Difference between revisions of "Xdg-open"

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[[Category:Desktop environments]]
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#REDIRECT [[Default applications]]
{{lowercase title}}
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'''xdg-open''' is a desktop-independent tool for configuring the [[default applications]] of a user. Many applications invoke the {{ic|xdg-open}} command internally.
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Inside a [[desktop environment]] (e.g. [[GNOME]], [[KDE]], or [[Xfce]]), ''xdg-open'' simply passes the arguments to that desktop environment's file-opener application (''gvfs-open'', ''kde-open'', or ''exo-open'', respectively), which means that the associations are left up to the desktop environment. When no desktop environment is detected (for example when one runs a standalone [[window manager]], e.g. [[Openbox]]), ''xdg-open'' will use its own configuration files.
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== Installation ==
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''xdg-open'' is part of the {{Pkg|xdg-utils}} package available in the [[official repositories]]. ''xdg-open'' is for use inside a desktop session only. It is not recommended to use ''xdg-open'' as root.
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== Configuration ==
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''xdg-open'' uses the configuration file mentioned in [[Default Applications#Using MIME types and desktop entries|Default Applications]]. You can edit this file by using ''xdg-mime''.
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=== Examples ===
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==== get mime type ====
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To get mime type of {{ic|photo.jpg}}:
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{{hc|$ xdg-mime query filetype photo.jpg|
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photo.jpg
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    image/jpeg
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}}
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==== Get default application ====
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To get default ''.desktop'' file starter for {{ic|image/jpeg}} mime type:
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{{hc|$ xdg-mime query default image/jpeg|
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gpicview.desktop;
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}}
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==== Set the default file-browser ====
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To make Thunar the default file browser, i.e. the default application for opening folders:
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$ xdg-mime default Thunar.desktop inode/directory
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==== Set the default PDF viewer ====
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To use {{AUR|xpdf}} as the default PDF viewer:
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$ xdg-mime default xpdf.desktop application/pdf
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==== Set the default browser ====
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To set the default application for {{ic|http(s)://}} links (replace {{ic|''browser.desktop''}} by your browser's ''.desktop'', e.g. {{ic|firefox.desktop}} or {{ic|chromium.desktop}}):
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$ xdg-mime default ''browser.desktop'' x-scheme-handler/http
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$ xdg-mime default ''browser.desktop'' x-scheme-handler/https
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or:
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$ xdg-mime default ''browser.desktop'' text/html
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To test if this was applied successfully, try to open an URL with ''xdg-open'' as follows:
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$ xdg-open https://archlinux.org
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== Drop-in replacements and useful tools ==
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=== xdg-open replacements ===
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{| class="wikitable"
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! Name/Package !! Description !! Based on !! Configuration file
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|-
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| {{AUR|busking-git}} || A simple, regex-based xdg-open replacement. || {{Pkg|perl-file-mimeinfo}} || custom
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|-
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| {{AUR|expro}} || Opens objects in associated applications by matching regular expressions against object name or MIME-type. || {{Pkg|file}} (but alternatives can be configured) || custom
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|-
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| {{AUR|linopen}} || An intelligent and suckless replacement for xdg-open. || {{Pkg|file}} || custom
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|-
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| {{AUR|mimeo}} || Open files by MIME-type or file name using regular expressions. It can be used on its own or through {{AUR|xdg-utils-mimeo}}. || {{Pkg|file}} || standard {{ic|mimeapps.list}} or {{ic|defaults.list}}; custom is optional
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|-
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| {{AUR|mimi-git}} || A working replacement for xdg-open. || {{Pkg|file}} || custom
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|-
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| {{AUR|fyr}} || Manages menus of application launchers, either executables or desktop files. Also opens files and URIs with launchers, desktop files, or applications associated by MIME-type. Can use a wrapper script to replace xdg-open.|| {{Pkg|file}} and/or {{Pkg|perl-file-mimeinfo}}; other alternatives and fallbacks can be configured || XDG standard {{ic|mimeapps.list}} and {{ic|mimeinfo.cache}} (and the older {{ic|defaults.list}}) to determine associations
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|}
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=== run-mailcap ===
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The ''.mailcap'' file format used by the ''mutt'' mail program is way easier to read and write. The {{AUR|run-mailcap}} package from the AUR provides a executable that could be easily symlinked to {{ic|/usr/bin/xdg-open}}, but that parser is unable to handle directories or links. The simplest solution would be to install ''mimeo'' from the AUR too and create a {{ic|/usr/bin/xdg-open}} with the following content:
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#!/bin/sh
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run-mailcap $1 || mimeo $1
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Then use the {{ic|defaults.list}} at {{ic|~/.local/share/applications/}} to associate URLs and folders with applications and the ''.mailcap'' file for normal mimetypes.
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=== mimetype  ===
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''mimetype'' in {{Pkg|perl-file-mimeinfo}} package can display some mimetype-related information about a file.
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For example:
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$ mimetype file.ext
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returns the mimetype of a file,
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$ mimetype -d file.extension
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returns a description of that mimetype.
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=== Environment variables ===
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Some environment variables, such as {{ic|BROWSER}}, {{ic|DE}}, and {{ic|DESKTOP_SESSION}}, will change the behaviour of the default ''xdg-open''. See [[Environment Variables]] for more information.
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== See also ==
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* [[Default Applications]] - Desktop-specific instructions/overview of alternatives to ''xdg-open''
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* [[Environment Variables]]
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Latest revision as of 14:24, 22 May 2016