Difference between revisions of "Xfce (日本語)"

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[[uk:Xfce]]
 
[[uk:Xfce]]
 
[[zh-CN:Xfce]]
 
[[zh-CN:Xfce]]
{{Article summary start|概要}}
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{{Related articles start (日本語)}}
{{Article summary text|Xfce は、Unix ライクのオペレーティングシステム向けの軽量なデスクトップ環境です。動作が軽快で軽量であることを目標としている一方、視覚的にも魅力的でユーザフレンドリでもあります。この記事は、インストールと設定、そしてトラブルシューティングまでをカバーしています。}}
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{{Related2|Desktop Environment (日本語)|デスクトップ環境}}
{{Article summary text|Xfce は [[GTK+ (日本語)|GTK+]] ツールキットを使用しています。}}
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{{Related2|Display Manager (日本語)|ディスプレイマネージャ}}
{{Article summary heading|概観}}
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{{Related2|Window Manager (日本語)|ウィンドウマネージャ}}
{{Article summary text|{{Graphical user interface overview (日本語)}}}}
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{{Related|Thunar}}
{{Article summary heading|関連項目}}
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{{Related2|GTK+ (日本語)|GTK+}}
{{Article summary wiki|Thunar}}
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{{Related|Autostart applications#Graphical}}
{{Article summary wiki|Autostart applications#Graphical}}
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{{Related articles end}}
{{Article summary end}}
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[http://www.xfce.org/about/ Xfce - About] より:
 
[http://www.xfce.org/about/ Xfce - About] より:
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Another option is to install {{pkg|gnome-settings-daemon}} and {{pkg|gnome-color-manager}} (available in extra). In order to start the calibration from the command line, first do  {{ic|/usr/lib/gnome-settings-daemon/gnome-settings-daemon &}} (note: this might change your keyboard layout and who knows what else, so probably good to do it on a throwaway account), then {{ic|colormgr get-devices}} and look for the "Device ID" line of your monitor. If this is e.g. "xrandr-Lenovo Group Limited", you start calibration with the command {{ic|gcm-calibrate --device "xrandr-Lenovo Group Limited"}}.
 
Another option is to install {{pkg|gnome-settings-daemon}} and {{pkg|gnome-color-manager}} (available in extra). In order to start the calibration from the command line, first do  {{ic|/usr/lib/gnome-settings-daemon/gnome-settings-daemon &}} (note: this might change your keyboard layout and who knows what else, so probably good to do it on a throwaway account), then {{ic|colormgr get-devices}} and look for the "Device ID" line of your monitor. If this is e.g. "xrandr-Lenovo Group Limited", you start calibration with the command {{ic|gcm-calibrate --device "xrandr-Lenovo Group Limited"}}.
{{Note|1=The reason you need gnome-settings-daemon running is because XFCE does not yet have a session component for colord: https://bugzilla.xfce.org/show_bug.cgi?id=8559}}
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{{Note|1=The reason you need gnome-settings-daemon running is because XFCE does not yet have a session component for colord: https://bugzilla.xfce.org/show_bug.cgi?id=8559 . A lightweight daemon, [https://github.com/agalakhov/xiccd xiccd], may (and probably should) be used instead.}}
  
 
See [[ICC Profiles]] for more information.
 
See [[ICC Profiles]] for more information.
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== トラブルシューティング ==
 
== トラブルシューティング ==
 
=== xfce4-power-manager ===
 
=== xfce4-power-manager ===
Power-related [[Wikipedia:Advanced Configuration and Power Interface|ACPI]] events can be configured using [[systemd]] via options from {{ic|/etc/systemd/logind.conf}} to give control to xfce4-power-manager.
+
Power-related [[Wikipedia:Advanced Configuration and Power Interface|ACPI]] events can be configured using [[systemd (日本語)|systemd]] via options from {{ic|/etc/systemd/logind.conf}} to give control to xfce4-power-manager.
  
 
{{hc|/etc/systemd/logind.conf|2=
 
{{hc|/etc/systemd/logind.conf|2=

Revision as of 13:49, 27 November 2013

Template:Related articles start (日本語)

  • デスクトップ環境
  • ディスプレイマネージャ
  • ウィンドウマネージャ
  • Thunar
  • GTK+
  • Autostart applications#Graphical
  • </ul></div>

    Xfce - About より:

    Xfce はモジュール化と再利用性という伝統的な UNIX の哲学を体現しています。そして、現代のデスクトップ環境に期待されている機能をフルに提供する数々のコンポーネントで構成されています。コンポーネントはそれぞれ独立にパッケージ化されており、あなたは利用可能なパッケージ群からパッケージを選択して最適な個人の作業環境を作り出すことができます。

    Xfce は GNOMEKDE などと同じデスクトップ環境です。root window app、ウィンドウマネージャ、ファイルマネージャ、パネルなどのアプリケーションを一通り取り揃えています。Xfce は GTK2 ツールキットを使って書かれており、他の DE と同じように開発環境(ライブラリやデーモンなど)が含まれています。Xfce の特徴は:

    • 他の有名なデスクトップ環境 (KDE, GNOME) に比べて動作が速い。
    • ほとんどの設定は GUI によって行えます、Xfce は設定をユーザーから隠そうとはしません。
    • Xfwm には任意で使えるコンポジタを含んでおり、完全透過を使ったり GPU アクセラレーションを最大限利用できます(ティアリングの解消など)。
    • マルチモニタでもうまく動作します。

    Contents

    インストール

    以下の作業を行う前に、X サーバーがインストールされていて正しく動作することを確認しておいてください。詳しくは Xorg (日本語) を見て下さい。

    Note: Xfce はモジュール化されています。どういうことかというと、あなたは以下のすべてのパートを実行する必要はありませんし、そのいくつかを取捨選択してもよいということです。

    ベースとなる Xfce システムは公式リポジトリから利用できる xfce4 グループでインストールできます。Pacman はインストールするパッケージを選ぶように尋ねますが、Enter を押すことで全てのパッケージをインストールできます。もしパネルプラグイン・通知・システムツールのような追加パッケージをお望みなら、xfce4-goodies グループからインストールできます。.

    Tip:
    • Gamin (FAM の後継) をインストールすることが強く推奨されています。
    • リムーバルディスクのマウントや圧縮ファイルの解凍などの作業は Thunar を使って行うことができます。xfce4-goodies をインストールしないでそうしたことを行いたい場合は、Thunar のページを読んで下さい。

    Xfce を起動しよう

    ブート時に自動で起動させる

    ブート時に Xfce (とデスクトップやウィンドウマネージャ) を起動する方法は2つあります:

    手動で起動する

    Xfce を手動で起動する方法は2つあります:

    • コンソールから直接 startxfce4 を実行する。
    • ~/.xinitrcexec startxfce4 を設定してコンソールから xinitstartx を実行する。詳しくは xinitrc (日本語) を見て下さい。
    Note: Xfce を起動する正しいコマンドは startxfce4 です、直接 xfce4-session を実行しないでください。

    自動マウント

    General Troubleshooting#Session permissions を参照してください。

    シャットダウンや再起動に問題がないのに外部メディアやディスクを自動マウントできない場合は、gvfs をインストールする必要があるかもしれません。リムーバルデバイスのセクションを見て下さい。

    Tips and tricks

    Xfconf 設定

    Xfconf は設定オプションを保存するための XFCE のシステムであり、XFCE の設定のほとんどは Xfconf にある設定を編集することで行います。これらの設定を変更する方法は複数存在します:

    • The most obvious and easiest way is to go to "Settings" in the main menu and select the category you want to customize. However, not all customization options are available this way.
    • A less user-friendly but more general way is to go to
      Main menu -> Settings -> Settings Editor
      where you can see and modify all the customization options. Any settings modified here will take effect immediately. The Settings Editor can also be launched from the command line by invoking xfce4-settings-editor.
    • Customization can be done completely from the command line using the program xfconf-query. See the XFCE online documentation for more information and examples and the rest of this wiki page for more examples. Settings changed here will take effect immediately.
    • The settings are stored in XML files in ~/.config/xfce4/xfconf/xfce-perchannel-xml/ which can be edited by hand. However, changes made here will not take effect immediately.
    • For more information: Xfconf documentation

    パネル

    Xfce panel の背景をカスタマイズする方法

    ~/.gtkrc-2.0 を編集します。 設定ファイルと同じディレクトリ、つまり ~/ に画像ファイルを置かなければならないことに注意してください。画像ファイルへのパスをあなたが指定することはできませんし、もしそうした場合はうまく動かないでしょう。

     style "panel-background" {
       bg_pixmap[NORMAL]        = "foo.bar"
       bg_pixmap[PRELIGHT]      = "foo.bar"
       bg_pixmap[ACTIVE]        = "foo.bar"
       bg_pixmap[SELECTED]      = "foo.bar"
       bg_pixmap[INSENSITIVE]   = "foo.bar"
     }
     widget_class "*Panel*" style "panel-background"
    

    Menu applet replacement

    Whisker Menu is a full-featured replacement for the default Xfce menu applet. Add it to your panel and optionally remove the built-in default menu.

    It is available in the AUR as the xfce4-whiskermenu-pluginAUR package.

    システムメニューからメニューの項目を取り除く方法

    方法 1

    組込みのメニューエディタでは、システムメニューからメニューの項目を取り除くことはできません。メニューの項目を隠してしまう方法:

    1. ターミナル (Xfce menu > System > Terminal) を開き /usr/share/applications フォルダに移動します:
      $ cd /usr/share/applications
    2. このフォルダは .desktop ファイルでいっぱいのはずです。どれだけあるのか見てみましょう。次を入力してください:
      $ ls
    3. NoDisplay=true.desktop ファイルに追加してください。例えば、Firefox を隠したい場合、ターミナルで次のように入力してください:
      # echo "NoDisplay=true" >> firefox.desktop
      このコマンドは .desktop ファイルの一番下に NoDisplay=true を加えます。
    方法 2

    Another method is to copy the entire contents of the global applications directory over to your local applications directory, and then proceed to modify and/or disable unwanted .desktop entries. This will survive application updates that overwrite changes under /usr/share/applications/.

    1. In a terminal, copy everything from /usr/share/applications to ~/.local/share/applications/:
      $ cp /usr/share/applications/* ~/.local/share/applications/
    2. For any entry you wish to hide from the menu, add the NoDisplay=true option:
      $ echo "NoDisplay=true" >> ~/.local/share/applications/foo.desktop

    You can also edit the application's category by editing the .desktop file with a text editor and modifying the Categories= line.

    方法 3

    The third method is the cleanest and recommended in the Xfce wiki.

    Create the file ~/.config/menus/xfce-applications.menu and copy the following in it:

    <!DOCTYPE Menu PUBLIC "-//freedesktop//DTD Menu 1.0//EN"
      "http://www.freedesktop.org/standards/menu-spec/1.0/menu.dtd">
    
    <Menu>
        <Name>Xfce</Name>
        <MergeFile type="parent">/etc/xdg/menus/xfce-applications.menu</MergeFile>
    
        <Exclude>
            <Filename>xfce4-run.desktop</Filename>
    
            <Filename>exo-terminal-emulator.desktop</Filename>
            <Filename>exo-file-manager.desktop</Filename>
            <Filename>exo-mail-reader.desktop</Filename>
            <Filename>exo-web-browser.desktop</Filename>
    
            <Filename>xfce4-about.desktop</Filename>
            <Filename>xfhelp4.desktop</Filename>
        </Exclude>
    
        <Layout>
            <Merge type="all"/>
            <Separator/>
    
            <Menuname>Settings</Menuname>
            <Separator/>
    
            <Filename>xfce4-session-logout.desktop</Filename>
        </Layout>
    
    </Menu>
    

    The <MergeFile> tag includes the default Xfce menu in our file. This is important.

    The <Exclude> tag excludes applications which we do not want to appear in the menu. Here we excluded some Xfce default shortcuts, but you can exclude firefox.desktop or any other application.

    The <Layout> tag defines the layout of the menu. The applications can be organized in folders or however we wish. For more details see the aforementioned Xfce wiki page.

    方法 4

    Alternatively a tool called xame can be used. XAME is a GUI tool written in Gambas designed specifically for editing menu entires in Xfce, it will NOT work in other DEs. XAME is available in the xameAUR package from the AUR. An alternative to XAME that works quite well with Xfce is menulibreAUR.

    /usr/share/applications にアプリケーションが存在しない場合

    アプリケーションによっては、インストールしても /usr/share/applications にファイルが作られません。そういうときはショートカットがこのディレクトリの"他の"ディレクトリで見つかるかもしれません: ~/.local/share/applications/wine/.

    Panel autohide delay

    Add this to ~/.gtkrc-2.0.

     style "xfce-panel-window-style"
     {
       # Time in miliseconds before the panel will unhide on an enter event
       XfcePanelWindow::popup-delay = 225
     
       # Time in miliseconds before the panel will hide on a leave event
       XfcePanelWindow::popdown-delay = 350
     }
     class "XfcePanelWindow" style "xfce-panel-window-style"
    

    Panel at desktop level

    If you want a panel at desktop level (i.e., other windows will stack over it) you need a little hack, ensure you have installed the wmctrl package from the Official Repositories.

    Create a script in ~/.config/xfce4/xfce4-fix-panel with this content and make it executable (you can use chmod 755 xfce4-fix-panel).

    #!/bin/bash
    set -e
    
    function getPanelIdImpl() {
      # get panel id
      PANEL="`wmctrl -l | sed -n -e '/ xfce4-panel$/ s_ .*$__ p' | sed -n -e $1' p'`"
    }
    
    function getPanelId() {
      # eventually await the panel to appear
      getPanelIdImpl $1
      while [ x = x$PANEL ] ;do
        sleep 0.5s
        getPanelIdImpl $1
      done
    }
    
    function putPanelDown() {
      PANEL=""
      getPanelId $1
      wmctrl -i -r $PANEL -b add,below
    }
    
    # call the program with a list of panel numbers as arguments
    # for example, xfce4-fix-panel 1 2 3
    # for the first three panels
    for i in $* ;do
      putPanelDown $i
    done
    

    Once wrote the script, and tested it, you need to auto-execute it at each login. You can use the Session and StartUp -> Application Autostart gui.

    This passage will put your panels at desktop level, but if your panel is sticking to a border the maximized windows will not stack over it. You can enable this behavior with the following command, fortunately you need to do this only once. (change the $ID with the panel number of interest)

    xfconf-query -c xfce4-panel -p /panels/panel-$ID/disable-struts -n -t bool -s true
    

    デスクトップ

    デスクトップアイコンタイトルに透明の背景を使う

    デスクトップアイコンタイトルのデフォルトの白色背景から、何か他の適当なものに変えるためには、GTK の設定ファイルを編集(あるいは、必要があればそのファイルを作成)してください:

    ~/.gtkrc-2.0
    style "xfdesktop-icon-view" {
        XfdesktopIconView::label-alpha = 10
        base[NORMAL] = "#000000"
        base[SELECTED] = "#71B9FF"
        base[ACTIVE] = "#71B9FF"
        fg[NORMAL] = "#fcfcfc"
        fg[SELECTED] = "#ffffff"
        fg[ACTIVE] = "#ffffff"
    }
    widget_class "*XfdesktopIconView*" style "xfdesktop-icon-view"
    

    Hide Selected Partitions

    If you wish to prevent certain partitions or drives appearing on the desktop, you can create a udev rule, for example /etc/udev/rules.d/10-local.rules:

    KERNEL=="sda1", ENV{UDISKS_PRESENTATION_HIDE}="1"
    KERNEL=="sda2", ENV{UDISKS_PRESENTATION_HIDE}="1"
    

    Would show all partitions with the exception of sda1 and sda2 on your desktop. Notice, if you are using udisk2 the above will not work, due to the UDISKS_PRESENTATION_HIDE no longer being supported, instead you must use UDISKS_IGNORE as follows

    KERNEL=="sda1", ENV{UDISKS_IGNORE}="1"
    KERNEL=="sda2", ENV{UDISKS_IGNORE}="1"
    

    Remove Thunar Options from Right-click

    xfconf-query -c xfce4-desktop -v --create -p /desktop-icons/style -t int -s 0
    

    Kill Window Shortcut

    Xfce does not support the kill window shortcut directly, but you can add one with a simple script. Ensure you have the xorg-xkill package installed.

    Create a script in ~/.config/xfce4/killwindow.sh with this content and make it executable (you can use chmod 755 killwindow.sh).

    xkill -id "`xprop -root -notype | sed -n '/^_NET_ACTIVE_WINDOW/ s/^.*# *\|\,.*$//g p'`"
    

    Now associate a shortcut using Settings -> Keyboard to that script.

    Manage Keyboard Shortcuts

    Keyboard shortcuts can be managed with the Xfce Settings Manager application, which is available through the xfce4-settings package and the xfce4 group. The Settings Manager can be started from the application menu (click Settings -> Keyboard) or command line (run xfce4-keyboard-settings). The Xfce Docs include detailed instructions for using the Settings Manager.

    XFWM4

    コンポジタを有効にする

    Xfce には、派手なウィンドウエフェクト、影や透過などのためのオプションを追加するコンポジタが初めから入っています。Window Manager Tweaks の中で有効にすれば、すぐに動きます。/etc/xorg.conf に追加の設定をする必要はありません。設定を有効にして適用するためには以下の場所に行ってください:

    Menu  -->  Settings  -->  Window Manager Tweaks
    
    Tip: Xfwm (Xfce window manager) の内蔵コンポジタはアプリケーションの中でティアリングを起こすことがあります。最小限のエフェクトしかない軽量なコンポジタを使いたい場合は Compton を使って下さい。

    Disable window roll-up

    Tango-edit-clear.pngThis article or section needs language, wiki syntax or style improvements.Tango-edit-clear.png

    Reason: Naked commands are not acceptable wiki content. Prose should be written explaining the problem at hand, how this command solves that problem and whether any alternative solutions exist. (Discuss in Talk:Xfce (日本語)#)
    xfconf-query -c xfwm4 -p /general/mousewheel_rollup -s false
    

    Toggle Automatic Tiling of Windows at Edge of Screen

    XFWM4 has the ability to "tile" a window automatically when it is moved to the edge of the screen by resizing it to fill the top half of the screen. (The official XFCE website says this feature is disabled by default in XFCE 4.10, but it seems to be enabled by default on Arch Linux.) This behavior can be enabled or disabled in Window Manager Tweaks --> Accessibility --> Automatically tile windows when moving toward the screen edge, or:

    xfconf-query -c xfwm4 -p /general/tile_on_move -s false  # To disable
    xfconf-query -c xfwm4 -p /general/tile_on_move -s true   # To enable
    

    セッティングマネージャのためのコマンド

    実行されるコマンドに対する公式のドキュメントは存在していません。なので、/usr/share/applications/ フォルダにある .desktop ファイルを見なければいけません。何が起きようとしているのかを正確に知りたい人のために、その調べる努力を回避するための handy list がここにあります:

    xfce4-accessibility-settings
    xfce4-power-manager-settings
    xfce4-settings-editor
    xfdesktop-settings
    xfce4-display-settings
    xfce4-keyboard-settings
    xfce4-mouse-settings
    xfce4-session-settings
    xfce4-settings-manager
    xfce4-appearance-settings
    xfwm4-settings
    xfwm4-tweaks-settings
    xfwm4-workspace-settings
    orage -p
    

    すべての利用可能なセッティングマネージャのコマンドを見るには、以下のコマンドをターミナルで実行します:

    $ grep '^Exec=' /usr/share/applications/xfce*settings* | sed -e 's_^.*=_ _'
    

    セッション

    自動起動するアプリケーションのカスタマイズ

    Via the Settings Menu

    To launch custom applications when Xfce starts up, click the Applications Menu -> Settings -> Settings Manager and then choose the "Session and Startup" option and click the tab "Application Autostart". You will see a list of programs that get launched on startup. To add an entry, click the "Add" button and fill out the form, specifying the path to an executable you want to run.

    スタートアップスクリプト

    また、この方法を使ってアプリケーションを起動するコマンドラインスクリプトを実行することが可能です。この作業には、必要な環境変数を GUI ランタイムの中に入れてやることが含まれています。

    • /etc/xdg/xfce4/xinitrc ファイルを ~/.config/xfce4/ にコピーします。
    • そして、そのファイルを編集します。例えば、ファイルの中程のどこかに以下のような記述を加えることができます:
    source $HOME/.bashrc
    # start rxvt-unicode server
    urxvtd -q -o -f
    

    Lock the screen

    To lock an Xfce4 session (through xflock4) one of xscreensaver, gnome-screensaver, slock or xlockmore packages needs to be installed.

    Switch between users

    Xfce4 allows this behavior under the 'action buttons' menu item. Currently, gdm, lightdm and, after slight manual intervention, lxdm provide this functionality.

    Manually Modifying XML settings

    It may be useful, especially when upgrading, to manually edit .xml files in the ~/.config/xfce4/xfconf/ folder. For application keyboard shortcuts for example, the file is ~/.config/xfce4/xfconf/xfce-perchannel-xml/xfce4-keyboard-shortcuts.xml. It is faster to copy and paste the XML keys that you want rather than using the GUI.

    Removable Devices

    If you want an icon appearing on your desktop and in Thunar when you plug in external devices, make sure gvfs is installed. You could also need to install gvfs-afc (read this discussion). It is also a good idea to install thunar-volman (already included in the xfce4 base group). Additionally, udisks and a udisks wrapper are recommended if you want to automount optical and external drives easily.

    ルックアンドフィール

    XFCE にテーマを追加する

    1. www.xfce-look.org へと飛んで、左側のナビゲーションバーにある "Themes" をクリックします。気に入ったテーマを見つけたら "Download" をクリックしてください。

    2. ダウンロードした tarball/file があるディレクトリに移動して、 Squeeze/Xarchiver/CLI を使ってそれを展開します。

    3. 展開されたフォルダを /usr/share/themes (すべてのユーザ向けの場合) か ~/.themes (自分だけの場合) に移動させます。/usr/share/themes/abc には、xfwm4 という名前のフォルダがありテーマに含まれている全てのファイルが入ります。

    4. GTK のテーマはここから利用可能です:

    Menu --> Settings --> Appearance
    

    xfwm のテーマはここから選びます:

    Menu --> Settings --> Window Manager
    

    Taming ugly applications

    You may have noticed that by default, some applications do not follow your chosen theme, or when they do, they do so very poorly, with rather ugly, and sometimes difficult-to-use results. For most applications, this is because they use gtk3 or qt instead of gtk2. For instance, some checkboxes in gtk3's default theme do not look like they are checked, when they are. Archlinux does not (and will not) install any pretty gtk3 or qt themes automatically, in accordance with its minimalist philosophy. You will need to beautify these applications yourself. Luckily, this is very easy to do. Consult GTK+#GTK+ 3.x for gtk3 and consult Uniform Look for Qt and GTK Applications for qt.

    カーソル

    次の記事を参照してください: Cursor Themes (日本語)

    If you have alternative X cursor themes installed, Xfce can find them with:

    Menu --> Settings --> Mouse --> Theme
    

    アイコン

    1. First find and download your desired icon pack. Recommended places to download icons from are Customize.org, Opendesktop.org and Xfce-look.org; the AUR provides several PKGBUILDs for icon packs.
    2. Go to the directory where you downloaded the icon pack and extract it. Example tar -xzf /home/user/downloads/icon-pack.tar.gz.
    3. Move the extracted folder containing the icons to ~/.icons (if only you want to use the icons) or to /usr/share/icons (if you want all users on the system to make use of the icons), and in the lattter case consider creating a PKGBUILD for that.
    4. Optional: run gtk-update-icon-cache -f -t ~/.icons/<theme_name> to update icon cache
    5. Switch your icons by going to:
    Menu --> Settings --> Appearance --> Icons
    

    When you have icon theme problems, it is also recommended to install the hicolor-icon-theme package if it was not already installed.

    フォント

    もし標準のフォントが少し太いように思えたり、少しボケてるように思えるなら、 Settings>Appearence を開いて Fonts タブをクリックして、 ヒンティングを Full に変更します。

    また、カスタマイズした DPI の設定を試してみるのもいいかもしれません。

    サウンド

    xfce4-mixer の設定

    xfce4-mixer is the GUI mixer app / panel plugin made by the Xfce team. It is part of the xfce4 group, so you probably already have it installed. Xfce 4.6 uses gstreamer as the backend to control volume, so first you have to make gstreamer cooperate with xfce4-mixer. One or more of the gstreamer plugin packages listed as optional dependencies to xfce4-mixer must be installed. Without one of these required plugins packages, the following error arises when clicking on the mixer panel item.

     GStreamer was unable to detect any sound devices. Some sound system specific GStreamer packages may be missing. It may also be a permissions problem.
    

    (It is probably not a permissions problem. It is no longer required to add audio users to the "audio" group.) Which plugins are needed depends on the hardware. Most people should be fine with gstreamer0.10-base-plugins which can be installed from Official Repositories.

    If the xfce4-mixer panel item was already running before one of the plugins packages was installed, logout and login to see if it worked, or just remove the mixer plugin from the panel and add it again. If that does not work, you might need more or different gstreamer plugins. Try to install package gstreamer0.10-good-plugins or gstreamer0.10-bad-plugins.

    If you had to change the soundcard in the audio mixer, then you should log out and back in to hear sound.

    For further details, for example how to set the default sound card, see Advanced Linux Sound Architecture. Alternatively you can use PulseAudio together with pavucontrol.

    Xfce4-mixer と OSS4

    xfce4-mixer を動かそうと上のセクションを試しても全くうまくいかない場合は、gstreamer0.10-good-plugins を自分自身でコンパイルする必要があります。必要な PKGBUILD と他のファイルを ABS かここからダウンロードしてから、PKGBUILD を編集して --enable-oss を追加してください。

     ./configure --prefix=/usr --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var \
       --enable-oss \
       --disable-static --enable-experimental \
       --disable-schemas-install \
       --disable-hal \
       --with-package-name="GStreamer Good Plugins (Archlinux)" \
       --with-package-origin="https://www.archlinux.org/"
    

    それから、makepkg -i を実行します。

     makepkg -i
    

    他のリンク: OSS forum

    キーボードのボリュームボタンでボリュームを変更する

    Go to

    Settings --> Keyboard
    

    Click the "Application Shortcuts" tab and add click the "Add" button. Add the following by entering the command, then pressing the corresponding button at the next window:

    ALSA

    For the raise volume button:

    amixer set Master 5%+
    

    For the lower volume button:

    amixer set Master 5%-
    

    For the mute button:

    amixer set Master toggle
    

    また、上述のコマンドを標準の XF86Audio キーにセットしてコマンドを実行させることもできます:

    xfconf-query -c xfce4-keyboard-shortcuts -p /commands/custom/XF86AudioRaiseVolume -n -t string -s "amixer set Master 5%+ unmute"
    xfconf-query -c xfce4-keyboard-shortcuts -p /commands/custom/XF86AudioLowerVolume -n -t string -s "amixer set Master 5%- unmute"
    xfconf-query -c xfce4-keyboard-shortcuts -p /commands/custom/XF86AudioMute -n -t string -s "amixer set Master toggle"
    

    もし amixer set Master toggle がうまく動かないなら、PCM チャンネル (amixer set PCM toggle) を代わりに試してみてください。

    このチャンネルは、うまく動かすためにトグルコマンド用の "ミュート" オプションを持っていなければなりません。Master チャンネルがミュートをトグルする機能をサポートしているかどうかチェックするために、ターミナルで alsamixer を実行して、マスターチャンネルの下に二つの M (MM) があるか探してください。もしなければ、ミュートオプションをサポートしていないということです。トグルボタンを変更して PCM チャンネルを使う必要がある場合などは、Xfce の Mixer プロパティで PCM チャンネルが Mixer Track に設定されているかも確認してください。

    OSS

    次のスクリプトのどれか一つを使用します: http://www.opensound.com/wiki/index.php/Tips_And_Tricks#Using_multimedia_keys_with_OSS

    ossvol (推奨) を使っているなら、以下を追加してください:

    ossvol -i 1
    

    ボリュームアップボタン用です。

    ossvol -d 1
    

    ボリュームダウンボタン用です。

    ossvol -t
    

    ミュート/アンミュートボタン用です。

    PulseAudio

    For the raise volume button:

    sh -c "pactl set-sink-mute 0 false ; pactl set-sink-volume 0 +1%"
    

    For the lower volume button:

    sh -c "pactl set-sink-mute 0 false ; pactl -- set-sink-volume 0 -1%"
    

    For the mute button:

    pactl set-sink-mute 0 toggle
    

    These settings assume the device you want to control has index 0. Use pactl list sinks short to list sinks.

    Xfce4-volumed

    xfce4-volumedAUR daemon from the AUR automatically maps volume keys of your keyboard to Xfce-mixer. Additionally you get OSD through Xfce4-notifyd when changing volume. Xfce4-volumed does not need any configuration and is started automatically with Xfce.

    Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

    Reason: There should be a short explanation of what this does and why it fixes the problem (bug?). (Discuss in Talk:Xfce (日本語)#)

    If you use pulseaudio and xfce4-volumed unmute does not work, try this:

    $ xfconf-query -c xfce4-mixer -p /active-card -s `xfconf-query -c xfce4-mixer -p /sound-card`
    
    Volumeicon

    volumeicon is an alternative to xfce4-volumed in the community repo also handling keybindings and notifications through xfce4-notifyd.

    Extra keyboard keys

    If you are coming from another distro, you may be interested in enabling extra keys on your keyboard, see Extra Keyboard Keys.

    Adding startup/boot sound

    Arch does not have a built-in startup sound configuration tool, but there is a workaround by adding the following command to your Application Autostart settings:

    aplay /boot/startupsound.wav
    

    The file location and filename can be whatever you want, but naming it descriptively and putting it in /boot keeps things tidy.

    xdg-open integration (Preferred Applications)

    Most applications rely on xdg-open for opening a preferred application for a given file or URL.

    In order for xdg-open and xdg-settings to detect and integrate with the XFCE desktop environment correctly, you need to install the xorg-xprop package.

    If you do not do that, your preferred applications preferences (set by exo-preferred-applications) will not be obeyed. Installing the package and allowing xdg-open to detect that you are running XFCE makes it forward all calls to exo-open instead, which correctly uses all your preferred applications preferences.

    To make sure xdg-open integration is working correctly, ask xdg-settings for the default web browser and see what the result is:

    # xdg-settings get default-web-browser
    

    If it replies with:

    xdg-settings: unknown desktop environment
    

    it means that it has failed to detect XFCE as your desktop environment, which is likely due to a missing xorg-xprop package.

    スクリーンショット

    XFCE にはスクリーンショットツールがあります、xfce4-screenshooter。これは xfce4-goodies グループに含まれています。

    Print Screen キー

    メニューから:

    XFCE Menu  -->  Settings  -->  Keyboard  >>>  Application Shortcuts.
    

    "xfce4-screenshooter -f" コマンドを追加して "PrintScreen" キーでフルスクリーンのスクリーンショットを撮れるようにしてください。screenshooter の man ページに他にも使える引数の説明があります。

    また、scrot などの独立したスクリーンショットプログラムも使えます。

    Disable Terminal F1 and F11 shortcut

    The xfce terminal binds F1 and F11 to help and fullscreen, respectively, which can make using programs like htop difficult. To disable those shortcuts, create or edit its configuration file, then log out and log back in. F10 can disabled in the Preferences menu.

    ~/.config/xfce4/terminal/accels.scm
    (gtk_accel_path "<Actions>/terminal-window/fullscreen" "")
    (gtk_accel_path "<Actions>/terminal-window/contents" "")
    

    Terminal color themes or pallets

    Terminal color themes or pallets can be changed in GUI under Appearance tab in Preferences. These are the colors that are available to most console applications like Emacs, Vi and so on. Their settings are stored individually for each system user in ~/.config/xfce4/terminal/terminalrc file. There are also so many other themes to choose from. Check forums post [Colour Scheme Screenshots] for hundreds of available choices and themes.

    Changing default color theme

    XFCE's extra/terminal package comes with a darker color palette and colored text looks pretty horrid in default black background impeding user readability. Append the following in your terminalrc file for a lighter color theme, that is always visible in darker Terminal backgrounds.

    ~/.config/xfce4/terminal/terminalrc
    
    ColorPalette5=#38d0fcaaf3a9
    ColorPalette4=#e013a0a1612f
    ColorPalette2=#d456a81b7b42
    ColorPalette6=#ffff7062ffff
    ColorPalette3=#7ffff7bd7fff
    ColorPalette13=#82108210ffff
    

    Terminal tango color theme

    To switch to tango color theme, open with your favorite editor

    ~/.config/xfce4/terminal/terminalrc
    

    And add(replace) these lines:

    ColorForeground=White
    ColorBackground=#323232323232
    ColorPalette1=#2e2e34343636
    ColorPalette2=#cccc00000000
    ColorPalette3=#4e4e9a9a0606
    ColorPalette4=#c4c4a0a00000
    ColorPalette5=#34346565a4a4
    ColorPalette6=#757550507b7b
    ColorPalette7=#060698989a9a
    ColorPalette8=#d3d3d7d7cfcf
    ColorPalette9=#555557575353
    ColorPalette10=#efef29292929
    ColorPalette11=#8a8ae2e23434
    ColorPalette12=#fcfce9e94f4f
    ColorPalette13=#72729f9fcfcf
    ColorPalette14=#adad7f7fa8a8
    ColorPalette15=#3434e2e2e2e2
    ColorPalette16=#eeeeeeeeecec
    

    Colour management

    xfce4-settings-manager does not yet have any colour management / calibration settings, nor is there any specific XFCE program to characterise your monitor.

    Loading a profile

    If you wish to load an icc profile (that you have previously created or downloaded) to calibrate your display on startup, you can download xcalibAUR from AUR, then open the XFCE4 Settings Manager, click Session and Startup icon, the Autostart tab, and add a new entry where the command is /usr/bin/xcalib /path/to/your/profile.icc. You still need to tell your applications, which display profile should be used to have the displayed images colour managed.

    Another option is dispwin. Dispwin not only calibrates the display, but also sets the _ICC_PROFILE atom in X so that some applications can use a "system" display profile instead of requiring the user to set the display profile manually (GIMP, Inkscape, darktable, UFRaw, etc.).

    See ICC Profiles#Loading ICC Profiles for more information.

    Creating a profile

    If you wish to create an icc profile for your display (ie. characterising/profiling, e.g. with the ColorHug, or some other colorimeter, or a spectrophotometer, or "by eye"), the simplest option may be to install dispcalgui from AUR.

    Another option is to install gnome-settings-daemon and gnome-color-manager (available in extra). In order to start the calibration from the command line, first do /usr/lib/gnome-settings-daemon/gnome-settings-daemon & (note: this might change your keyboard layout and who knows what else, so probably good to do it on a throwaway account), then colormgr get-devices and look for the "Device ID" line of your monitor. If this is e.g. "xrandr-Lenovo Group Limited", you start calibration with the command gcm-calibrate --device "xrandr-Lenovo Group Limited".

    Note: The reason you need gnome-settings-daemon running is because XFCE does not yet have a session component for colord: https://bugzilla.xfce.org/show_bug.cgi?id=8559 . A lightweight daemon, xiccd, may (and probably should) be used instead.

    See ICC Profiles for more information.

    Multiple Monitors

    If you have configured X.org so that your display spans multiple monitors, usually when you login to an XFCE session, it will appear as if your monitors are simple clones of one another. You can use an xrandr tool to tweak your setup but if this is not called at an appropriate time in the startup sequence, some functionality may be lost with parts of your display being inaccessible to the mouse pointer.

    A better way is to configure XFCE to match your desired display arrangement. However, at present (xfce-settings 4.10), there is no tool available to assist with configuring multiple monitors directly.

    • The Settings -> Display tool does allow configuration of screen resolution, rotation and enabling individual monitors; warning: using this tool to adjust display settings will reset or lose settings made manually for properties not explicitly offered as buttons in the tool (see below).
    • The Settings -> Settings Editor allows manipulation of all configuration items in particular the displays settings which are saved in the file displays.xml below
    ~/.config/xfce4/xfconf/xfce-perchannel-xml
    
    • Alternatively, the displays.xml can be edited using your favourite editor.

    The main requirement for multiple monitors is their arrangement relative to one another. This can be controlled by setting the Position properties (X and Y) to suit; an (x,y) position of 0,0 corresponds to the top, left position of the monitor array. This is the default position for all monitors and if several monitors are enabled they will appear as a cloned display area extending from this point.

    To extend the display area correctly across both monitors:

    • for side-by-side monitors, set the X property of the rightmost monitor to equal the width of the left-most monitor
    • for above-and-below monitors, set the Y property of the bottom monitor to equal the height of the upper monitor
    • for other arrangements, set the X and Y properties of each monitor to correspond to your layout

    Measurements are in pixels. As an example, a pair of monitors with nominal dimensions of 1920x1080 which are rotated by 90 and placed side-by-side can be configured with a displays.xml like this:

    <channel name="displays" version="1.0">
     <property name="Default" type="empty">
       <property name="VGA-1" type="string" value="Idek Iiyama 23"">
         <property name="Active" type="bool" value="true"/>
         <property name="Resolution" type="string" value="1920x1080"/>
         <property name="RefreshRate" type="double" value="60.000000"/>
         <property name="Rotation" type="int" value="90"/>
         <property name="Reflection" type="string" value="0"/>
         <property name="Primary" type="bool" value="false"/>
         <property name="Position" type="empty">
           <property name="X" type="int" value="0"/>
           <property name="Y" type="int" value="0"/>
         </property>
       </property>
       <property name="DVI-0" type="string" value="Digital display">
         <property name="Active" type="bool" value="true"/>
         <property name="Resolution" type="string" value="1920x1080"/>
         <property name="RefreshRate" type="double" value="60.000000"/>
         <property name="Rotation" type="int" value="90"/>
         <property name="Reflection" type="string" value="0"/>
         <property name="Primary" type="bool" value="false"/>
         <property name="Position" type="empty">
           <property name="X" type="int" value="1080"/>
           <property name="Y" type="int" value="0"/>
         </property>
       </property>
     </property>
    </channel>
    

    Usually, editing settings in this way requires a logout/login to action them.

    A new method for configuring multiple monitors will be available in the forthcoming xfce-settings 4.12 release.

    XDG User Directories

    freedesktop.org specifies the "well known" user directories like the desktop folder and the music folder. See Xdg user directories for detailed info.

    SSH Agents

    By default Xfce 4.10 will try to load gpg-agent or ssh-agent in that order during session initialization. To disable this, create an xfconf key using the following command:

    xfconf-query -c xfce4-session -p /startup/ssh-agent/enabled -n -t bool -s false
    

    To force using ssh-agent even if gpg-agent is installed, run the following instead:

    xfconf-query -c xfce4-session -p /startup/ssh-agent/type -n -t string -s ssh-agent
    

    To use GNOME Keyring, simply tick the checkbox Launch GNOME services on startup in the Advanced tab of Session Manager in Xfce's settings. This will also disable gpg-agent and ssh-agent.

    Source: http://docs.xfce.org/xfce/xfce4-session/advanced

    トラブルシューティング

    xfce4-power-manager

    Power-related ACPI events can be configured using systemd via options from /etc/systemd/logind.conf to give control to xfce4-power-manager.

    /etc/systemd/logind.conf
    HandlePowerKey=ignore
    HandleSuspendKey=ignore
    HandleHibernateKey=ignore
    HandleLidSwitch=ignore

    This also solves the problem when the computer registers multiple suspend events.

    xfce4 keeps blanking display

    Xfce4 (as of 4.12) does not seem to respect monitor power settings in xfce4-power-manager. It attempts to run the screensaver every 10 minutes. You can check this by reading out the output of $ xset q. Run $ xset s noblank to stop it. Alternatively add the following configuration file to /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/ ( I would save it as 20-noblank.conf).

    Section "ServerFlags"
    	Option "BlankTime" "0"
    EndSection
    

    xfce4-xkb-plugin

    There is a bug in version xfce4-xkb-plugin 0.5.4.1-1 which causes xfce4-xkb-plugin to lose keyboard, layout switching and compose key settings. As a workaround you may enable Use system defaults option in keyboard settings. To do so run

    xfce4-keyboard-settings
    

    Go to Layout tab and set the Use system defaults flag, then reconfigure xfce4-xkb-plugin.

    Locales ignored with GDM

    Add your locale to /var/lib/AccountsService/users/$USER (replace hu_HU.UTF-8 with your own locale):

    [User]
    Language=hu_HU.UTF-8
    XSession=xfce
    

    You may also do it with sed. Note the backslash before .UTF-8:

    # sed -i 's/Language=.*/Language=hu_HU\.UTF-8/' /var/lib/AccountsService/users/$USER
    

    Restart GDM to take effect.

    デフォルトの設定をリストアする

    何らかの理由でデフォルトの設定に戻す必要があるなら、~/.config/xfce4-session/~/.config/xfce4/ をリネームしてみてください:

    $ mv ~/.config/xfce4-session/ ~/.config/xfce4-session-bak
    $ mv ~/.config/xfce4/ ~/.config/xfce4-bak
    

    ログアウトしてログインすると、変更の影響が現れます。ログイン時に "Unable to load a failsafe session" という名前の付いたエラーウィンドウが表示される場合は、セッションエラーのセクションを見て下さい。

    NVIDIA and xfce4-sensors-plugin

    To detect and use sensors of nvidia gpu you need to install libxnvctrlAUR and then recompile xfce4-sensors-plugin package.

    セッションエラー

    If the window manager does not load correctly, you maybe got a session error. Typical symptoms of this can include:

    • the mouse is an X and/or does not appear at all
    • window decorations have disappeared and windows cannot be closed
    • "Window Manager" settings tool (xfwm4-settings) will not start, reporting
    These settings cannot work with your current window manager (unknown)
    
    • errors being reported by slim or your login manager like
    No window manager registered on screen 0
    

    Restarting xfce or rebooting your system may resolve the problem but more likely the problem is a corrupt session. Delete the session folder below the .cache folder:

    $ rm -r ~/.cache/sessions/
    

    Preferred Applications preferences have no effect

    If you have set your preferred applications with exo-preferred-applications, but they do not seem to be taken into consideration, see #xdg-open integration (Preferred Applications)

    Action Buttons/Missing Icons

    This happens if icons for some actions (Suspend, Hibernate) are missing from the icon theme, or at least do not have the expected names. First, find out the currently used icon theme in the Settings Manager (→Appearance→Icons). Match this with a subdirectory of /usr/share/icons. For example, if the icon theme is GNOME, make a note of the directory name /usr/share/icons/gnome.

    icontheme=/usr/share/icons/gnome
    

    Make sure that the xfce4-power-manager is installed as this contains the needed icons. Now create symbolic links from the current icon theme into the hicolor icon theme.

    ln -s /usr/share/icons/hicolor/16x16/actions/xfpm-suspend.png   ${icontheme}/16x16/actions/system-suspend.png
    ln -s /usr/share/icons/hicolor/16x16/actions/xfpm-hibernate.png ${icontheme}/16x16/actions/system-hibernate.png
    ln -s /usr/share/icons/hicolor/22x22/actions/xfpm-suspend.png   ${icontheme}/22x22/actions/system-suspend.png
    ln -s /usr/share/icons/hicolor/22x22/actions/xfpm-hibernate.png ${icontheme}/22x22/actions/system-hibernate.png
    ln -s /usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/actions/xfpm-suspend.png   ${icontheme}/24x24/actions/system-suspend.png
    ln -s /usr/share/icons/hicolor/24x24/actions/xfpm-hibernate.png ${icontheme}/24x24/actions/system-hibernate.png
    ln -s /usr/share/icons/hicolor/48x48/actions/xfpm-suspend.png   ${icontheme}/48x48/actions/system-suspend.png
    ln -s /usr/share/icons/hicolor/48x48/actions/xfpm-hibernate.png ${icontheme}/48x48/actions/system-hibernate.png
    

    Log out and in again, and you should see icons for all actions.

    Enable cedilla ç/Ç instead of ć/Ć

    When you select the keyboard layout "U.S., alternative international" in Settings --> Keyboard --> Layout to enable accents, the typical combination for the cedilla ' + c results in ć instead of ç.To change this suffice edit files gtk.immodules for gtk-2.0 and immodules.cache for gtk-3.0 in line that contains "cedilla" adding both "en" in the list "az:ca:co:fr:gv:oc:pt:sq:tr:wa" but in alphabetical order, staying that way in /etc/gtk-2.0/gtk.immodules

    "/usr/lib/gtk-2.0/2.10.0/immodules/im-cedilla.so" 
    "cedilla" "Cedilla" "gtk20" "/usr/share/locale" "az:ca:co:en:fr:gv:oc:pt:sq:tr:wa"
    

    and this in /usr/lib/gtk-3.0/3.0.0/immodules.cache

    "/usr/lib/gtk-3.0/3.0.0/immodules/im-cedilla.so" 
    "cedilla" "Cedilla" "gtk30" "/usr/share/locale" "az:ca:co:en:fr:gv:oc:pt:sq:tr:wa"
    

    Then, do

    # echo "export GTK_IM_MODULE=cedilla" >> /etc/environment
    

    Done. Simply just close and reopen the gtk programs like gedit.

    Non ASCII characters when mounting USB sticks

    fat ファイルシステムでフォーマットされた USB スティックを自動マウントするときによくおこる問題は ñ, ß などのウムラウトを正しく表示できないことです。この問題は、標準の iocharset を UTF-8 に変更することで解決されるかもしれません。これは簡単で、/etc/xdg/xfce4/mount.rc に以下の行を追加するだけで行えます:

    [vfat]
    uid=<auto>
    shortname=winnt
    utf8=true
    # FreeBSD specific option
    longnames=true
    flush=true
    

    utf-8 を使う際に、システムが大文字と小文字を区別することで、ファイルを壊してしまう可能性があることに注意してください。十分お気をつけて。

    また、USB スティックのデータをコピーするときにより頻繁に flush させるように、flush オプションを付けて vfat のデバイスをマウントすることが可能です。そうすることで、 データがディスク上にある限り thunar のプログレスバーを休ませないようにできます。代わりに async を追加することで Write ops を向上させることができますが、Thunar の Eject オプションを使ってスティックをアンマウントするようにしてください。システム全体で、起動時のストレージデバイスのマウントオプションを fstab に設定でき、他のデバイスのオプションは udev ルールで設定できます。

    Video tearing when Xfwm compositing is enabled

    This is a known problem. Consider using a standalone compositor like Compton or Xcompmgr. Alternatively, you could replace your window manager with something like Compiz or Kwin (kwin-standalone-gitAUR) which provide their own compositors.

    GTK themes not working with multiple monitors

    Some configuration tools might corrupt displays.xml, which results in GTK themes under Applications Menu -> Settings -> Appearance ceasing to work. To fix the issue, delete ~/.config/xfce4/xfconf/xfce-perchannel-xml/displays.xml and reconfigure your screens.

    参照