Difference between revisions of "X2Go"

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[[Category:HOWTOs (English)]]
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[[Category:Remote Desktop]]
[[Category:Software (English)]]
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With [http://wiki.x2go.org X2Go] you can access your desktop using another computer -- that means both LAN and internet connections. The transmission is done using the ssh protocol, so it is encrypted. By using the free nx libraries from NoMachine, a very acceptable performance in both speed and responsiveness is achieved. Even an ISDN connection runs smoothly.
== x2go Server and Client ==
+
With x2go you can access your desktop using another computer -- that means both LAN and internet connections. The transmmission is done using the ssh protocol, so it is encrypted. By using the free nx libraries from NoMachine, a very acceptable permformance in both speed and responsiveness is archieved. Even an ISDN-connection runs smoothly.
+
  
This makes it is possible to connect your laptop to any computer with the environment, applications, and performance of the remote desktop. It is also possible to have a bunch of computers connected to one computer (terminal-server, thin-client).
+
This makes it possible to connect your laptop to any computer with the environment, applications, and performance of the remote desktop. It is also possible to have a bunch of computers connected to a single server (terminal-server, thin-client).
  
Clients are available for Linux (Qt4 and Gtk), Windows and Mac.  The latter two can be downloaded directly from the x2go homepage.
+
Clients are available for Linux (Qt4), Windows, and Mac.  The latter two can be downloaded directly as binary from the X2Go homepage.
  
=== x2go and Arch Linux ===
+
== X2Go and Arch Linux ==
Arch Linux x2go packages are available in the AUR. Currently the server, and the gtk/qt clients are available. The LDAP based usermanagement suite is not yet finished, nor are tools that make x2go more convenient for use in schools and thin client environments. But work is going on.
+
  
=== Installation and configuration ===
+
Arch Linux X2Go packages are available in the [[official repositories]]. Currently the {{Pkg|x2goserver}} and {{Pkg|x2goclient}} are available. The LDAP based usermanagement suite is not yet finished, nor are tools that make X2Go more convenient for use in schools and thin client environments.
'''Configuring the Server'''<br>
+
a) Install the x2goserver package.  In order to do this, one must build x2goagent first.  This is only tricky because x2goagent requires the compiled sources of nxcomp, nxcompext, and nxcompshad to be available to it. After building each of the dependancies, make sure the src directories available in the following directory structure:
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./nxcomp/src
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./nxcompext/src
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./nxcompshad/src
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./x2goagent (this is the one you build at the moment)
+
  
Given a working X-server plus Desktop-Environment (e.g. KDE) or window
+
== Installation and configuration ==
manager, you have to do the following:
+
  
b) Install the ssh-daemon using
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=== Configuring the Server ===
pacman -Sy openssh
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====Install the x2goserver package:====
/etc/rc.d/sshd start
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Install {{Pkg|x2goserver}} from the [[official repositories]].
  
If the TCP-wrapper is active (see /etc/hosts.deny or
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====Install the ssh-daemon:====
/etc/hosts.allow), you have to include sshd there. To have sshd
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# pacman -S openssh
started at boot time, you also have to put it into the daemeons line in
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# systemctl start sshd.service
/etc/rc.conf, e.g.
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DAEMONS=(... network ... sshd ...)
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To have sshd started at boot time:
  
c) Load the fuse module to let the client access the directory in read
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# systemctl enable sshd.service
and write mode on the server.
+
  
modeprobe fuse
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====Load the fuse module:====
 +
This makes it possible for the server to access files on the client computer.
  
To have this module loaded at boot time, you also have to put it into
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# modprobe fuse
the MODULES line in /etc/rc.conf, e.g.
+
  
d) Some users or groups have to get the rights to run a program as
+
To have this module loaded at boot time, you also have to put it into the MODULES line in /etc/rc.conf, e.g.
root.
+
  
pacman -Sy sudo
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====Initialize the SQL database (and start the SQL server):====
visudo
+
  
An example for an entry in this file for all members of the group
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You can choose to use either Postgres or SQLite database, the latter does not need a running server.
users:
+
  
%users ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/x2gopgwrapper
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Initialize SQLite db:
 +
x2godbadmin --createdb
  
e) Initialize the SQL database and start the SQL server
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Start the x2goserver:
 +
# systemctl start x2goserver.service
  
/etc/rc.d/postgresql start
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If you want to have the X2Go server started at boot time:
  
This creates internally used tables of PostgreSQL. Now the x2go database
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# systemctl enable x2goserver.service
and its tables are created this way:
+
  
cd /usr/lib/x2go
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====Check SSH daemon configuration to allow non-English session:====
./x2gocreatebase.sh
+
  
The SQL-server and the x2goserver have to be restarted:
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If you are using other than POSIX (C) locale, you may want to add the following line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
  
  /etc/rc.d/postgresql restart
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  # Allow client to pass locale environment variables
  /etc/rc.d/x2goserver start
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  AcceptEnv LANG LC_*
  
If you want to have this services started at boot time,,
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Then restart the daemon (as root):
include them in the DAEMONS line in /etc/rc.conf
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# systemctl restart sshd.service
  
DAEMONS=(... network ... sshd ... postgresql ... x2goserver)
+
== Configuration of the Client ==
  
'''Configuration of the Client'''<br>
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'''Install the client:'''
  
Install the x2goclient (for qt) or x2goclient-gtk (for gtk)
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{{Pkg|x2goclient}} is available in the [[official repositories]]. It is a Qt GUI app, although you can also check-out the command line options by running
 +
 
 +
x2goclient --help
 +
 
 +
'''Double check ssh'''
  
 
Convince yourself that you can open a ssh-session from the client to
 
Convince yourself that you can open a ssh-session from the client to
Line 89: Line 78:
 
* To prevent you from having the need to keep your public IP address in mind (especially if this changes dynamically) it is advisable to use a dynamic DNS-Service (DynDNS, DynIP). Many routers are preconfigured to be reachable under a name rather than an IP address.
 
* To prevent you from having the need to keep your public IP address in mind (especially if this changes dynamically) it is advisable to use a dynamic DNS-Service (DynDNS, DynIP). Many routers are preconfigured to be reachable under a name rather than an IP address.
  
Enough preliminaries! Now to the x2goclient. Run
+
'''Enough preliminaries! Now to the x2goclient. Run it:'''<br>
 
  x2goclient
 
  x2goclient
This opens the client application. Now you can create several sessions,
+
This opens the client application. You can now create several sessions, which then appear on the right side and can be selected by a mouseclick. Each entry consists of your username on the server, hostname and IP and the port for ssh-connection. Furthermore you can define several speed profiles (coming from modem up to LAN) and the desktop environment you want to start remotely.
which then appears on the right side and can be selected by a mouseclick. Each entry consists
+
of your username on the server, hostname and IP and the port for
+
ssh-connection. Furthermore you can define several speed profiles
+
(coming from modem up to LAN) and the desktop environment you want to
+
start remotely.
+
  
'''Easy made mistakes:''' Do not simply choose the defaults of KDE or Gnome,
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'''Common mistakes:'''<br>
since the executables startkde or startgnome are usually not in the
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Do not simply choose the defaults of KDE or Gnome, since the executables startkde or startgnome are usually not in the PATH when logging in using ssh. Use full paths to startkde or
PATH when logging in using ssh. Use full paths to startkde or
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startgnome. You can also start openbox or another window manager.  
startgnome. You can also start openbox or another window manager.
+
  
You should be asked for your password for your user at the server now
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You should be asked for your password for your user at the server now and after login you will see the X2Go logo for a short time, and -- voila -- the desktop.
and after login you will see the x2go logo for a short time, and --
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voila -- the desktop.
+
  
=== Exchange data between client and server(desktop) ===
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'''Exchange data between client and server(desktop)'''<br>
On the x2goclient (e.g. laptop) local directories could be shared.
+
On the x2goclient (e.g. laptop) local directories could be shared. The server will use fuse and sshfs to access this directory and mount it to a subdirectory media
The server will use fuse and sshfs to access this directory and mount it to a subdirectory media
+
of your home directory on the server. This enables you to have access to laptop data on your server or to exchange files. It is also possible to mount these shares
of your home directory on the server. This enables you to have access
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to laptop data on your server or to exchange files. It is also possible to mount these shares
+
 
automatically at each session start.
 
automatically at each session start.
  
=== To leave a session temorarily ===
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'''To leave a session temporarily'''<br>
Another special feature of x2go is the possibility of suspending a
+
Another special feature of X2Go is the possibility of suspending a session. This means you can leave a session on one client and reopen
session. This means you can leave a session on one client and reopen
+
it  even from another client  at the same point. This can be used to to start a session in the LAN and to reopen it later on a laptop.
it  even from another client  at the same point. This can be used
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The session data are stored and administrated in a postges database on the server in the meanwhile. The state of the sessions is protocolled
to to start a session in the LAN and to reopen it later on a laptop.
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The session data are stored and administrated in a potges databse on
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the server in the meanwhile. The state of the sessions is protocolled
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by a process named x2gocleansessions.
 
by a process named x2gocleansessions.
  
== Outlook ==
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== Various ==
At the moment the package consists mainly of the x2goserver and the
+
 
x2goclient. It is planned to add in near future:
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'''Workaround for failing compositing window manager for remote session'''
* LDAP-Integration. This allow the administration of users, sessions and logins using LDAP. This is an interesting feature for schols or companys. For this purpose there are control programs which integrate themselves into the KDE Control Center.
+
 
* The client for the command line. Furtermore the option to use x2goclient as an login screen for thin clients.
+
This is useful for situations, when the computer running x2gserver is used also for local sessions with e.g. compiz as the window manager. For remote connections with x2goclient, compiz fails to load and metacity should be used instead. The following is for GNOME, but could be modified for other desktop environments. (Getting compiz ready is not part of this how-to.)
* the possibility to use locale devices (CD, floppy, USB-stick) remotely and transparently.  
+
 
 +
Create /usr/local/share/applications/gnome-wm-test.desktop:
 +
 
 +
[Desktop Entry]
 +
Type=Application
 +
Encoding=UTF-8
 +
Name=gnome-wm-test
 +
Exec=/usr/local/bin/gnome-wm-test.sh
 +
NoDisplay=true
 +
 
 +
Create script /usr/local/bin/gnome-wm-test.sh:
 +
 
 +
#!/bin/sh
 +
# Script for choosing compiz when possible, otherwise metacity
 +
# Proper way to use this script is to set the key to mk-gnome-wm
 +
# /desktop/gnome/session/required_components/windowmanager
 +
xdpyinfo 2> /dev/null | grep -q "^ *Composite$" 2> /dev/null
 +
IS_X_COMPOSITED=$?
 +
if [ $IS_X_COMPOSITED -eq 0 ] ; then
 +
    gtk-window-decorator &
 +
    WM="compiz ccp --indirect-rendering --sm-client-id $DESKTOP_AUTOSTART_ID"
 +
else
 +
    WM="metacity --sm-client-id=$DESKTOP_AUTOSTART_ID"
 +
fi
 +
exec bash -c "$WM"
 +
 
 +
Modify the following gconf key to start the session with gnome-wm-test window manager:
 +
 
 +
$ gconftool-2 --type string --set /desktop/gnome/session/required_components/windowmanager "gnome-wm-test"
 +
 
 +
== Future ==
 +
 
 +
At the moment the package consists mainly of the x2goserver and the x2goclient. It is planned to add in near future:  
 +
* LDAP-Integration. This allow the administration of users, sessions and logins using LDAP. This is an interesting feature for schools or companies. For this purpose there are control programs which integrate themselves into the KDE Control Center.
 +
* The option to use x2goclient as a login screen for thin clients.
 +
* The possibility to use local devices (CD, floppy, USB-stick) remotely and transparently.  
  
 
Questions and problems? You could contact me also directly.
 
Questions and problems? You could contact me also directly.
Line 136: Line 147:
  
 
== Links ==
 
== Links ==
 +
 
[http://wiki.archlinux.de/?title=Bild:X2go-1.png Screenshot KDE-Session]
 
[http://wiki.archlinux.de/?title=Bild:X2go-1.png Screenshot KDE-Session]
  

Revision as of 07:52, 13 November 2013

With X2Go you can access your desktop using another computer -- that means both LAN and internet connections. The transmission is done using the ssh protocol, so it is encrypted. By using the free nx libraries from NoMachine, a very acceptable performance in both speed and responsiveness is achieved. Even an ISDN connection runs smoothly.

This makes it possible to connect your laptop to any computer with the environment, applications, and performance of the remote desktop. It is also possible to have a bunch of computers connected to a single server (terminal-server, thin-client).

Clients are available for Linux (Qt4), Windows, and Mac. The latter two can be downloaded directly as binary from the X2Go homepage.

X2Go and Arch Linux

Arch Linux X2Go packages are available in the official repositories. Currently the x2goserver and x2goclient are available. The LDAP based usermanagement suite is not yet finished, nor are tools that make X2Go more convenient for use in schools and thin client environments.

Installation and configuration

Configuring the Server

Install the x2goserver package:

Install x2goserver from the official repositories.

Install the ssh-daemon:

# pacman -S openssh
# systemctl start sshd.service

To have sshd started at boot time:

# systemctl enable sshd.service

Load the fuse module:

This makes it possible for the server to access files on the client computer.

# modprobe fuse

To have this module loaded at boot time, you also have to put it into the MODULES line in /etc/rc.conf, e.g.

Initialize the SQL database (and start the SQL server):

You can choose to use either Postgres or SQLite database, the latter does not need a running server.

Initialize SQLite db:

x2godbadmin --createdb

Start the x2goserver:

# systemctl start x2goserver.service

If you want to have the X2Go server started at boot time:

# systemctl enable x2goserver.service

Check SSH daemon configuration to allow non-English session:

If you are using other than POSIX (C) locale, you may want to add the following line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config:

# Allow client to pass locale environment variables
AcceptEnv LANG LC_*

Then restart the daemon (as root):

# systemctl restart sshd.service

Configuration of the Client

Install the client:

x2goclient is available in the official repositories. It is a Qt GUI app, although you can also check-out the command line options by running

x2goclient --help

Double check ssh

Convince yourself that you can open a ssh-session from the client to the server (host).

ssh YourUsername_onServer@yourhost_or_ip

Within the local network this should not be a problem. The way you connect from beyond your network, lets say the internet, to your comuter at home is a question of how your network is build up. This would go beyond the scope of this article. Therefore here only a few items:

  • A port has to be opened at the router resp. gateway which forwards requests to your server, and there especially to the sshd-port (which normally is 22). To prevent a big part of the portscan attacks it is probably better to have 222 as publicly reachable port.
  • To prevent you from having the need to keep your public IP address in mind (especially if this changes dynamically) it is advisable to use a dynamic DNS-Service (DynDNS, DynIP). Many routers are preconfigured to be reachable under a name rather than an IP address.

Enough preliminaries! Now to the x2goclient. Run it:

x2goclient

This opens the client application. You can now create several sessions, which then appear on the right side and can be selected by a mouseclick. Each entry consists of your username on the server, hostname and IP and the port for ssh-connection. Furthermore you can define several speed profiles (coming from modem up to LAN) and the desktop environment you want to start remotely.

Common mistakes:
Do not simply choose the defaults of KDE or Gnome, since the executables startkde or startgnome are usually not in the PATH when logging in using ssh. Use full paths to startkde or startgnome. You can also start openbox or another window manager.

You should be asked for your password for your user at the server now and after login you will see the X2Go logo for a short time, and -- voila -- the desktop.

Exchange data between client and server(desktop)
On the x2goclient (e.g. laptop) local directories could be shared. The server will use fuse and sshfs to access this directory and mount it to a subdirectory media of your home directory on the server. This enables you to have access to laptop data on your server or to exchange files. It is also possible to mount these shares automatically at each session start.

To leave a session temporarily
Another special feature of X2Go is the possibility of suspending a session. This means you can leave a session on one client and reopen it even from another client at the same point. This can be used to to start a session in the LAN and to reopen it later on a laptop. The session data are stored and administrated in a postges database on the server in the meanwhile. The state of the sessions is protocolled by a process named x2gocleansessions.

Various

Workaround for failing compositing window manager for remote session

This is useful for situations, when the computer running x2gserver is used also for local sessions with e.g. compiz as the window manager. For remote connections with x2goclient, compiz fails to load and metacity should be used instead. The following is for GNOME, but could be modified for other desktop environments. (Getting compiz ready is not part of this how-to.)

Create /usr/local/share/applications/gnome-wm-test.desktop:

[Desktop Entry]
Type=Application
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=gnome-wm-test
Exec=/usr/local/bin/gnome-wm-test.sh
NoDisplay=true

Create script /usr/local/bin/gnome-wm-test.sh:

#!/bin/sh
# Script for choosing compiz when possible, otherwise metacity
# Proper way to use this script is to set the key to mk-gnome-wm
# /desktop/gnome/session/required_components/windowmanager
xdpyinfo 2> /dev/null | grep -q "^ *Composite$" 2> /dev/null
IS_X_COMPOSITED=$?
if [ $IS_X_COMPOSITED -eq 0 ] ; then
    gtk-window-decorator &
    WM="compiz ccp --indirect-rendering --sm-client-id $DESKTOP_AUTOSTART_ID"
else
    WM="metacity --sm-client-id=$DESKTOP_AUTOSTART_ID"
fi
exec bash -c "$WM"

Modify the following gconf key to start the session with gnome-wm-test window manager:

$ gconftool-2 --type string --set /desktop/gnome/session/required_components/windowmanager "gnome-wm-test"

Future

At the moment the package consists mainly of the x2goserver and the x2goclient. It is planned to add in near future:

  • LDAP-Integration. This allow the administration of users, sessions and logins using LDAP. This is an interesting feature for schools or companies. For this purpose there are control programs which integrate themselves into the KDE Control Center.
  • The option to use x2goclient as a login screen for thin clients.
  • The possibility to use local devices (CD, floppy, USB-stick) remotely and transparently.

Questions and problems? You could contact me also directly. GerBra

(Many thanks to Stefan Husmann for translation from archlinux.de wiki)

Links

Screenshot KDE-Session

Screenshot configuration dialog

Project page