ic|wpa_supplicant}} con {{Keypress|Ctrl+c}} e aggiungere l'opzione {{ic|-B}} al comando precedente per farlo funzionare in background).
+
This is assuming your device uses the {{ic|wext}} driver. If this does not work, you may need to adjust these options.
 +
If connected successfully, continue in a new terminal (or quit {{ic|wpa_supplicant}} with {{Keypress|Ctrl+c}} and add the {{ic|-B}} switch to the above command to run it in the background). [[WPA_Supplicant]] contains more information and troubleshooting.
  
Controllare la pagina relativa a [[WPA_Supplicant (Italiano)|WPA Supplicant]] per maggiori informazioni e suggerimenti.
+
Regardless of the method used, you can check if you have associated successfully:
 
+
Indipendentemente dal metodo utilizzato, è possibile verificare l'avvenuta associazione con:
+
  
 
  # iw dev wlan0 link
 
  # iw dev wlan0 link
  
====Ottenere un indirizzo IP====
+
==== Getting an IP address ====
  
{{Nota|Si legga la pagina [[Configuring Network (Italiano)# Configurare l'indirizzo IP]] per ulteriori esempi.}}.
+
{{Note|See [[Network Configuration#Configure the IP address]] for more examples. This part is identical.}}
  
Infine, associate la vostra interfaccia di rete ad un indirizzo IP. Alcuni semplici esempi:
+
Finally, provide an IP address to the network interface. Simple examples are:
  
 
  # dhcpcd wlan0
 
  # dhcpcd wlan0
  
per il DHCP, oppure
+
for DHCP, or
  
 
  # ip addr add 192.168.0.2/24 dev wlan0
 
  # ip addr add 192.168.0.2/24 dev wlan0
 
  # ip route add default via 192.168.0.1
 
  # ip route add default via 192.168.0.1
  
per un indirizzo IP statico.
+
for static IP addressing.
 
+
{{Nota| Se si verifica un errore di timeout a causa di un errore ''waiting for carrier'' allora potrebbe essere necessario impostare la modalità del canale a {{Ic|auto}} per il dispositivo specifico.
+
  
 +
{{Note|If you get a timeout error due to a ''waiting for carrier'' problem, then you might have to set the channel mode to {{ic|auto}} for the specific device:
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 channel auto
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 channel auto
 +
Before changing the channel to auto, make sure your wireless interface (in this case {{ic|wlan0}}) is '''down'''. After it has successfully changed it, you can again bring the interface up and continue from there.
 +
}}
  
Prima di impostare il canale su {{ic|auto}}, assicurarsi che la propria scheda di rete wireless sia disattivata. Una volta effettuato il cambiamento, sarà possibile riattivarla.}}
+
==== Custom startup scripts/services ====
 
+
====Script di configurazione/avvio personalizzati====
+
 
+
Benchè la configurazione manuale renda più semplice la risoluzione di eventuali problemi, sarà necessario riscrivere tutti i comandi ad ogni riavvio. È anche possibile scrivere un semplice script di shell per automatizzare l'intera procedura, il che è comunque un buon metodo per gestire la propria connessione di rete mantenendo allo stesso tempo il controllo sulla propria configurazione.
+
  
Nella sezione successiva sarà possibile trovare alcuni esempi.
+
Although the manual configuration method will help troubleshoot wireless problems, you will have to re-type every command each time you reboot. You can also quickly write a shell script to automate the whole process, which is still a quite convenient way of managing network connection while keeping full control over your configuration. You can find some examples in this section.
  
=====Connessione wireless manuale al boot utilizzando systemd e dhcpcd=====
+
===== Manual wireless connection at boot using systemd and dhcpcd =====
  
Questo esempio utilizza [[systemd (Italiano)|systemd]] per l'avvio, {{ic|dhcpcd}} e [[WPA Supplicant (Italiano)|WPA Supplicant]] per la connessione.
+
This example uses [[systemd]] for start up, and dhcpcd and [[WPA supplicant]] for connecting.
  
Si crei un servizio per systemd, ad esempio {{ic|/etc/systemd/system/network@.service}}:
+
Create a systemd unit, e.g {{ic|/etc/systemd/system/network@.service}}:
  
 
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/network@.service|<nowiki>
 
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/network@.service|<nowiki>
Line 363: Line 341:
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
  
Si abiliti il servizio e lo si avvii, passandogli il nome dell'interfaccia:
+
Enable the unit and start it, passing the name of the interface:
 
+
 
  # systemctl enable network@wlp0s26f7u3.service
 
  # systemctl enable network@wlp0s26f7u3.service
 
  # systemctl start network@wlp0s26f7u3.service
 
  # systemctl start network@wlp0s26f7u3.service
 
====Systemd più wpa_supplicant con IP statico====
 
  
Si crei il file {{ic|/etc/conf.d/network}}:
+
===== Systemd with wpa_supplicant and static IP =====
 +
 
 +
Create configuration file for systemd unit:
  
 
{{hc|/etc/conf.d/network|<nowiki>
 
{{hc|/etc/conf.d/network|<nowiki>
Line 379: Line 356:
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
  
Assicurarsi che {{Pkg|wpa_supplicant}} sia installato e creare il file {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}. Si faccia riferimento a [[WPA Supplicant (Italiano)|WPA Supplicant]].
+
Make sure that {{Pkg|wpa_supplicant}} is installed and create {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}. See [[WPA supplicant]] for details.
  
 
{{hc|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf|<nowiki>
 
{{hc|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf|<nowiki>
Line 390: Line 367:
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
  
Si crei un servizio di systemd:
+
Create a systemd unit file:
  
 
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/network@.service|<nowiki>
 
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/network@.service|<nowiki>
Line 415: Line 392:
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
  
Si abiliti il servizio e lo si avvii, passandogli il nome dell'interfaccia:
+
Enable the unit and start it, passing the name of the interface:
  
 
  # systemctl enable network@wlp0s26f7u3.service
 
  # systemctl enable network@wlp0s26f7u3.service
 
  # systemctl start network@wlp0s26f7u3.service
 
  # systemctl start network@wlp0s26f7u3.service
  
===Configurazione automatica===
+
=== Automatic setup ===
  
Ci sono molte soluzioni tra cui scegliere, ma si ricordi che tutte si escludono a vicenda: non si dovrebbero tenere in esecuzione due demoni contemporaneamente.
+
{{Expansion|There's no mention of [[connman]].}}
  
====Netctl====
+
There are many solutions to choose from, but remember that all of them are mutually exclusive; you should not run two daemons simultaneously.
  
{{ic|netctl}} sostituisce il vecchio {{ic|netcfg}} e funziona egregiamente con systemd. Utilizza un setup basato su profili ed è in grado di rilevare e connettersi ad un'ampia varietà di reti. Il suo utilizzo non è da considerarsi più complicato rispetto a tool grafici.
+
==== Netctl ====
  
Si veda [[Netctl|Netctl]].
+
{{ic|netctl}} is a replacement for {{ic|netcfg}} designed to work with systemd. It uses a profile based setup and is capable of detection and connection to a wide range of network types. This is no harder than using graphical tools.
  
====Wicd====
+
See: [[Netctl]]
  
Wicd è un gestore di reti che può gestire sia connessioni via cavo che wireless. E' scritto in Python e Gtk, con meno dipendenze rispetto a NetworkManager, rendendolo una soluzione ideale per coloro che desiderano utilizzare un ambiente desktop leggero. Wicd è disponibile nel repository {{Ic|[extra]}} sia per sistemi i686 che per x86_64.
+
==== Wicd ====
  
Si veda [[Wicd (Italiano)|Wicd]].
+
Wicd is a network manager that can handle both wireless and wired connections. It is written in Python and Gtk with fewer dependencies than NetworkManager, making it an ideal solution for lightweight desktop users. Wicd is available in the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]].
  
====NetworkManager====
+
See: [[Wicd]]
  
NetworkManager è un avanzato tool di gestione delle reti che è disponibile di default in molte distribuzioni Linux. Oltre a gestire le connessioni via cavo, NetworkManager offre un sistema per gestire il roaming wifi tramite una semplice interfaccia grafica senza dover preoccuparsi di modificare file o dover usare comandi da console.
+
{{Note|[[wicd]] may cause excessive dropped connections with some drivers, while [[NetworkManager]] might work better.}}
  
Se non si utilizza [[GNOME (Italiano)|GNOME]] ma un window manager come [[Openbox (Italiano)|Openbox]] o [[xmonad|xmonad]], non dimenticarsi di [[Pacman (Italiano)|installare]] {{Pkg|polkit-gnome}}, {{Pkg|gnome-keyring}}, {{Pkg|libgnome-keyring}} e {{Pkg|pyxdg}} per gestire le connessioni WEP, WPA, e WPA2:
+
==== NetworkManager ====
  
Si veda [[NetworkManager (Italiano)|NetworkManager]].
+
NetworkManager is an advanced network management tool that is enabled by default in most popular GNU/Linux distributions. In addition to managing wired connections, NetworkManager provides worry-free wireless roaming with an easy-to-use GUI program for selecting your desired network.
  
====Wifi Radar====
+
If you do not use [[GNOME]] but use a window manager like [[Openbox]] or [[xmonad]], do not forget to [[pacman|install]] {{Pkg|polkit-gnome}}, {{Pkg|gnome-keyring}}, {{Pkg|libgnome-keyring}}, and {{Pkg|pyxdg}} to manage WEP, WPA, and WPA2 connections.
  
WiFi Radar è una utility Python/PyGTK2 per gestire diversi profili wireless (e ''solo'' wireless). E' in grado di effettuare lo scan delle reti wireless disponibili e di creare profili per le vostre reti preferite.
+
See: [[NetworkManager]]
  
Si veda [[Wifi Radar| Wifi Radar]].
+
{{Note|GNOME's {{Pkg|network-manager-applet}} also works under [[Xfce]] if you install {{AUR|xfce4-xfapplet-plugin}} (available in the [[Arch User Repository|AUR]]) first. Additionally, there are applets available for [[KDE]].}}
  
====Wlassistant====
+
==== WiFi Radar ====
  
Wlassistant è un'interfaccia grafica molto intuitiva per gestire le connessioni wireless.
+
WiFi Radar is a Python/PyGTK2 utility for managing wireless profiles (and ''only'' wireless). It enables you to scan for available networks and create profiles for your preferred networks.
  
Installare il pacchetto {{AUR|wlassistant}} da [[Arch User Repository|AUR]].
+
See: [[Wifi Radar]]
  
Wlassistant deve essere eseguito con privilegi di amministratore:
+
==== wlassistant ====
  
 +
wlassistant is a very intuitive and straight-forward GUI application for managing your wireless connections.
 +
 +
Install the {{AUR|wlassistant}} package from the [[Arch User Repository|AUR]].
 +
 +
wlassistant must be run with root privileges:
 
  # wlassistant
 
  # wlassistant
  
 +
{{out of date|References {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} which is deprecated and does not give clear instructions for configuration outside of {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}.}}
  
{{out of date|Fa riferimento ad {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}, che è deprecato e non fornisce istruzioni di configurazione alternative.}}
+
One method of using wlassistant is to configure your wireless card within {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}, specifying the access point you use most often. On start-up, your card will automatically be configured for this ESSID, but if other wireless networks are needed/available, {{ic|wlassistant}} can then be invoked to access them. Background the {{ic|network}} daemon in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}, by prefixing it with a {{ic|@}} to avoid boot-up delays.
  
Un metodo per usare wlassistant è quello di configurare la scheda wireless attraverso {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}, specificando  l'access point utilizzato più spesso. All'avvio, la scheda sarà automaticamente configurata per il SSID scelto, e se dovessero servire od essere disponibili altre reti, {{Ic|wlassistant}} potrà comunque essere eseguito per connettervisi.
+
==Power saving==
Mettere il demone network in background con un {{Ic|<nowiki>@</nowiki>}} davanti nell'{{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} per evitare inutili attese durante il boot.
+
  
==Risparmio energetico==
+
See [[Power saving#Network interfaces]].
  
Si veda [[Power_saving#Network_interfaces]].
+
== Troubleshooting ==
  
==Risoluzione dei problemi==
+
This section contains general troubleshooting tips, not strictly related to problems with drivers or firmware. For such topics, see next section.
  
Questa sezione contiene informazioni generali relative alla risoluzione dei problemi non correlate a problemi con drivers e firmware, trattati nella sezione successiva.
+
{{Out of date|Commands in following subsections need updating according to [[ArchWiki:Requests#wireless_tools_-.3E_iw|wireless_tools -> iw]] transition.}}
  
===Impossibile ottenere un indirizzo IP===
+
=== Failed to get IP address ===
  
Se non si riesce ad ottenere un indirizzo IP tramite il client di default {{Pkg|dhcpcd}}, si provi con {{Pkg|dhclient}}. Ricordarsi di selezionare {{ic|dhclient}} come client DHCP predefinito nel proprio [[#Configurazione Automatica|gestore di rete]].
+
If getting an IP address repeatedly fails using the default {{Pkg|dhcpcd}} client, try installing and using {{Pkg|dhclient}} instead. Do not forget to select ''dhclient'' as the primary DHCP client in your [[#Automatic setup|connection manager]]!
  
Se si riesce ad ottenere un indirizzo tramite interfaccia Ethernet ma non tramite Wifi, si provi a disabilitare il risparmio energetico della scheda wireless:
+
If you can get an IP address for a wired interface and not for a wireless interface, try disabling the wireless card's power saving features:
  
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 power off
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 power off
  
===La connessione va sempre in timeout===
+
=== Connection always times out ===
  
Il driver potrebbe essere messo a dura prova da eventuali tentativi eccessivi di trasmissione o errori di "invalid misc" che causano la perdita di pacchetti e continue disconnessioni, talvolta istantanee. I seguenti consigli potrebbero essere utili.
+
The driver may suffer from a lot of tx excessive retries and invalid misc errors for some unknown reason, resulting in a lot of packet loss and keep disconnecting, sometimes instantly. Following tips might be helpful.
  
====Ridurre la velocità di trasmissione====
+
==== Lowering the rate ====
  
Si esegua:
+
Try setting lower rate, for example 5.5M:
  
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 rate 5.5M auto
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 rate 5.5M auto
  
L'opzione {{ic|fixed}} dovrebbe bloccare la velocità in base a quanto scelto, impedendo al driver di cambiarla a proprio piacimento e rendendo così la connessione più stabile.
+
Fixed option should ensure that the driver does not change the rate on its own, thus making the connection a bit more stable:
 +
 
 +
# iwconfig wlan0 rate 5.5M fixed
  
====Ridurre la potenza di trasmissione====
+
==== Lowering the txpower ====
  
È inoltre possibile provare a ridurre la potenza di trasmissione, il che contribuisce anche al risparmio energetico:
+
You can try lowering the transmit power as well. This may save power as well:
  
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 txpower 5
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 txpower 5
  
Valori validi vanno da {{ic|0}} a {{ic|20}}, {{ic|auto}} e {{ic|off}}.
+
Valid settings are from {{ic|0}} to {{ic|20}}, {{ic|auto}} and {{ic|off}}.
  
====Impostazione di rts e fragmentation treshold====
+
==== Setting rts and fragmentation thresholds ====
  
Le impostazioni di default di iwconfig disabilitano rts e il fragmentation treshold. Queste opzioni sono particolarmente efficaci se si è in presenza di numerosi Access Points o se ci si trova in un ambiente con molte interferenze.
+
Default iwconfig options have rts and fragmentation thresholds off. These options are particularly useful when there are many adjacent APs or in a noisy environment.
  
Il valore minimo per fragmentation è {{ic|256}}, mentre il massimo è {{ic|2346}}. In numerosi drivers per Windows, il massimo è il valore di default.
+
The minimum value for fragmentation value is 256 and maximum is 2346. In many windows drivers the maximum is the default value:
  
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 frag 2346
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 frag 2346
  
Per quanto riguarda rts, il minimo è {{ic|0}} e il massimo è {{ic|2347}}. Anche in questo caso, i drivers per Windows spesso utilizzano il valore massimo:
+
For rts minimum is 0, maximum is 2347. Once again windows drivers often use maximum as the default:
  
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 rts 2347
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 rts 2347
  
===Disconnessioni casuali===
+
=== Random disconnections ===
  
====Causa 1====
+
==== Cause #1 ====
  
Se {ic|dmesg}} riporta {{ic|1=wlan0: deauthenticating from MAC by local choice (reason=3)}} è probabile che le impostazioni di risparmio energetico siano troppo aggressive ([http://us.generation-nt.com/answer/gentoo-user-wireless-deauthenticating-by-local-choice-help-204640041.html].). Si provi a disabilitare il risparmio energetico:
+
If dmesg says {{ic|1=wlan0: deauthenticating from MAC by local choice (reason=3)}} and you lose your Wi-Fi connection, it is likely that you have a bit too aggressive power-saving on your Wi-Fi card[http://us.generation-nt.com/answer/gentoo-user-wireless-deauthenticating-by-local-choice-help-204640041.html]. Try disabling the wireless card's power-saving features:
  
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 power off
 
  # iwconfig wlan0 power off
  
Si veda [[Power saving]] per rendere permanenti le impostazioni (si specifichi semplicemente {{ic|off}} invece di {{ic|on}}).
+
See [[Power saving]] for tips on how to make it permanent (just specify {{ic|off}} instead of {{ic|on}}).
  
Se la propria scheda di rete non supporta le funzionalità di risparmio energetico, si controllino le relative impostazioni del BIOS. Ad esempio, disabilitare il risparmio energetico per lo slot PCI-Express su un Lenovo W520 ha risolto il problema.
+
If your card does not support {{ic|iwconfig wlan0 power off}}, check the '''BIOS''' for power management options. Disabling PCI-Express power management in the BIOS of a Lenovo W520 resolved this issue.
  
====Causa 2====
+
==== Cause #2 ====
  
Se si verificano frequenti disconnessioni e {{ic|dmesg}} mostra: {{ic|1=ieee80211 phy0: wlan0: No probe response from AP xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx after 500ms, disconnecting}}, si provi a cambiare la banda del canale a {{ic|20 MHz}} dal pannello di configurazione del router.
+
If you are experiencing frequent disconnections and dmesg shows messages such as
  
==Risoluzione dei problemi di drivers e firmware==
+
{{ic|1=ieee80211 phy0: wlan0: No probe response from AP xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx after 500ms, disconnecting}}
  
{{Out of date|Questa sezione potrebbe contenere informazioni non aggiornate su moduli che ora sono inclusi nel kernel e funzionano correttamente.}}
+
try changing the channel bandwidth to {{ic|20MHz}} through your router's settings page.
  
Questa sezione tratta dei metodi e delle procedure di installazione di moduli del kernel e firmware per chipsets specifici, la cui procedura differisce da quella standard.
+
== Troubleshooting drivers and firmware ==
  
Si veda [[Kernel modules (Italiano)|Kernel modules]] per ulteriori informazioni sui moduli.
+
{{Out of date|This section may contain old information about modules that are now in kernel and work fine.}}
  
====Ralink====
+
This section covers methods and procedures for installing kernel modules and ''firmware'' for specific chipsets, that differ from generic method.
  
=====rt2x00=====
+
See [[Kernel modules]] for general informations on operations with modules.
  
Il driver unificato per i chipset Ralink (rimpiazza i vari driver separati per {{Ic|rt2500}},{{Ic|rt61}},{{Ic|rt73}} ecc.). Questo driver è compatibile con gli strumenti {{Ic|wpa_supplicant}} e {{Ic|iwconfig}} ed è incluso nel kernel dalla versione 2.6.24. È semplicemente necessario caricare il modulo adeguato per il chipset in uso: {{ic|rt2400pci}}, {{ic|rt2500pci}}, {{ic|rt2500usb}}, {{ic|rt61pci}} o {{ic|rt73usb}}, i quali caricheranno automaticamente i rispettivi moduli {{ic|rt2x00}}.
+
=== Ralink ===
  
Un elenco dei dispositivi supportati da questi moduli è reperibile sulla [http://rt2x00.serialmonkey.com/wiki/index.php/Hardware homepage] del progetto.
+
==== rt2x00 ====
  
=====rt2860 e rt2870=====
+
Unified driver for Ralink chipsets (it replaces {{ic|rt2500}}, {{ic|rt61}}, {{ic|rt73}}, etc). This driver has been in the Linux kernel since 2.6.24, you only need to load the right module for the chip: {{ic|rt2400pci}}, {{ic|rt2500pci}}, {{ic|rt2500usb}}, {{ic|rt61pci}} or {{ic|rt73usb}} which will autoload the respective {{ic|rt2x00}} modules too.
  
Dalla versione del kernel linux 3.0, il driver {{Ic|rt2860sta}} è stato sostituito dal driver {{Ic|rt2800pci}}, e {{Ic|rt2870sta}} da {{Ic|rt2800usb}}. Fonte: [http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git;a=commitdiff;h=fefecc6989b4b24276797270c0e229c07be02ad3 Kernel commit]. Il driver {{ic|rt2800}} funziona automaticamente con dispositivi che utilizzano il chipset {{ic|rt2870}}.
+
A list of devices supported by the modules is available at the project's [http://rt2x00.serialmonkey.com/wiki/index.php/Hardware homepage].
  
Ha una vasta gamma di opzioni che possono essere configurate con {{Ic|iwpriv}}. Queste sono ben documentate nei  [http://www.ralinktech.com/ralink/Home/Support/Linux.html  tarballs dei sorgenti] resi disponibili da Ralink
+
==== rt2860 and rt2870 ====
  
=====rt3090=====
+
From Linux kernel 3.0, the staging driver {{ic|rt2860sta}} is replaced by the mainline driver {{ic|rt2800pci}}, and {{ic|rt2870sta}} is replaced by {{ic|rt2800usb}}. As a result, the staging drivers are deleted. Source: [https://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git;a=commitdiff;h=fefecc6989b4b24276797270c0e229c07be02ad3 Kernel commit]. The rt2800 driver automatically works with devices using the rt2870 chipset.
  
I dispositivi dotati di chipset rt3090 potrebbero funzionare con il driver {{ic|rt2870sta}}. {{ic|rt2800pci}}, il driver di riferimento, non funziona molto bene con questo chipset e potrebbe non essere possibile andare oltre i 2 Mb/s di  banda.
+
It has a wide range of options that can be configured with {{ic|iwpriv}}. These are documented in the [http://web.ralinktech.com/ralink/Home/Support/Linux.html source tarballs] available from Ralink.
  
È consigliabile installare il driver {{Aur|rt3090}} da [[AUR (Italiano)|AUR]] e cancellare/spostare il file del firmware {{ic|/etc/Wireless/RT2860STA/RT2860STA.dat}} per consentire l'installazione del pacchetto {{Aur|rt3090}}.
+
==== rt3090 ====
Si metta in [[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Blacklist | blacklist]] il modulo {{ic|rt2860sta}} e si abiliti il
+
[[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Caricamento | caricamento]] del modulo {{ic|rt3090}} al boot.
+
  
{{Nota|È possibile utilizzare questo driver anche con chipsets rt3062.}}
+
For devices which are using the rt3090 chipset it should be possible to use {{ic|rt2860sta}} driver. The mainline driver {{ic|rt2800pci}} is not working with this chipset very well (e.g. sometimes it's not possible to use higher rate than 2Mb/s).
  
=====rt3290=====
+
The best way is to use the {{AUR|rt3090}} driver from [[AUR]]. Compile the {{AUR|rt3090}} driver from [[AUR]], delete/move the /etc/Wireless/RT2860STA/RT2860STA.dat firmware file to allow installation of the compiled RT3090 package, [[Kernel modules#Blacklisting|blacklist]] the rt2860sta module and setup the rt3090sta module to [[Kernel modules#Loading|load]] at boot.
Il chipset rt3290 utilizza il modulo del kernel {{ic|rt2800pci}}, anche se alcuni utenti segnalano problemi che possono essere risolti [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=161952 utilizzando] il driver Ralink proprietario opportunamente patchato.
+
  
=====rt3573=====
+
Note: This driver also works for rt3062 chipsets.
  
Nuovo chipset (2012). Potrebbe richiedere un driver proprietario fornito da Ralink. Differenti produttori lo utilizzano: si veda per esempio il [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1164228#p1164228 Belkin N750].
+
==== rt3290 ====
  
=====rt5572=====
+
The rt3290 chipset is recognised by the kernel {{ic|rt2800pci}} module. However, some users experience problems and reverting to a patched Ralink driver seems to be beneficial in these [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=161952 cases].
  
Nuovo chipset (2012) con supporto ai 5 Ghz. Potrebbe richiedere driver proprietari forniti da Ralink. Al momento, è disponibile un HOWTO sulla compilazione valido per la D-Link DWA-160 rev. B2, [http://bernaerts.dyndns.org/linux/229-ubuntu-precise-dlink-dwa160-revb2 qui].
+
==== rt3573 ====
  
====Realtek====
+
New chipset as of 2012. It may require proprietary drivers from Ralink. Different manufacturers use it, see [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1164228#p1164228 Belkin N750 example]
  
=====rtl8192cu=====
+
==== rt5572 ====
  
Il driver è parte del kernel attuale, anche se diversi utenti hanno riscontrato l'impossibilità di stabilire una connessione, mentre non ci sono problemi nella scansione delle reti.
+
New chipset as of 2012 with support for 5 Ghz bands. It may require proprietary drivers from Ralink and some effort to compile them. At the time of writing a how-to on compilation is available for a DLINK DWA-160 rev. B2 [http://bernaerts.dyndns.org/linux/229-ubuntu-precise-dlink-dwa160-revb2 here].
  
Il pacchetto {{AUR|dkms-8192cu}} presente su AUR potrebbe funzionare meglio per alcuni utenti.
+
=== Realtek ===
  
=====rtl8192e=====
+
==== rtl8192cu ====
  
Il driver è parte del kernel attuale.
+
The driver is now in the kernel, but many users have reported being unable to make a connection although scanning for networks does work.
  
L'inizializzazione del modulo potrebbe non riuscire in fase di boot dando questo messaggio di errore:  
+
The {{AUR|dkms-8192cu}} package in the AUR may be a better choice for some users.
 +
 
 +
==== rtl8192e ====
 +
 
 +
The driver is part of the current kernel package. The module initialization may fail at boot giving this error message:
  
 
  rtl819xE:ERR in CPUcheck_firmware_ready()
 
  rtl819xE:ERR in CPUcheck_firmware_ready()
Line 592: Line 577:
 
  r8169 0000:03:00.0: eth0: link down
 
  r8169 0000:03:00.0: eth0: link down
  
Una semplice soluzione è quella di scaricare il modulo:  
+
A workaround is to simply unload the module:
 
  # modprobe -r r8192e_pci
 
  # modprobe -r r8192e_pci
e ricaricarlo (dopo una pausa):  
+
and reload the module (after a pause):
 
  # modprobe r8192e_pci
 
  # modprobe r8192e_pci
  
=====rtl8192s=====
+
==== rtl8192s ====
  
Il driver è parte del kernel attuale. Può essere necessario aggiungere manualmente il firmware in caso {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware/RTL8192SU/rtl8192sfw.bin}} non esista. ({{Ic|dmesg}} riporterebbe ''"rtl819xU:FirmwareRequest92S(): failed"'' se mancasse il firmware)
+
The driver is part of the current kernel package. Firmware may need to be added manually if {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware/RTL8192SU/rtl8192sfw.bin}} does not exist. ({{ic|dmesg}} will report ''"rtl819xU:FirmwareRequest92S(): failed"'' if the firmware is missing)
  
Per scaricare e installare il firmware:
+
To download and install firmware:
 
  $ wget http://launchpadlibrarian.net/33927923/rtl8192se_linux_2.6.0010.1012.2009.tar.gz
 
  $ wget http://launchpadlibrarian.net/33927923/rtl8192se_linux_2.6.0010.1012.2009.tar.gz
 
  # mkdir /lib/firmware/RTL8192SU
 
  # mkdir /lib/firmware/RTL8192SU
 
  # tar -xzOf rtl8192se_linux_2.6.0010.1012.2009.tar.gz \
 
  # tar -xzOf rtl8192se_linux_2.6.0010.1012.2009.tar.gz \
 
   rtl8192se_linux_2.6.0010.1012.2009/firmware/RTL8192SE/rtl8192sfw.bin > \
 
   rtl8192se_linux_2.6.0010.1012.2009/firmware/RTL8192SE/rtl8192sfw.bin > \
   /usr/lib/firmware/RTL8192SU/rtl8192sfw.bin
+
   /lib/firmware/RTL8192SU/rtl8192sfw.bin
  
{{Nota|Può essere trovata una versione alternativa del firmware [http://launchpadlibrarian.net/37387612/rtl8192sfw.bin.gz qui], ma questa versione può causare l'interruzione delle connessioni.}}
+
{{Note|An alternate version of the firmware may be found [http://launchpadlibrarian.net/37387612/rtl8192sfw.bin.gz here], but this version may cause dropped connections.}}
  
====Atheros====
+
=== Atheros ===
  
=====madwifi-ng=====
+
==== madwifi-ng ====
  
Esistono tre moduli, correntemente mantenuti dal team MadWifi:
+
There are three modules maintained by the MadWifi team:
 
+
* {{ic|ath_pci}} is the older driver.
* {{ic|ath_pci}}, il driver più vecchio
+
* [[#ath5k|{{ic|ath5k}}]] will eventually phase out {{ic|ath_pci}}. Currently a better choice for some chipsets, but not all chipsets are supported (see below)
* '''{{ic|ath5k}}''', destinato a sostituire {{ic|ath_pci}}. Attualmente è una scelta migliore per alcuni chipsets, ma non tutti sono supportati (si veda sotto)
+
* [[#ath9k|{{ic|ath9k}}]] is the new, official, superior driver for newer Atheros hardware (see below)
* '''{{ic|ath9k}}''', il nuovo driver ufficiale per dispositivi con chipset Atheros (si veda sotto)
+
 
+
Per utilizzare il vecchio driver {{ic|ath_pci}}, si installi il pacchetto {{Pkg|madwifi}} ed opzionalmente {{AUR|madwifi-utils-svn}}. Poi:
+
  
 +
For old {{ic|ath_pci}} driver, install package {{AUR|madwifi}} and optionally {{AUR|madwifi-utils-svn}}. Then:
 
  # modprobe ath_pci
 
  # modprobe ath_pci
  
Se si sta utilizzando questo driver, potrebbe essere necessario mettere in blacklist {{ic|ath5k}}. Si veda [[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Blacklisting]] per ulteriori informazioni.
+
If using {{ic|ath_pci}}, you may need to blacklist {{ic|ath5k}}. See [[Kernel_modules#Blacklisting]] for instructions.
 
+
Alcuni utenti potrebbero dover specificare l'opzione {{ic|countrycode}} al caricamento del driver MadWifi, al fine di scegliere canali e potenza di trasmissione  legali nel paese di appartenenza. Se ad esempio ci si trova nei paesi bassi, il modulo andrà caricato in questo modo:
+
  
 +
Some users '''may need''' to use the {{ic|countrycode}} option when loading the MadWifi driver in order to use channels and transmit power settings that are legal in their country/region. In the Netherlands, for example, you would load the module like this:
 
  # modprobe ath_pci countrycode=528
 
  # modprobe ath_pci countrycode=528
  
Si possono verificare le impostazioni con il comando {{ic|iwlist}. Si veda {{ic|man iwlist}} e la [http://madwifi-project.org/wiki/UserDocs/CountryCode pagina] relativa ai CountryCode sul wiki di MadWifi. Per applicare queste impostazioni automaticamente al boot, si aggiunga la seguente riga ad {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf}}:
+
You can verify the settings with the {{ic|iwlist}} command. See {{ic|man iwlist}} and the [http://madwifi-project.org/wiki/UserDocs/CountryCode CountryCode page on the MadWifi wiki]. To have this setting automatically applied during boot, refer to [[Kernel_modules#Configuration]], and note the following module option setting:
 
+
 
  options ath_pci countrycode=528
 
  options ath_pci countrycode=528
  
Si consulti il [http://madwifi-project.org/wiki/UserDocs/FirstTimeHowTo metodo] di installazione del progetto MadWifi, se si riscontrano difficoltà dopo la lettura di questo articolo.
+
See [http://madwifi-project.org/wiki/UserDocs/FirstTimeHowTo The MadWifi project's method of installing] if you are having trouble after reading this article.
  
=====ath5k=====
+
==== ath5k ====
{{Ic|ath5k}} è il driver preferito per i chipset AR5xxx compresi quelli già funzionanti con {{Ic|madwifi-ng}} e per alcuni chipset più datati dei AR5xxx.
+
  
Se {{Ic|ath5k}} è in conflitto con {{Ic|ath_pci}} sul proprio sistema, mettere in [[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Blacklist|blacklist]] (e rimuovere con {{Ic|rmmod}} o riavviare) i seguenti driver in {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf}}:
+
{{ic|ath5k}} is the preferred driver for AR5xxx chipsets including those which are already working with {{ic|madwifi-ng}} and for some chipsets older than AR5xxx.
  
 +
If {{ic|ath5k}} is conflicting with {{ic|ath_pci}} on your system, [[Kernel_modules#Blacklisting|blacklist]] (and unload using {{ic|rmmod}} or reboot) the following drivers:
 
  ath_hal
 
  ath_hal
 
  ath_pci
 
  ath_pci
Line 655: Line 636:
 
  wlan_xauth
 
  wlan_xauth
  
Poi caricare il modulo manualmente con {{Ic|modprobe ath5k}} o riavviare. ''wlan0'' (o ''wlanX'') dovrebbe apparire ed essere pronta all'uso in modalità STA.
+
then {{ic|modprobe ath5k}} manually or reboot. ''wlan0'' (or ''wlanX'') in sta mode should spawn and become ready to use.
  
Se il dispositivo non è in grado di ottenere un indirizzo IP dopo essere stato avviato, si provi a caricare il modulo con {{ic|modprobe ath5k nohwcrypt<nowiki>=</nowiki>1}}. Si veda sotto per ulteriori dettagli sul parametro {{ic|nohwcrypt}}.
+
If the device is unable to lease an IP after being loaded, try {{ic|modprobe ath5k nohwcrypt<nowiki>=</nowiki>1}}. See below for details about the nohwcrypt option.
  
 
Info:
 
Info:
Line 663: Line 644:
 
* http://wiki.debian.org/ath5k
 
* http://wiki.debian.org/ath5k
  
{{Nota|1=Alcuni portatili hanno dei problemi con il led Wireless che lampeggia rosso e blu. Per risolvere questo problema:
+
{{Note|1=Some laptop have problems with their wireless LED indicator flickering red and blue. To solve this problem, do:
 
  echo none > "/sys/class/leds/ath5k-phy0::tx/trigger"
 
  echo none > "/sys/class/leds/ath5k-phy0::tx/trigger"
 
  echo none > "/sys/class/leds/ath5k-phy0::rx/trigger"
 
  echo none > "/sys/class/leds/ath5k-phy0::rx/trigger"
  
Per ricerche alternative consultare [https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=618232 qui].}}
+
For alternatives, look [https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=618232 here].}}
 
+
{{Nota|1=Se le pagine vengono caricate molto lentamente su Firefox/Opera/Chromium, oppure se il dispositivo ha problemi nell'ottenere un indirizzo IP, si provi ad utilizzare la crittografia software in luogo di quella hardware:
+
  
 +
{{Note|1=If you find web pages randomly loading very slow in Firefox/Opera/Chromium, or if the adapter has problems leasing an IP, try to switch from hardware to software encryption:
 
  rmmod ath5k
 
  rmmod ath5k
 
  modprobe ath5k nohwcrypt
 
  modprobe ath5k nohwcrypt
  
E si riavvii la connessione. Se il problema è risolto, si renda la modifica permanente aggiungendo questa riga al file {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/010-ath5k.conf}}:
+
And restart your connection. If it helps, make the change permanent by adding into {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/010-ath5k.conf}}:
 
+
 
  options ath5k nohwcrypt
 
  options ath5k nohwcrypt
  
Ulteriori informazioni sulle opzioni di {{ic|modprobe}} sono disponibili [[Modprobe (Italiano)#Opzioni|qui]].
+
More about modprobe options: [[Modprobe#Options]]
 
}}
 
}}
  
=====ath9k=====
+
==== ath9k ====
{{Ic|ath9k}} è il driver Atheros ufficialmente supportato per i più recenti chipset 802.11n. Tutti i chip con capacità 802.11n sono supportati, con un throughput massimo di circa 180 Mbps. Per vedere un elenco completo dell'hardware supportato, controllare questa [http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Drivers/ath9k pagina].
+
  
Modalità di funzionamento: Station, AP e Adhoc.
+
{{ic|ath9k}} is Atheros' officially supported driver for the newer 802.11n chipsets. All of the chips with 802.11n capabilities are supported, with a maximum throughput around 180 Mbps. To see a complete list of supported hardware, check this [http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Drivers/ath9k page].
  
{{Ic|ath9k}} è stato incluso nel kernel dal 2.6.27. Nell'improbabile caso in cui si riscontrino problemi di stabilità, si potrebbe provare a utilizzare il pacchetto [http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Download compat-wireless].
+
Working modes: Station, AP and Adhoc.
Esiste inoltre [https://lists.ath9k.org/mailman/listinfo/ath9k-devel ath9k mailing list] che fornisce supporto e discussioni relative allo sviluppo.
+
 
 +
{{ic|ath9k}} has been part of the Linux kernel as of v2.6.27. (In the unlikely event that you have stability issues that trouble you, you could try using the [http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Download compat-wireless] package.
 +
An [https://lists.ath9k.org/mailman/listinfo/ath9k-devel ath9k mailing list] exists for support and development related discussions.)
  
 
Info:
 
Info:
Line 693: Line 673:
 
* http://wiki.debian.org/ath9k
 
* http://wiki.debian.org/ath9k
  
=====ath9k_htc=====
+
==== ath9k_htc ====
{{Ic|ath9k_htc}} è il driver Atheros ufficialmente supportato per i dispositivi USB 802.11n. Sono supportate le modalità "station" e "ad-Hoc". Il driver è stato implementato dal kernel linux 2.6.35. Per maggiori informazioni si veda http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Drivers/ath9k_htc.
+
  
====Intel====
+
{{ic|ath9k_htc}} is Atheros' officially supported driver for 802.11n USB devices. Station and Ad-Hoc modes are supported. The driver is included in the kernel. For more information, see http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Drivers/ath9k_htc .
  
=====ipw2100 e ipw2200=====
+
=== Intel ===
  
Pienamente supportato nel kernel, ma richiede il firmware aggiuntivo.
+
==== ipw2100 and ipw2200 ====
A seconda del chip della propria scheda, utilizzare {{Pkg|ipw2100-fw}} o {{Pkg|ipw2200-fw}} e [[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Caricamento|caricare]] il modulo corretto.
+
  
{{Suggerimento|È possibile passare i seguenti [[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Impostazione delle opzioni|parametri]] ai moduli:
+
These modules are fully supported in the kernel, but they require additional firmware. Depending on which of the chipsets you have, [[pacman|install]] either {{Pkg|ipw2100-fw}} or {{Pkg|ipw2200-fw}}. Then [[Kernel modules#Manual module handling|reload]] the appropriate module.
  
* {{ic|1=rtap_iface=1}} per utilizzare l'interfaccia radiotap
+
{{Tip|You may use the following [[Kernel modules#Setting module options|module options]]:
* {{ic|1=led=1}} per abilitare un LED frontale che indica lo stato della connessione}}
+
* use the {{ic|1=rtap_iface=1}} option to enable the radiotap interface
 +
* use the {{ic|1=led=1}} option to enable a front LED indicating when the wireless is connected or not
 +
}}
  
=====iwl3945, iwl4965 e serie-iwl5000=====
+
==== iwl3945, iwl4965 and iwl5000-series ====
Il progetto [http://intellinuxwireless.org/?p=iwlwifi Intel iwlwifi] (con iwl che sta per '''I'''ntel's open source '''W'''iFi drivers for '''L'''inux) fornisce dei driver, direttamente inclusi nei kernel 2.6.24 e successivi, che funzionano per entrambi i chipset 3945 e 4965. Inoltre, la serie di schede iwl5000 (che include i chipset 5100BG, 5100ABG, 5100AGN, 5300AGN and 5350AGN) è supportata con un modulo nel nuovo kernel 2.6.27, grazie al driver '''iwlagn'''.
+
  
======Caricamento del Driver======
+
'''I'''ntel's open source '''W'''i-Fi drivers for '''L'''inux (See [http://intellinuxwireless.org iwlwifi]) will work for both the 3945 and 4965 chipsets since kernel 2.6.24. And iwl5000-series chipsets (including 5100BG, 5100ABG, 5100AGN, 5300AGN and 5350AGN) have been supported since '''kernel 2.6.27''', by the in-tree driver '''iwlagn'''.
  
[[Udev (Italiano)|udev]] dovrebbe caricare il driver automaticamente. In caso contrario si carichino i moduli  {{ic|iwl3945}} o {{ic|iwl4965}} manualmente. Si consulti [[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Caricamento]] per ulteriori informazioni.
+
===== Loading the Driver =====
  
======Disattivazione del lampeggio dei LED======
+
[[udev]] should load the driver automatically, otherwise load {{ic|iwl3945}} or {{ic|iwl4965}} manually. See [[Kernel modules#Loading]] for details.
  
Le impostazioni predefinite del modulo attivano il lampeggio del LED di default. Alcune persone trovano questo fatto estremamente fastidioso. Per avere il LED acceso se wifi è attivo (funziona anche su sistemi che non utilizzano systemd):
+
===== Disabling LED blink =====
 +
 
 +
The default settings on the module are to have the LED blink on activity. Some people find this extremely annoying. To have the LED on solid when Wi-Fi is active:
  
 
  # echo 'w /sys/class/leds/phy0-led/trigger - - - - phy0radio' > /etc/tmpfiles.d/phy0-led.conf
 
  # echo 'w /sys/class/leds/phy0-led/trigger - - - - phy0radio' > /etc/tmpfiles.d/phy0-led.conf
 
  # systemd-tmpfiles --create phy0-led.conf
 
  # systemd-tmpfiles --create phy0-led.conf
  
Se non si dispone di {{ic|/sys/class/leds/py0-led}}:
+
To see all the possible trigger values for this LED:
 +
 
 +
# cat /sys/class/leds/phy0-led/trigger
 +
 
 +
Here is an example for the old way, if you do not have {{ic|/sys/class/leds/phy0-led}}:
  
 
  # echo "options iwlcore led_mode=1" >> /etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf
 
  # echo "options iwlcore led_mode=1" >> /etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf
Line 730: Line 715:
 
  # modprobe iwlagn
 
  # modprobe iwlagn
  
Dal kernel 2.6.39.1-1 in poi, il modulo {{Ic|iwlcore}} module è deprecato. Usare piuttosto {{Ic|options iwlagn led_mode<nowiki>=</nowiki>1}} o {{Ic|options iwl_legacy led_mode<nowiki>=</nowiki>1}} (capire quale modulo viene caricato con {{Ic|lsmod}}).
+
On Linux kernels 2.6.39.1-1 and up, the {{ic|iwlcore}} module was deprecated. Use {{ic|1=options iwlagn led_mode=1}} or {{ic|1=options iwl_legacy led_mode=1}} instead (find out what module is loaded with {{ic|lsmod}}).
  
{{Nota|{{ic|iwl_legacy}} è stato rinominato in {{ic|iwlegacy}} a partire dalla versione 3.3.1 del kernel linux: sarà quindi necessario utilizzare:  {{ic|options iwlegacy led_mode<nowiki>=</nowiki>1}}.}}
+
{{Note| iwl_legacy was renamed iwlegacy in Linux kernel 3.3.1. For this version, use {{ic|1=options iwlegacy led_mode=1}}.}}
  
======Altre osservazioni======
+
===== Other Notes =====
  
* Di default {{Ic|iwl3945}} è configurato per funzionare solo con le reti sui canali 1-11. Gamme superiori non sono ammesse in alcune parti del mondo (Stati Uniti). Nell'UE tuttavia, i canali 12 e 13 sono utilizzati abbastanza comunemente. Per fare in modo che {{Ic|iwl3945}} esegua le scansioni per tutti i canali, aggiungere {{Ic|options cfg80211 ieee80211_regdom<nowiki>=</nowiki>EU}} a {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf}}. Con {{Ic|iwlist f}} è possibile controllare quali canali sono ammessi.
+
* By default, {{ic|iwl3945}} is configured to only work with networks on channels 1-11. Higher frequency bands are not allowed in some parts of the world (e.g. the US). In the EU however, channels 12 and 13 are used quite commonly (and Japan allows for channel 14). To make {{ic|iwl3945}} scan for all channels, add {{ic|1=options cfg80211 ieee80211_regdom=EU}} to {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf}}. With {{ic|iwlist frequency}} you can check which channels are allowed.
* Se si desidera attivare più canali su Intel Wifi 5100 (e possibilmente anche altre schede) è possibile farlo con il pacchetto {{Ic|crda}}. Dopo l'installazione, modificare {{ic|/etc/conf.d/wireless-regdom}} e decommentare la riga in cui si trova il codice del paese. Aggiungere {{Ic|wireless-regdom}} alla stringa {{Ic|DAEMONS}} in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} e riavviare (che è la cosa più facile da fare). Si dovrebbe ora, dopo aver dato il comando {{Ic|sudo iwlist wlan0 channel}}, avere accesso a più canali (a seconda della propria località).
+
* If you want to enable more channels on Intel Wifi 5100 (and quite possible other cards too), you can do that with the {{Pkg|crda}} package. After installing the package, edit {{ic|/etc/conf.d/wireless-regdom}} and uncomment the line where your country code is found. When executing {{ic|iwlist wlan0 channel}}, you should now have access to more channels (depending on your location).
  
====Broadcom====
+
=== Broadcom ===
  
Si veda [[Broadcom wireless]].
+
See [[Broadcom wireless]].
  
====Altri drivers/dispositivi====
+
=== Other drivers/devices ===
  
=====w322u=====
+
==== Tenda w322u ====
Per questa scheda Tenda, avvalersi delle istruzioni riguardanti {{Ic|rt2870sta}}. Consultare: [[Rt2870]]
+
  
=====orinoco=====
+
Treat this Tenda card as an {{ic|rt2870sta}} device. See: [[rt2870]]
Questo driver fa già parte del pacchetto del kernel e quindi dovrebbe già essere installato.
+
  
{{Nota|1=Alcuni chipset orinoco sono Hermes I/II. È possibile installare il pacchetto {{AUR|wl_lkm}} da AUR per sostituire il driver {{Ic|orinoco}} ed ottenere il supporto WPA. Consultare [http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?p=2154534#post2154534 questo post] per ulteriori informazioni.}}
+
==== orinoco ====
  
Per utilizzare il driver, mettere in [[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Blacklist|blacklist]] {{Ic|orinoco_cs}} e poi aggiungere {{ic|wlags49_h1_cs}}.
+
This should be a part of the kernel package and be installed already.
  
=====prism54=====
+
{{Note|1=Some Orinoco chipsets are Hermes I/II. You can use the AUR package {{AUR|wl_lkm}} to replace the {{ic|orinoco}} driver and gain WPA support. See [http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?p=2154534#post2154534 this post] for more information.}}
Scaricate il firmware del driver appropriato per la vostra scheda da [http://linuxwireless.org/en/users/Drivers/p54 questo sito]. Rinominate poi il file in {{ic|isl3890}}.
+
Se non esiste, sarà necessario creare la cartella {{ic|/lib/firmware}} e spostare li dentro il firmware appena rinominato. Questo procedimento dovrebbe funzionare. [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?t=16569&start=0&postdays=0&postorder=asc&highlight=siocsifflags+such+file++directory]
+
  
Se così non funziona, riprovare in questo modo:
+
To use the driver, [[Kernel modules#Blacklisting|blacklist]] {{ic|orinoco_cs}}, and then add {{ic|wlags49_h1_cs}}.
  
*Ricaricare il modulo prism ({{Ic|modprobe p54usb}} o {{Ic|modprobe p54pci}}, dipendendo dal proprio hardware)
+
==== prism54 ====
in alternativa, rimuovere la scheda wifi e poi ricollegarla.
+
 
*Usare il comando {{Ic|dmesg}}, e osservare verso la fine dell'output restituito.
+
Download the firmware driver for your appropriate card from [http://linuxwireless.org/en/users/Drivers/p54 this site]. Rename the firmware file to {{ic|isl3890}}.
Cercare una sezione simile a questa:  
+
If non-existent, create the directory {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware}} and move the file {{ic|isl3890}} inside it. This should do the trick. [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?t=16569&start=0&postdays=0&postorder=asc&highlight=siocsifflags+such+file++directory]
 +
 
 +
If that did not work, try this:
 +
 
 +
*Reload the prism module ({{ic|modprobe p54usb}} or {{ic|modprobe p54pci}}, depending on your hardware)
 +
Alternatively, remove your Wi-Fi card and then reconnect it.
 +
*Use the {{ic|dmesg}} command, and look at the end of the output it prints out.
 +
Look for a section similar to this:
 
  firmware: requesting '''isl3887usb_bare'''
 
  firmware: requesting '''isl3887usb_bare'''
 
  p54: LM86 firmware
 
  p54: LM86 firmware
 
  p54: FW rev 2.5.8.0 - Softmac protocol 3.0
 
  p54: FW rev 2.5.8.0 - Softmac protocol 3.0
e provare a rinominare il file del firmware con il nome corrispondente alla parte in grassetto qui.
+
and try renaming the firmware file to the name corresponding to the part bolded here.
  
Se si riceve il messaggio
+
If you get the message
 
  SIOCSIFFLAGS: Operation not permitted
 
  SIOCSIFFLAGS: Operation not permitted
durante l'esecuzione di {{Ic|ip link set wlan0 up}}, oppure si visualizza
+
when performing {{ic|ip link set wlan0 up}} OR
 
  prism54: Your card/socket may be faulty, or IRQ line too busy :(
 
  prism54: Your card/socket may be faulty, or IRQ line too busy :(
in {{Ic|dmesg}}, la causa può essere il caricamento simultaneo del vecchio modulo del kernel {{Ic|prism54}} e dei più recenti {{Ic|p54pci}} o {{Ic|p54usb}}, e quindi in contrapposizione tra loro per aggiudicarsi l'IRQ. Utilizzare il comando {{Ic|lsmod | grep prism54}} per vedere se viene effettivamente caricato il modulo deprecato, nel qual caso bisognerà bloccarne il caricamento aggiungendolo in [[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Blacklist|blacklist]]. Ci sono diversi modi per farlo, descritti in altre sezioni del wiki. Una volta aggiunto alla blacklist, si dovrà probabilmente rinominare il firmware {{Ic|prism54}} e {{Ic|p54pci}}/{{Ic|p54usb}} a seconda dei differenti nomi dei file firmware (ricontrollare {{Ic|dmesg}} dopo aver eseguito {{Ic|ip link set eth0 up}}).
+
appears in {{ic|dmesg}}'s output this may be because you have both the deprecated kernel module {{ic|prism54}} and one of the newer kernel modules ({{ic|p54pci}} or {{ic|p54usb}}) loaded at the same time and they are fighting over ownership of the IRQ. Use the command {{ic|<nowiki>lsmod | grep prism54</nowiki>}} to see if the deprecated module is being loaded. If so, you need to stop {{ic|prism54}} from loading by [[blacklisting]] it (there are several ways to do this which are described elsewhere). Once blacklisted, you may find you have to rename the firmware as {{ic|prism54}} and {{ic|p54pci}}/{{ic|p54usb}} look for different firmware filenames (i.e. recheck the {{ic|dmesg}} output after performing {{ic|ip link set eth0 up}}).
  
=====ACX100/111=====
+
==== ACX100/111 ====
Installate innanzitutto i pacchetti: {{Ic|tiacx}} {{Ic|tiacx-firmware}}
+
  
Il driver dovrebbe dirvi di quale firmware ha bisogno: controllate {{ic|/var/log/messages.log}} oppure usate il comando {{Ic|dmesg}}.
+
Packages: {{ic|tiacx}} {{ic|tiacx-firmware}}
  
Spostate quindi il firmware corretto nella cartella {{ic|/lib/firmware}}:
+
The driver should tell you which firmware it needs; check {{ic|/var/log/messages.log}} or use the {{ic|dmesg}} command.
ln -s /usr/share/tiacx/acx111_2.3.1.31/tiacx111c16 /lib/firmware
+
  
Un altro modo di determinare quale numero di revisione del firmware utilizzare, è vedere la sezione [http://acx100.sourceforge.net/wiki/Firmware "Which firmware"] del wiki acx100.sourceforge. Per ACX100, è possibile seguire i link forniti, e convergenti ad una tabella di modelli di schede. "firmware noto per funzionare"; si può capire il numero rev. di cui si ha bisogno, guardando il suffisso. Es. una dlink_dwl650+ usa "1.9.8.b", nel qual caso si farebbe questo:
+
Link the appropriate firmware to {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware}}:
 +
ln -s /usr/share/tiacx/acx111_2.3.1.31/tiacx111c16 /usr/lib/firmware
 +
 
 +
For another way to determine which firmware revision number to use, see the [http://acx100.sourceforge.net/wiki/Firmware "Which firmware" section] of the acx100.sourceforge wiki. For ACX100, you can follow the links provided there to a table of card model numbers vs. "firmware files known to work"; you can figure out the rev. number you need, by looking at the suffix there. For example, a dlink_dwl650+ uses "1.9.8.b", in which case you would do this:
 
  ln -s /usr/share/tiacx/acx100_1.9.8.b/* /usr/lib/firmware
 
  ln -s /usr/share/tiacx/acx100_1.9.8.b/* /usr/lib/firmware
  
Se pensate che questo driver riempia di messaggi inutili il vostro kernel log, ad esempio se state utilizzando Kismet con il channel-hopping, potete mettere questa opzione nel file {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf}}:
+
If you find that the driver is spamming your kernel log, for example because you are running Kismet with channel-hopping, you could put this in {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf}}:
 
  options acx debug=0
 
  options acx debug=0
  
{{Nota|Il driver open-source {{Ic|acx}} non supporta la criptazione WPA/RSN. Ndiswrapper dovrà essere utilizzato con il driver di Windows per abilitare la crittografia avanzata. Vedere ndiswrapper per maggiori informazioni.}}
+
{{Note|The open-source {{ic|acx}} driver does not support WPA/RSN encryption. Ndiswrapper will have to be used with the Windows driver to enable the enhanced encryption. See ndiswrapper, this page, for more details.}}
  
=====zd1211rw=====
+
==== zd1211rw ====
[http://zd1211.wiki.sourceforge.net/ {{Ic|'''zd1211rw'''}}] è il driver per il chipset ZyDAS ZD1211 802.11b/g USB WLAN ed è incluso nelle recenti versioni del kernel Linux. Vedere [http://www.linuxwireless.org/en/users/Drivers/zd1211rw/devices] per una lista delle schede supportate. Avrete solo bisogno di installare il firmware appropriato per la scheda, contenuto nel pacchetto {{Pkg|zd1211-firmware}}.
+
  
=====carl9170=====
+
[http://zd1211.wiki.sourceforge.net/ {{ic|zd1211rw}}] is a driver for the ZyDAS ZD1211 802.11b/g USB WLAN chipset, and it is included in recent versions of the Linux kernel. See [http://www.linuxwireless.org/en/users/Drivers/zd1211rw/devices] for a list of supported devices. You only need to [[pacman|install]] the firmware for the device, provided by the {{Pkg|zd1211-firmware}} package.
[http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Drivers/carl9170/ {{Ic|'''carl9170'''}}] è il driver USB 802.11n con firmware GPLv2 per i dispositivi Atheros USB AR9170. Supporta questi [http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Drivers/carl9170#available_devices dispositivi]. Il '''firmware''' non è ancora incluso nel pacchetto {{Ic|linux-firmware}}, ma è disponibile su [[AUR (Italiano)|AUR]] ({{AUR|carl9170-fw}}). Il driver è incluso nel kernel dalla versione 2.6.37.
+
  
E' inoltre necessario inserire in [[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Blacklist|blacklist]] i seguenti moduli:
+
==== carl9170 ====
  
* {{ic|arusb_lnx}}
+
[http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Drivers/carl9170/ {{ic|carl9170}}] is the 802.11n USB driver with GPLv2 firmware for Atheros USB AR9170 devices. It supports these [http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Drivers/carl9170#available_devices devices]. The '''firmware''' is not yet part of the {{Pkg|linux-firmware}} package; it is available in the [[AUR]] ({{AUR|carl9170-fw}}). The '''driver''' is a part of the Linux kernel v2.6.37 and higher.
* {{ic|ar9170usb}}
+
  
=====hostap_cs=====
+
In order to use this driver, the following older driver modules must be [[Kernel_modules#Blacklisting|blacklisted]]:
 +
*{{ic|arusb_lnx}}
 +
*{{ic|ar9170usb}}
  
Host AP è il driver Linux per schede wireless con chipset Prism2/2.5/3 come WCP11. {{Ic|hostap_cs}} dovrebbe essere incluso nel pacchetto {{Ic|linux}} e quindi già installato.
+
==== hostap_cs ====
  
{{Ic|orinico_cs}} può causare problemi, quindi deve essere aggiunto in [[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Blacklist|blacklist]]. Dopodichè il driver dovrebbe funzionare.
+
Host AP is the Linux driver for Prism2/2.5/3 like WCP11. {{ic|hostap_cs}} should be a part of the {{ic|linux}} package and should be installed already.
  
Ulteriori informazioni sul driver possono essere trovate [http://hostap.epitest.fi/ qui].
+
{{ic|orinico_cs}} can cause problems, so it must be [[Kernel_modules#Blacklisting|blacklisted]]. After blacklisting, the driver should work.
  
====ndiswrapper====
+
See [http://hostap.epitest.fi/ official site] for more information.
  
Ndiswrapper è un wrapper che permette di utilizzare alcuni dei driver di Windows sotto Linux. L'elenco dei dispositivi supportati è reperibile [http://ndiswrapper.sourceforge.net/mediawiki/index.php/List qui]. Saranno necessari i files {{ic|.inf}} e {{ic|.sys}} del driver di Windows. Assicurarsi di scegliere il driver adatto all'architettura in uso ({{ic|x86}} o {{ic|x86_64}}).
+
=== ndiswrapper ===
  
{{Suggerimento|Se si ha la necessità di estrarre questi files da un {{ic|.exe}}, è possibile utilizzare {{Pkg|cabextract}}.}}
+
Ndiswrapper is a wrapper script that allows you to use some Windows drivers in Linux. See the compatibility list [http://ndiswrapper.sourceforge.net/mediawiki/index.php/List here]. You will need the {{ic|.inf}} and {{ic|.sys}} files from your Windows driver. Be sure to use drivers appropriate to your architecture ({{ic|x86}} vs. {{ic|x86_64}}).
  
Per installare ndiswrapper è necessario seguire questi passi:
+
{{Tip|If you need to extract these files from an {{ic|*.exe}} file, you can use {{Pkg|cabextract}}.}}
  
1. Installare i driver in {{ic|/etc/ndiswrapper/*}}
+
Follow these steps to configure ndiswrapper.
 +
 
 +
1. Install the driver to {{ic|/etc/ndiswrapper/*}}
 
  ndiswrapper -i filename.inf
 
  ndiswrapper -i filename.inf
2. Elencare tutti i driver installati per ndiswrapper
+
2. List all installed drivers for ndiswrapper
 
  ndiswrapper -l
 
  ndiswrapper -l
3. Scrivere i file di configurazione in {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/ndiswrapper.conf}}
+
3. Write configuration file in {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/ndiswrapper.conf}}
 
  ndiswrapper -m
 
  ndiswrapper -m
 
  depmod -a
 
  depmod -a
  
Ora che l'installazione di ndiswrapper è quasi finita, si segua [[Kernel modules (Italiano)#Caricamento]] per caricare automaticamente il modulo al boot.
+
Now the ndiswrapper install is almost finished; follow the instructions on [[Kernel modules#Loading]] to automatically load the module at boot.
  
L'importante è semplicemente che ndiswrapper sia presente nella lista dei moduli da caricare. Salvato il file, sarà utile (per non dover riavviare subito) caricare manualmente il modulo con il comando:
+
The important part is making sure that ndiswrapper exists on this line, so just add it alongside the other modules. It would be best to test that ndiswrapper will load now, so:
 
  modprobe ndiswrapper
 
  modprobe ndiswrapper
 
  iwconfig
 
  iwconfig
  
dovremmo vedere presente il device ''wlan0''. Se avete problemi, consultate il [http://ndiswrapper.sourceforge.net/joomla/index.php?/component/option,com_openwiki/Itemid,33/id,installation/ wiki d'installazione Ndiswrapper].
+
and ''wlan0'' should now exist. Check this page if you are having problems:
 +
[http://ndiswrapper.sourceforge.net/joomla/index.php?/component/option,com_openwiki/Itemid,33/id,installation/ Ndiswrapper installation wiki].
  
====compat-drivers-patched====
+
=== compat-drivers-patched ===
  
{{Out of date|{{Aur|compat-drivers-patched}} ha raggiunto il termine del suo ciclo di sviluppo. Si utilizzi al suo posto il pacchetto {{Aur|backports-patched}}, reperibile su [[Arch User Repository (Italiano)|AUR]].}}
+
{{Out of date|{{AUR|compat-drivers-patched}} has reached end-of-life, {{AUR|backports-patched}} should be used instead}}
  
Il pacchetto "compat-drivers-patched" corregge il problema del "canale fisso -1", fornendo al contempo una migliore funzionalità. Installare il pacchetto {{AUR|compat-drivers-patched}} da [[Arch User Repository|AUR]].
+
Patched compat wireless drivers correct the "fixed-channel -1" issue, whilst providing better injection. Please install the {{AUR|compat-drivers-patched}} package from the [[Arch User Repository|AUR]].
  
{{AUR|compat-wireless-patched}} non va in conflitto con nessun altro pacchetto e i moduli compilati risiedono in {{ic|/usr/lib/modules/''versione-kernel''/updates}}.
+
{{AUR|compat-drivers-patched}} does not conflict with any other package and the modules built reside in {{ic|/usr/lib/modules/''your_kernel_version''/updates}}.
  
Questi driver con patch incluse provengono da [http://wireless.kernel.org/ Linux Wireless project] e supportano molti dei chip menzionati sopra, tra i quali:
+
These patched drivers come from the [http://wireless.kernel.org/ Linux Wireless project] and support many of the above mentioned chips such as:
  
 
  ath5k ath9k_htc carl9170 b43 zd1211rw rt2x00 wl1251 wl12xx ath6kl brcm80211
 
  ath5k ath9k_htc carl9170 b43 zd1211rw rt2x00 wl1251 wl12xx ath6kl brcm80211
  
Gruppi supportati:
+
Supported groups:
  
 
  atheros ath iwlagn rtl818x rtlwifi wl12xx atlxx bt
 
  atheros ath iwlagn rtl818x rtlwifi wl12xx atlxx bt
  
È anche possibile compilare un modulo o driver specifico appartenente ad un gruppo di driver modificando il [[PKGBUILD]], decommentando la '''riga #46'''. Ecco un esempio di compilazione del gruppo Atheros:
+
It is also possible to build a specific module/driver or a group of drivers by editing the [[PKGBUILD]], particularly uncommenting the '''line #46'''. Here is an example of building the atheros group:
  
 
  scripts/driver-select atheros
 
  scripts/driver-select atheros
  
Leggere accuratamente le istruzioni del [[PKGBUILD]] per qualsiasi altre possibile modifica prima della compilazione e installazione.
+
Please read the package's [[PKGBUILD]] for any other possible modifications prior to compilation and installation.
 +
 
 +
== See also ==
  
==Link utili==
+
* [http://wireless.kernel.org/ The Linux Wireless project]
*[http://madwifi-project.org/wiki/UserDocs/FirstTimeHowTo Il metodo per installare MadWifi secondo i suoi autori], utile se avete problemi ad installarlo tramite il metodo-Arch
+
* [http://aircrack-ng.org/doku.php?id=install_drivers Aircrack-ng guide on installing drivers]

Revision as of 21:59, 6 August 2013

Summary help replacing me
A complete guide to enabling and configuring wireless networking.
Overview
Template:Networking overview
Related
Network Configuration
Software Access Point
Ad-hoc networking
Internet Share

Configuring wireless is a two-part process; the first part is to identify and ensure the correct driver for your wireless device is installed (they are available on the installation media, so make sure you install them), and to configure the interface. The second is choosing a method of managing wireless connections. This article covers both parts, and provides additional links to wireless management tools.

Device driver

The default Arch Linux kernel is modular, meaning many of the drivers for machine hardware reside on the hard drive and are available as modules. At boot, udev takes an inventory of your hardware and loads appropriate modules (drivers) for your corresponding hardware, which will in turn allow creation of a network interface.

Some wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. Many firmware images are provided by the linux-firmware package which is installed by default, however, proprietary firmware images are not included and have to be installed separately. This is described in #Installing driver/firmware.

Note:
  • Udev is not perfect. If the proper module is not loaded by udev on boot, simply load it manually. Note also that udev may occasionally load more than one driver for a device, and the resulting conflict will prevent successful configuration. Be sure to blacklist the unwanted module.
  • The interface name for different drivers and chipsets will vary. Some examples are wlan0, eth1, and ath0. See also Network Configuration#Device names.
Tip: Though not strictly required, it's a good idea to first install user-space tools mentioned in #Manual setup, especially when some problem should appear.

Check the driver status

To check if the driver for your card has been loaded, check the output of lspci -k command. You should see that some kernel driver is in use, for example:

$ lspci -k
06:00.0 Network controller: Intel Corporation WiFi Link 5100
	Subsystem: Intel Corporation WiFi Link 5100 AGN
	Kernel driver in use: iwlwifi
	Kernel modules: iwlwifi
Note: The internal Wi-Fi card in some laptops may actually be a USB device, so you should check these commands too:
  • lsusb -v
  • dmesg | grep usbcore, you should see something like usbcore: registered new interface driver rtl8187 in the output

Also check the output of ip link command to see if a wireless interface (e.g. wlan0, wlp2s1, ath0) was created. Then bring the interface up with ip link set <interface> up. For example, assuming the interface is wlan0:

# ip link set wlan0 up

If you get this error message: SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory, it most certainly means your wireless chipset requires a firmware to function.

Check kernel messages for firmware being loaded

$ dmesg |grep firmware
[   7.148259] iwlwifi 0000:02:00.0: loaded firmware version 39.30.4.1 build 35138 op_mode iwldvm

The relevant dmesg output should be prefixed by the module autodetected for the hardware, which can further help in identifying issues.

If the kernel module is successfully loaded and the interface is up, you can skip the next section.

Installing driver/firmware

Check the following lists to discover if your card is supported:

  • The Ubuntu Wiki has a good list of wireless cards and whether or not they are supported either in the Linux kernel or by a user-space driver (includes driver name).
  • Linux Wireless Support and The Linux Questions' Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) also have a good database of kernel-friendly hardware.
  • The kernel page additionally has a matrix of supported hardware.

If your wireless card is listed above, follow the #Troubleshooting drivers and firmware subsection of this page, which contains information about installing drivers and firmware of some specific wireless cards. Then check the driver status again.

If your wireless card is not listed above, it is likely supported only under Windows (some Broadcom, 3com, etc). For these, you can try to use ndiswrapper. See #ndiswrapper for details.

Wireless management

Assuming that your drivers are installed and working properly, you will need to choose a method of managing your wireless connections. The following subsections will help you decide.

Procedure and tools required will depend on several factors:

  • The desired nature of configuration management; from a completely manual command line procedure to an automated solution with graphical front-ends.
  • The encryption type (or lack thereof) which protects the wireless network.
  • The need for network profiles, if the computer will frequently change networks (such as a laptop).
Tip:
  • Whatever is your choice, you should try to connect using the manual method first. This will help you understand the different steps that are required and troubleshoot possible problems.
  • If possible (e.g. if you manage your Wi-Fi access point), try connecting with no encryption, to check everything works. Then try using encryption, either WEP (simple to configure, but crackable in a matter of seconds), WPA or WPA2.

Management methods

The following table shows the different methods that can be used to activate and manage a wireless network connection, depending on the encryption and management types, and the various tools that are required. Although there may be other possibilities, these are the most frequently used:

Management No encryption/WEP WPA/WPA2 PSK
Manual iproute2 + iwconfig + dhcpcd/iproute2 iproute2 + iwconfig + wpa_supplicant + dhcpcd/iproute2
Automatically managed, with network profiles support netctl, Wicd, NetworkManager, etc.

More choice guide:

Management Auto connect at boot Auto connect if dropped
or changed location
support 3G Modem GUI Console tools
Netctl Yes Yes - Yes netctl
Wicd Yes Yes - Yes wicd-curses
NetworkManager +
network-manager-applet
Yes Yes Yes Yes nmcli

Manual setup

The package wireless_tools provides basic set of tools for managing wireless connection, however, these tools are deprecated in favor of the iw tool. If iw does not work with your card, you can use wireless_tools, table below should draw a parallel between the tools (see [1] for more examples). Additionally, the wpa_supplicant package is required for WPA/WPA2 encryption. These powerful user-space tools work extremely well and allow complete manual control of wireless connection.

Note:
  • Examples in this section assume that your wireless device is wlan0 to connect to your_essid wifi accesspoint. Replace both accordingly.
  • Note that most of the commands have to be executed with root permissions. Executed with normal user rights, some of the commands (e.g. iwlist), will exit without error but not produce the correct output either, which can be confusing.
iw command wireless_tools command Description
iw dev wlan0 link iwconfig wlan0 Getting link status.
iw dev wlan0 scan iwlist wlan0 scan Scanning for available access points.
iw wlan0 set type ibss iwconfig wlan0 mode ad-hoc Setting the operation mode to ad-hoc.
iw wlan0 connect your_essid iwconfig wlan0 essid your_essid Connecting to open network.
iw wlan0 connect your_essid 2432 iwconfig wlan0 essid your_essid freq 2432M Connecting to open network specifying channel.
iw wlan0 connect your_essid key 0:your_key iwconfig wlan0 essid your_essid key your_key Connecting to WEP encrypted network using hexadecimal key.
iw wlan0 connect your_essid key 0:your_key iwconfig wlan0 essid your_essid key s:your_key Connecting to WEP encrypted network using ASCII key.
iw dev wlan0 set power_save on iwconfig wlan0 power on Enabling power save.
Note: Depending on your hardware and encryption type, some of these steps may not be necessary. Some cards are known to require interface activation and/or access point scanning before being associated to an access point and being given an IP address. Some experimentation may be required. For instance, WPA/WPA2 users may try to directly activate their wireless network from step #Association.

Getting some useful information

Tip: See official documentation of the iw tool for more examples.
  • First you need to find the name of wireless interface. You can do it with following command:
$ iw dev
phy#0
	Interface wlan0
		ifindex 3
		wdev 0x1
		addr 12:34:56:78:9a:bc
		type managed
		channel 1 (2412 MHz), width: 40 MHz, center1: 2422 MHz
  • To check link status, use following command. Example output when not connected to an AP:
$ iw dev wlan0 link
Not connected.

When connected to an AP, you will see something like:

$ iw dev wlan0 link
Connected to 12:34:56:78:9a:bc (on wlan0)
	SSID: MyESSID
	freq: 2412
	RX: 33016518 bytes (152703 packets)
	TX: 2024638 bytes (11477 packets)
	signal: -53 dBm
	tx bitrate: 150.0 MBit/s MCS 7 40MHz short GI

	bss flags:	short-preamble short-slot-time
	dtim period:	1
	beacon int:	100
  • You can get statistic information, such as the amount of tx/rx bytes, signal strength etc., with following command:
$ iw dev wlan0 station dump
Station 12:34:56:78:9a:bc (on wlan0)
	inactive time:	1450 ms
	rx bytes:	24668671
	rx packets:	114373
	tx bytes:	1606991
	tx packets:	8557
	tx retries:	623
	tx failed:	1425
	signal:  	-52 dBm
	signal avg:	-53 dBm
	tx bitrate:	150.0 MBit/s MCS 7 40MHz short GI
	authorized:	yes
	authenticated:	yes
	preamble:	long
	WMM/WME:	yes
	MFP:		no
	TDLS peer:	no

Interface activation

(Optional, but may be required)

Some cards require that the kernel interface be activated before you can use the iw tool or wireless_tools:

# ip link set wlan0 up
Note: If you get errors like RTNETLINK answers: Operation not possible due to RF-kill, make sure that hardware switch is on. Also, your wireless network card may be soft-blocked. Try getting rfkill and running rfkill list all to check.

Access point discovery

See what access points are available:

# iw dev wlan0 scan | less
Note: If it displays "Interface doesn't support scanning" then you probably forgot to install the firmware. In some cases this message is also displayed when not running iw as root.

The important points to check:

  • ESSID: the "name" of the access point.
  • Quality: in general try something above 40/70.
  • Encryption key: if it is "on", check if you can see any line regarding
    • WEP, WPA, or RSN. Note that RSN and WPA2 are different names for the protocol.
    • Group cipher: value in TKIP, CCMP, both, others.
    • Pairwise ciphers: value in TKIP, CCMP, both, others. Not necessarily the same value than Group cipher.
    • Authentication Suites: value in PSK, 802.1x, others. For home router, you'll usually find PSK (i.e. passphrase). In universities, you are more likely to find 802.1x suite which requires login and password. Then you will need to know which key management is in use (e.g. EAP), and what encapsulation it uses (e.g. PEAP). Find more details at Wikipedia:Authentication protocol and the sub-articles.

Operating mode

(Optional, but may be required)

At this step you might need to set the proper operating mode of the wireless card. More specifically, if you are going to connect an ad-hoc network, you need to set the operating mode to ad-hoc:

# iw wlan0 set type ibss
Note: Changing the operating mode on some cards might require the wireless interface to be down (ip link set wlan0 down).

Association

Depending on the encryption, you need to associate your wireless device with the access point to use and pass the encryption key.

  • No encryption
# iw wlan0 connect your_essid
  • WEP

using a hexadecimal or ASCII key:

# iw wlan0 connect your_essid key 0:your_key

using a hexadecimal or ASCII key, specifying the third set up key as default (keys are counted from zero):

# iw wlan0 connect your_essid key d:2:your_key
  • WPA/WPA2

You need to edit the /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf file as described in WPA_Supplicant and according to what you got from #Access point discovery. Then, issue this command:

# wpa_supplicant -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf

This is assuming your device uses the wext driver. If this does not work, you may need to adjust these options. If connected successfully, continue in a new terminal (or quit wpa_supplicant with Template:Keypress and add the -B switch to the above command to run it in the background). WPA_Supplicant contains more information and troubleshooting.

Regardless of the method used, you can check if you have associated successfully:

# iw dev wlan0 link

Getting an IP address

Note: See Network Configuration#Configure the IP address for more examples. This part is identical.

Finally, provide an IP address to the network interface. Simple examples are:

# dhcpcd wlan0

for DHCP, or

# ip addr add 192.168.0.2/24 dev wlan0
# ip route add default via 192.168.0.1

for static IP addressing.

Note: If you get a timeout error due to a waiting for carrier problem, then you might have to set the channel mode to auto for the specific device:
# iwconfig wlan0 channel auto

Before changing the channel to auto, make sure your wireless interface (in this case wlan0) is down. After it has successfully changed it, you can again bring the interface up and continue from there.

Custom startup scripts/services

Although the manual configuration method will help troubleshoot wireless problems, you will have to re-type every command each time you reboot. You can also quickly write a shell script to automate the whole process, which is still a quite convenient way of managing network connection while keeping full control over your configuration. You can find some examples in this section.

Manual wireless connection at boot using systemd and dhcpcd

This example uses systemd for start up, and dhcpcd and WPA supplicant for connecting.

Create a systemd unit, e.g /etc/systemd/system/network@.service:

/etc/systemd/system/network@.service
[Unit]
Description=Network Connectivity (%i)
Wants=network.target
Before=network.target
BindsTo=sys-subsystem-net-devices-%i.device
After=sys-subsystem-net-devices-%i.device

[Service]
Type=oneshot
RemainAfterExit=yes
EnvironmentFile=/etc/conf.d/network
ExecStart=/usr/bin/ip link set dev %i up
ExecStart=/usr/bin/wpa_supplicant -B -i %i -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
ExecStart=/usr/bin/dhcpcd %i

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

Enable the unit and start it, passing the name of the interface:

# systemctl enable network@wlp0s26f7u3.service
# systemctl start network@wlp0s26f7u3.service
Systemd with wpa_supplicant and static IP

Create configuration file for systemd unit:

/etc/conf.d/network
address=192.168.0.10
netmask=24
broadcast=192.168.0.255
gateway=192.168.0.1

Make sure that wpa_supplicant is installed and create /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf. See WPA supplicant for details.

/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=network
update_config=1
network={
        ssid="My-Wireless"
        psk=b705a6bfcd5639d5c40cd972cd4048cfb94572987f30d324c82036317b91a138
}

Create a systemd unit file:

/etc/systemd/system/network@.service
[Unit]
Description=Network Connectivity (%i)
Wants=network.target
Before=network.target
BindsTo=sys-subsystem-net-devices-%i.device
After=sys-subsystem-net-devices-%i.device

[Service]
Type=oneshot
RemainAfterExit=yes
EnvironmentFile=/etc/conf.d/network
ExecStart=/usr/bin/ip link set dev %i up
ExecStart=/usr/bin/wpa_supplicant -B -i %i -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
ExecStart=/usr/bin/ip addr add ${address}/${netmask} broadcast ${broadcast} dev %i
ExecStart=/usr/bin/ip route add default via ${gateway}
ExecStop=/usr/bin/ip addr flush dev %i
ExecStop=/usr/bin/ip link set dev %i down

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

Enable the unit and start it, passing the name of the interface:

# systemctl enable network@wlp0s26f7u3.service
# systemctl start network@wlp0s26f7u3.service

Automatic setup

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: There's no mention of connman. (Discuss in Talk:Wireless network configuration#)

There are many solutions to choose from, but remember that all of them are mutually exclusive; you should not run two daemons simultaneously.

Netctl

netctl is a replacement for netcfg designed to work with systemd. It uses a profile based setup and is capable of detection and connection to a wide range of network types. This is no harder than using graphical tools.

See: Netctl

Wicd

Wicd is a network manager that can handle both wireless and wired connections. It is written in Python and Gtk with fewer dependencies than NetworkManager, making it an ideal solution for lightweight desktop users. Wicd is available in the official repositories.

See: Wicd

Note: wicd may cause excessive dropped connections with some drivers, while NetworkManager might work better.

NetworkManager

NetworkManager is an advanced network management tool that is enabled by default in most popular GNU/Linux distributions. In addition to managing wired connections, NetworkManager provides worry-free wireless roaming with an easy-to-use GUI program for selecting your desired network.

If you do not use GNOME but use a window manager like Openbox or xmonad, do not forget to install polkit-gnome, gnome-keyring, libgnome-keyring, and pyxdg to manage WEP, WPA, and WPA2 connections.

See: NetworkManager

Note: GNOME's network-manager-applet also works under Xfce if you install xfce4-xfapplet-pluginAUR (available in the AUR) first. Additionally, there are applets available for KDE.

WiFi Radar

WiFi Radar is a Python/PyGTK2 utility for managing wireless profiles (and only wireless). It enables you to scan for available networks and create profiles for your preferred networks.

See: Wifi Radar

wlassistant

wlassistant is a very intuitive and straight-forward GUI application for managing your wireless connections.

Install the wlassistantAUR package from the AUR.

wlassistant must be run with root privileges:

# wlassistant

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: References /etc/rc.conf which is deprecated and does not give clear instructions for configuration outside of /etc/rc.conf. (Discuss in Talk:Wireless network configuration#)

One method of using wlassistant is to configure your wireless card within /etc/rc.conf, specifying the access point you use most often. On start-up, your card will automatically be configured for this ESSID, but if other wireless networks are needed/available, wlassistant can then be invoked to access them. Background the network daemon in /etc/rc.conf, by prefixing it with a @ to avoid boot-up delays.

Power saving

See Power saving#Network interfaces.

Troubleshooting

This section contains general troubleshooting tips, not strictly related to problems with drivers or firmware. For such topics, see next section.

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: Commands in following subsections need updating according to wireless_tools -> iw transition. (Discuss in Talk:Wireless network configuration#)

Failed to get IP address

If getting an IP address repeatedly fails using the default dhcpcd client, try installing and using dhclient instead. Do not forget to select dhclient as the primary DHCP client in your connection manager!

If you can get an IP address for a wired interface and not for a wireless interface, try disabling the wireless card's power saving features:

# iwconfig wlan0 power off

Connection always times out

The driver may suffer from a lot of tx excessive retries and invalid misc errors for some unknown reason, resulting in a lot of packet loss and keep disconnecting, sometimes instantly. Following tips might be helpful.

Lowering the rate

Try setting lower rate, for example 5.5M:

# iwconfig wlan0 rate 5.5M auto

Fixed option should ensure that the driver does not change the rate on its own, thus making the connection a bit more stable:

# iwconfig wlan0 rate 5.5M fixed

Lowering the txpower

You can try lowering the transmit power as well. This may save power as well:

# iwconfig wlan0 txpower 5

Valid settings are from 0 to 20, auto and off.

Setting rts and fragmentation thresholds

Default iwconfig options have rts and fragmentation thresholds off. These options are particularly useful when there are many adjacent APs or in a noisy environment.

The minimum value for fragmentation value is 256 and maximum is 2346. In many windows drivers the maximum is the default value:

# iwconfig wlan0 frag 2346

For rts minimum is 0, maximum is 2347. Once again windows drivers often use maximum as the default:

# iwconfig wlan0 rts 2347

Random disconnections

Cause #1

If dmesg says wlan0: deauthenticating from MAC by local choice (reason=3) and you lose your Wi-Fi connection, it is likely that you have a bit too aggressive power-saving on your Wi-Fi card[2]. Try disabling the wireless card's power-saving features:

# iwconfig wlan0 power off

See Power saving for tips on how to make it permanent (just specify off instead of on).

If your card does not support iwconfig wlan0 power off, check the BIOS for power management options. Disabling PCI-Express power management in the BIOS of a Lenovo W520 resolved this issue.

Cause #2

If you are experiencing frequent disconnections and dmesg shows messages such as

ieee80211 phy0: wlan0: No probe response from AP xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx after 500ms, disconnecting

try changing the channel bandwidth to 20MHz through your router's settings page.

Troubleshooting drivers and firmware

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: This section may contain old information about modules that are now in kernel and work fine. (Discuss in Talk:Wireless network configuration#)

This section covers methods and procedures for installing kernel modules and firmware for specific chipsets, that differ from generic method.

See Kernel modules for general informations on operations with modules.

Ralink

rt2x00

Unified driver for Ralink chipsets (it replaces rt2500, rt61, rt73, etc). This driver has been in the Linux kernel since 2.6.24, you only need to load the right module for the chip: rt2400pci, rt2500pci, rt2500usb, rt61pci or rt73usb which will autoload the respective rt2x00 modules too.

A list of devices supported by the modules is available at the project's homepage.

rt2860 and rt2870

From Linux kernel 3.0, the staging driver rt2860sta is replaced by the mainline driver rt2800pci, and rt2870sta is replaced by rt2800usb. As a result, the staging drivers are deleted. Source: Kernel commit. The rt2800 driver automatically works with devices using the rt2870 chipset.

It has a wide range of options that can be configured with iwpriv. These are documented in the source tarballs available from Ralink.

rt3090

For devices which are using the rt3090 chipset it should be possible to use rt2860sta driver. The mainline driver rt2800pci is not working with this chipset very well (e.g. sometimes it's not possible to use higher rate than 2Mb/s).

The best way is to use the rt3090AUR driver from AUR. Compile the rt3090AUR driver from AUR, delete/move the /etc/Wireless/RT2860STA/RT2860STA.dat firmware file to allow installation of the compiled RT3090 package, blacklist the rt2860sta module and setup the rt3090sta module to load at boot.

Note: This driver also works for rt3062 chipsets.

rt3290

The rt3290 chipset is recognised by the kernel rt2800pci module. However, some users experience problems and reverting to a patched Ralink driver seems to be beneficial in these cases.

rt3573

New chipset as of 2012. It may require proprietary drivers from Ralink. Different manufacturers use it, see Belkin N750 example

rt5572

New chipset as of 2012 with support for 5 Ghz bands. It may require proprietary drivers from Ralink and some effort to compile them. At the time of writing a how-to on compilation is available for a DLINK DWA-160 rev. B2 here.

Realtek

rtl8192cu

The driver is now in the kernel, but many users have reported being unable to make a connection although scanning for networks does work.

The dkms-8192cuAUR package in the AUR may be a better choice for some users.

rtl8192e

The driver is part of the current kernel package. The module initialization may fail at boot giving this error message:

rtl819xE:ERR in CPUcheck_firmware_ready()
rtl819xE:ERR in init_firmware() step 2
rtl819xE:ERR!!! _rtl8192_up(): initialization is failed!
r8169 0000:03:00.0: eth0: link down

A workaround is to simply unload the module:

# modprobe -r r8192e_pci

and reload the module (after a pause):

# modprobe r8192e_pci

rtl8192s

The driver is part of the current kernel package. Firmware may need to be added manually if /usr/lib/firmware/RTL8192SU/rtl8192sfw.bin does not exist. (dmesg will report "rtl819xU:FirmwareRequest92S(): failed" if the firmware is missing)

To download and install firmware:

$ wget http://launchpadlibrarian.net/33927923/rtl8192se_linux_2.6.0010.1012.2009.tar.gz
# mkdir /lib/firmware/RTL8192SU
# tar -xzOf rtl8192se_linux_2.6.0010.1012.2009.tar.gz \
 rtl8192se_linux_2.6.0010.1012.2009/firmware/RTL8192SE/rtl8192sfw.bin > \
 /lib/firmware/RTL8192SU/rtl8192sfw.bin
Note: An alternate version of the firmware may be found here, but this version may cause dropped connections.

Atheros

madwifi-ng

There are three modules maintained by the MadWifi team:

  • ath_pci is the older driver.
  • ath5k will eventually phase out ath_pci. Currently a better choice for some chipsets, but not all chipsets are supported (see below)
  • ath9k is the new, official, superior driver for newer Atheros hardware (see below)

For old ath_pci driver, install package madwifiAUR and optionally madwifi-utils-svnAUR. Then:

# modprobe ath_pci

If using ath_pci, you may need to blacklist ath5k. See Kernel_modules#Blacklisting for instructions.

Some users may need to use the countrycode option when loading the MadWifi driver in order to use channels and transmit power settings that are legal in their country/region. In the Netherlands, for example, you would load the module like this:

# modprobe ath_pci countrycode=528

You can verify the settings with the iwlist command. See man iwlist and the CountryCode page on the MadWifi wiki. To have this setting automatically applied during boot, refer to Kernel_modules#Configuration, and note the following module option setting:

options ath_pci countrycode=528

See The MadWifi project's method of installing if you are having trouble after reading this article.

ath5k

ath5k is the preferred driver for AR5xxx chipsets including those which are already working with madwifi-ng and for some chipsets older than AR5xxx.

If ath5k is conflicting with ath_pci on your system, blacklist (and unload using rmmod or reboot) the following drivers:

ath_hal
ath_pci
ath_rate_amrr
ath_rate_onoe
ath_rate_sample
wlan
wlan_acl
wlan_ccmp
wlan_scan_ap
wlan_scan_sta
wlan_tkip
wlan_wep
wlan_xauth

then modprobe ath5k manually or reboot. wlan0 (or wlanX) in sta mode should spawn and become ready to use.

If the device is unable to lease an IP after being loaded, try modprobe ath5k nohwcrypt=1. See below for details about the nohwcrypt option.

Info:

Note: Some laptop have problems with their wireless LED indicator flickering red and blue. To solve this problem, do:
echo none > "/sys/class/leds/ath5k-phy0::tx/trigger"
echo none > "/sys/class/leds/ath5k-phy0::rx/trigger"
For alternatives, look here.
Note: If you find web pages randomly loading very slow in Firefox/Opera/Chromium, or if the adapter has problems leasing an IP, try to switch from hardware to software encryption:
rmmod ath5k
modprobe ath5k nohwcrypt

And restart your connection. If it helps, make the change permanent by adding into /etc/modprobe.d/010-ath5k.conf:

options ath5k nohwcrypt
More about modprobe options: Modprobe#Options

ath9k

ath9k is Atheros' officially supported driver for the newer 802.11n chipsets. All of the chips with 802.11n capabilities are supported, with a maximum throughput around 180 Mbps. To see a complete list of supported hardware, check this page.

Working modes: Station, AP and Adhoc.

ath9k has been part of the Linux kernel as of v2.6.27. (In the unlikely event that you have stability issues that trouble you, you could try using the compat-wireless package. An ath9k mailing list exists for support and development related discussions.)

Info:

ath9k_htc

ath9k_htc is Atheros' officially supported driver for 802.11n USB devices. Station and Ad-Hoc modes are supported. The driver is included in the kernel. For more information, see http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Drivers/ath9k_htc .

Intel

ipw2100 and ipw2200

These modules are fully supported in the kernel, but they require additional firmware. Depending on which of the chipsets you have, install either ipw2100-fw or ipw2200-fw. Then reload the appropriate module.

Tip: You may use the following module options:
  • use the rtap_iface=1 option to enable the radiotap interface
  • use the led=1 option to enable a front LED indicating when the wireless is connected or not

iwl3945, iwl4965 and iwl5000-series

Intel's open source Wi-Fi drivers for Linux (See iwlwifi) will work for both the 3945 and 4965 chipsets since kernel 2.6.24. And iwl5000-series chipsets (including 5100BG, 5100ABG, 5100AGN, 5300AGN and 5350AGN) have been supported since kernel 2.6.27, by the in-tree driver iwlagn.

Loading the Driver

udev should load the driver automatically, otherwise load iwl3945 or iwl4965 manually. See Kernel modules#Loading for details.

Disabling LED blink

The default settings on the module are to have the LED blink on activity. Some people find this extremely annoying. To have the LED on solid when Wi-Fi is active:

# echo 'w /sys/class/leds/phy0-led/trigger - - - - phy0radio' > /etc/tmpfiles.d/phy0-led.conf
# systemd-tmpfiles --create phy0-led.conf

To see all the possible trigger values for this LED:

# cat /sys/class/leds/phy0-led/trigger

Here is an example for the old way, if you do not have /sys/class/leds/phy0-led:

# echo "options iwlcore led_mode=1" >> /etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf
# rmmod iwlagn
# rmmod iwlcore
# modprobe iwlcore
# modprobe iwlagn

On Linux kernels 2.6.39.1-1 and up, the iwlcore module was deprecated. Use options iwlagn led_mode=1 or options iwl_legacy led_mode=1 instead (find out what module is loaded with lsmod).

Note: iwl_legacy was renamed iwlegacy in Linux kernel 3.3.1. For this version, use options iwlegacy led_mode=1.
Other Notes
  • By default, iwl3945 is configured to only work with networks on channels 1-11. Higher frequency bands are not allowed in some parts of the world (e.g. the US). In the EU however, channels 12 and 13 are used quite commonly (and Japan allows for channel 14). To make iwl3945 scan for all channels, add options cfg80211 ieee80211_regdom=EU to /etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf. With iwlist frequency you can check which channels are allowed.
  • If you want to enable more channels on Intel Wifi 5100 (and quite possible other cards too), you can do that with the crda package. After installing the package, edit /etc/conf.d/wireless-regdom and uncomment the line where your country code is found. When executing iwlist wlan0 channel, you should now have access to more channels (depending on your location).

Broadcom

See Broadcom wireless.

Other drivers/devices

Tenda w322u

Treat this Tenda card as an rt2870sta device. See: rt2870

orinoco

This should be a part of the kernel package and be installed already.

Note: Some Orinoco chipsets are Hermes I/II. You can use the AUR package wl_lkmAUR to replace the orinoco driver and gain WPA support. See this post for more information.

To use the driver, blacklist orinoco_cs, and then add wlags49_h1_cs.

prism54

Download the firmware driver for your appropriate card from this site. Rename the firmware file to isl3890. If non-existent, create the directory /usr/lib/firmware and move the file isl3890 inside it. This should do the trick. [3]

If that did not work, try this:

  • Reload the prism module (modprobe p54usb or modprobe p54pci, depending on your hardware)

Alternatively, remove your Wi-Fi card and then reconnect it.

  • Use the dmesg command, and look at the end of the output it prints out.

Look for a section similar to this:

firmware: requesting isl3887usb_bare
p54: LM86 firmware
p54: FW rev 2.5.8.0 - Softmac protocol 3.0

and try renaming the firmware file to the name corresponding to the part bolded here.

If you get the message

SIOCSIFFLAGS: Operation not permitted

when performing ip link set wlan0 up OR

prism54: Your card/socket may be faulty, or IRQ line too busy :(

appears in dmesg's output this may be because you have both the deprecated kernel module prism54 and one of the newer kernel modules (p54pci or p54usb) loaded at the same time and they are fighting over ownership of the IRQ. Use the command lsmod | grep prism54 to see if the deprecated module is being loaded. If so, you need to stop prism54 from loading by blacklisting it (there are several ways to do this which are described elsewhere). Once blacklisted, you may find you have to rename the firmware as prism54 and p54pci/p54usb look for different firmware filenames (i.e. recheck the dmesg output after performing ip link set eth0 up).

ACX100/111

Packages: tiacx tiacx-firmware

The driver should tell you which firmware it needs; check /var/log/messages.log or use the dmesg command.

Link the appropriate firmware to /usr/lib/firmware:

ln -s /usr/share/tiacx/acx111_2.3.1.31/tiacx111c16 /usr/lib/firmware

For another way to determine which firmware revision number to use, see the "Which firmware" section of the acx100.sourceforge wiki. For ACX100, you can follow the links provided there to a table of card model numbers vs. "firmware files known to work"; you can figure out the rev. number you need, by looking at the suffix there. For example, a dlink_dwl650+ uses "1.9.8.b", in which case you would do this:

ln -s /usr/share/tiacx/acx100_1.9.8.b/* /usr/lib/firmware

If you find that the driver is spamming your kernel log, for example because you are running Kismet with channel-hopping, you could put this in /etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf:

options acx debug=0
Note: The open-source acx driver does not support WPA/RSN encryption. Ndiswrapper will have to be used with the Windows driver to enable the enhanced encryption. See ndiswrapper, this page, for more details.

zd1211rw

zd1211rw is a driver for the ZyDAS ZD1211 802.11b/g USB WLAN chipset, and it is included in recent versions of the Linux kernel. See [4] for a list of supported devices. You only need to install the firmware for the device, provided by the zd1211-firmware package.

carl9170

carl9170 is the 802.11n USB driver with GPLv2 firmware for Atheros USB AR9170 devices. It supports these devices. The firmware is not yet part of the linux-firmware package; it is available in the AUR (carl9170-fwAUR). The driver is a part of the Linux kernel v2.6.37 and higher.

In order to use this driver, the following older driver modules must be blacklisted:

  • arusb_lnx
  • ar9170usb

hostap_cs

Host AP is the Linux driver for Prism2/2.5/3 like WCP11. hostap_cs should be a part of the linux package and should be installed already.

orinico_cs can cause problems, so it must be blacklisted. After blacklisting, the driver should work.

See official site for more information.

ndiswrapper

Ndiswrapper is a wrapper script that allows you to use some Windows drivers in Linux. See the compatibility list here. You will need the .inf and .sys files from your Windows driver. Be sure to use drivers appropriate to your architecture (x86 vs. x86_64).

Tip: If you need to extract these files from an *.exe file, you can use cabextract.

Follow these steps to configure ndiswrapper.

1. Install the driver to /etc/ndiswrapper/*

ndiswrapper -i filename.inf

2. List all installed drivers for ndiswrapper

ndiswrapper -l

3. Write configuration file in /etc/modprobe.d/ndiswrapper.conf

ndiswrapper -m
depmod -a

Now the ndiswrapper install is almost finished; follow the instructions on Kernel modules#Loading to automatically load the module at boot.

The important part is making sure that ndiswrapper exists on this line, so just add it alongside the other modules. It would be best to test that ndiswrapper will load now, so:

modprobe ndiswrapper
iwconfig

and wlan0 should now exist. Check this page if you are having problems: Ndiswrapper installation wiki.

compat-drivers-patched

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Reason: compat-drivers-patchedAUR has reached end-of-life, backports-patchedAUR should be used instead (Discuss in Talk:Wireless network configuration#)

Patched compat wireless drivers correct the "fixed-channel -1" issue, whilst providing better injection. Please install the compat-drivers-patchedAUR package from the AUR.

compat-drivers-patchedAUR does not conflict with any other package and the modules built reside in /usr/lib/modules/your_kernel_version/updates.

These patched drivers come from the Linux Wireless project and support many of the above mentioned chips such as:

ath5k ath9k_htc carl9170 b43 zd1211rw rt2x00 wl1251 wl12xx ath6kl brcm80211

Supported groups:

atheros ath iwlagn rtl818x rtlwifi wl12xx atlxx bt

It is also possible to build a specific module/driver or a group of drivers by editing the PKGBUILD, particularly uncommenting the line #46. Here is an example of building the atheros group:

scripts/driver-select atheros

Please read the package's PKGBUILD for any other possible modifications prior to compilation and installation.

See also