Difference between revisions of "Xdg user directories"

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(xdg-user-dirs-update: Add revert to English Example from Xfce.)
m (Fix external xdg-user-dirs link - seems like the http to https redirect on freedesktop.org is badly configured.)
 
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[[Category:Desktop environments]]
 
[[Category:Desktop environments]]
User directories are a set of common directories such as downloads directory, music directory, documents directory, and so on. These directories can have special identifying icons and used internally by many applications such as [[GNOME#Nautilus|Nautilus]] and [[Thunar]] to determine where to look for files to be passed to the ''Create Document'' context menu, whereas the desktop directory is used by Xfdesktop to find ''.desktop'' files to be shown on the Desktop.
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[[ja:Xdg ユーザーディレクトリ]]
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{{Related articles start}}
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{{Related|xdg-menu}}
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{{Related|xdg-open}}
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{{Related|XDG Base Directory support}}
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{{Related articles end}}
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User directories are a set of common user directories located within the {{ic|$HOME}} directory, including {{ic|Documents}}, {{ic|Downloads}}, {{ic|Music}}, and {{ic|Desktop}}. Identified by unique icons within a file manager, they will commonly be automatically sourced by numerous programs and applications. {{pkg|xdg-user-dirs}} is a program that will automatically generate these directories. See the [https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/xdg-user-dirs freedesktop.org] website for further information.
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{{Tip|This program will be especially helpful for those who wish to use a file manager to manage their desktop for a [[Window manager]] such as [[Openbox]], as it will also automatically create a {{ic|~/Desktop}} directory.}}
  
 
== Installation ==
 
== Installation ==
[[Pacman|install]] package {{pkg|xdg-user-dirs}} from [[Official Repositories]].
 
  
== Configuration ==
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{{Accuracy|Installing the package does not seem to be necessary in order to e.g. prevent applications from creating directories with unwanted names: creating the files in {{ic|~/.config}} manually should be equally effective. This should be clarified here, but the whole article might need a review.}}
=== The config file ===
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{{ic|xdg-user-dirs}} uses two files for configuration:
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* For all users : {{ic|/etc/xdg/user-dirs.defaults}}.  
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* For one specific user: {{ic|~/.config/user-dirs.dirs}}.
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Its format is as follows:
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[[Install]] the {{pkg|xdg-user-dirs}} package.
  XDG_DIRNAME_DIR="$HOME/Dirname"
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A complete file might contain multiple entries:
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== Creating default directories ==
  
  XDG_DESKTOP_DIR="$HOME/Desktop"
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{{Accuracy|This needs a technical review, as e.g. {{ic|/etc/xdg/user-dirs.defaults}} is installed by the package, obviously not created by a command run by a normal user.}}
  XDG_DOWNLOAD_DIR="$HOME/Downloads"
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  XDG_TEMPLATES_DIR="$HOME/Templates"
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  XDG_PUBLICSHARE_DIR="$HOME/Public"
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  XDG_DOCUMENTS_DIR="$HOME/Documents"
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  XDG_MUSIC_DIR="$HOME/Music"
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  XDG_PICTURES_DIR="$HOME/Pictures"
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  XDG_VIDEOS_DIR="$HOME/Videos"
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Pointing any of the above variables to {{ic|$HOME}} disables the respective directory (it won't be automatically created).
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To create a full suite of localized default user directories within the {{ic|$HOME}} directory, enter the following command:
  
=== xdg-user-dirs-update ===
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$ xdg-user-dirs-update
'''xdg-user-dirs-update''' is a desktop-independent tool for configuring the location of certain user directories. It is run very early in the login phase. This program reads a configuration file, and a set of default directories. It then creates localized versions of these directories in the users home directory and sets up a config file in $(XDG_CONFIG_HOME)/user-dirs.dirs (XDG_CONFIG_HOME defaults to ~/.config) that applications can read to find these directories.
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As an example, command
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{{Tip|To force the creation of English-named directories, {{ic|1=LC_ALL=C xdg-user-dirs-update}} can be used.}}
  
xdg-user-dirs-update --set TEMPLATES ~/.templates
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When executed, it will also automatically:
  
will set the {{ic|template}} directory to the specified directory with respect to the current user's {{ic|$HOME}}:
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* Create a local {{ic|~/.config/user-dirs.dirs}} configuration file: used by applications to find and use home directories specific to an account.
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* Create a global {{ic|/etc/xdg/user-dirs.defaults}} configuration file: used by applications to find and use home directories generally.
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* Create a local {{ic|~/.config/user-dirs.locale}} configuration file: used to set the language according to the locale in use.
  
  XDG_TEMPLATES_DIR="$HOME/.templates"
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== Creating custom directories ==
  
If you want to revert to English, run the following:
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Both the local {{ic|~/.config/user-dirs.dirs}} and global {{ic|/etc/xdg/user-dirs.defaults}} configuration files use the following environmental variable format to point to user directories: {{ic|1=XDG_DIRNAME_DIR="$HOME/directory_name}}"  An example configuration file will/may likely look like this (these are all the template directories):
$ LC_ALL=C xdg-user-dirs-update
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== xdg-user-dir ==
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XDG_DESKTOP_DIR="$HOME/Desktop"
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XDG_DOCUMENTS_DIR="$HOME/Documents"
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XDG_DOWNLOAD_DIR="$HOME/Downloads"
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XDG_MUSIC_DIR="$HOME/Music"
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XDG_PICTURES_DIR="$HOME/Pictures"
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XDG_PUBLICSHARE_DIR="$HOME/Public"
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XDG_TEMPLATES_DIR="$HOME/.Templates"
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XDG_VIDEOS_DIR="$HOME/Videos"
  
Once set, any user directory can be viewed with {{ic|xdg-user-dir}}. For example:
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As {{pkg|xdg-user-dirs}} will source the local configuration file to point to the appropriate user directories, it is therefore possible to specify custom folders. For example, if a custom folder for the {{ic|XDG_DOWNLOAD_DIR}} variable has named {{ic|1=$HOME/Internet}} in {{ic|~/.config/user-dirs.dirs}} any application that uses this variable will use this directory.
  
$ xdg-user-dir TEMPLATES
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{{Note|Like with many configuration files, local settings override global settings. It will also be necessary to create any new custom directories.}}
  
will show the template directory, which of course corresponds to the {{ic|XDG_TEMPLATES_DIR}} variable in the config file.
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Alternatively, it is also possible to specify custom folders using the command line.  For example, the following command will produce the same results as the above configuration file edit:
  
== External Resource ==
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$ xdg-user-dirs-update --set DOWNLOAD ~/Internet
* [http://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/xdg-user-dirs xdg-user-dirs] - freedesktop.org
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== Querying configured directories ==
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Once set, any user directory can be viewed with {{pkg|xdg-user-dirs}}. For example, the following command will specify the location of the {{ic|Templates}} directory, which of course corresponds to the {{ic|XDG_TEMPLATES_DIR}} variable in the local configuration file:
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$ xdg-user-dir TEMPLATES

Latest revision as of 07:07, 15 February 2016

User directories are a set of common user directories located within the $HOME directory, including Documents, Downloads, Music, and Desktop. Identified by unique icons within a file manager, they will commonly be automatically sourced by numerous programs and applications. xdg-user-dirs is a program that will automatically generate these directories. See the freedesktop.org website for further information.

Tip: This program will be especially helpful for those who wish to use a file manager to manage their desktop for a Window manager such as Openbox, as it will also automatically create a ~/Desktop directory.

Installation

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: Installing the package does not seem to be necessary in order to e.g. prevent applications from creating directories with unwanted names: creating the files in ~/.config manually should be equally effective. This should be clarified here, but the whole article might need a review. (Discuss in Talk:Xdg user directories#)
Install the xdg-user-dirs package.

Creating default directories

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: This needs a technical review, as e.g. /etc/xdg/user-dirs.defaults is installed by the package, obviously not created by a command run by a normal user. (Discuss in Talk:Xdg user directories#)

To create a full suite of localized default user directories within the $HOME directory, enter the following command:

$ xdg-user-dirs-update
Tip: To force the creation of English-named directories, LC_ALL=C xdg-user-dirs-update can be used.

When executed, it will also automatically:

  • Create a local ~/.config/user-dirs.dirs configuration file: used by applications to find and use home directories specific to an account.
  • Create a global /etc/xdg/user-dirs.defaults configuration file: used by applications to find and use home directories generally.
  • Create a local ~/.config/user-dirs.locale configuration file: used to set the language according to the locale in use.

Creating custom directories

Both the local ~/.config/user-dirs.dirs and global /etc/xdg/user-dirs.defaults configuration files use the following environmental variable format to point to user directories: XDG_DIRNAME_DIR="$HOME/directory_name" An example configuration file will/may likely look like this (these are all the template directories):

XDG_DESKTOP_DIR="$HOME/Desktop"
XDG_DOCUMENTS_DIR="$HOME/Documents"
XDG_DOWNLOAD_DIR="$HOME/Downloads"
XDG_MUSIC_DIR="$HOME/Music"
XDG_PICTURES_DIR="$HOME/Pictures"
XDG_PUBLICSHARE_DIR="$HOME/Public"
XDG_TEMPLATES_DIR="$HOME/.Templates"
XDG_VIDEOS_DIR="$HOME/Videos"

As xdg-user-dirs will source the local configuration file to point to the appropriate user directories, it is therefore possible to specify custom folders. For example, if a custom folder for the XDG_DOWNLOAD_DIR variable has named $HOME/Internet in ~/.config/user-dirs.dirs any application that uses this variable will use this directory.

Note: Like with many configuration files, local settings override global settings. It will also be necessary to create any new custom directories.

Alternatively, it is also possible to specify custom folders using the command line. For example, the following command will produce the same results as the above configuration file edit:

$ xdg-user-dirs-update --set DOWNLOAD ~/Internet

Querying configured directories

Once set, any user directory can be viewed with xdg-user-dirs. For example, the following command will specify the location of the Templates directory, which of course corresponds to the XDG_TEMPLATES_DIR variable in the local configuration file:

$ xdg-user-dir TEMPLATES