Difference between revisions of "Xmodmap"

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[[Category:Input devices (English)]]
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[[Category:Input devices]]
[[Category:X Server (English)]]
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[[Category:X Server]]
{{i18n|Xmodmap}}
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[[de:Xmodmap]]
 
[[fr:Xmodmap]]
 
[[fr:Xmodmap]]
== Xmodmap ==
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[[zh-CN :Xmodmap]]
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{{Article summary start}}
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{{Article summary text|A general overview of modifying keymaps and pointer mappings with xmodmap.}}
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{{Article summary heading|Related}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Xorg}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Extra Keyboard Keys}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Extra Keyboard Keys in Xorg}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Extra Keyboard Keys in Console}}
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{{Article summary end}}
  
If you're typing a key on your keyboard, the kernel is generating a code. This code will be compared to a ''table of keycodes'' defining a figure. And it will be displayed e.g. the letter a.
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'''Xmodmap''' is a utility for modifying keymaps and pointer button mappings in [[Xorg]].
  
With [[X]], it's a bit more complicated, because it's starting its own table of keycodes. Each keycode can belong to a ''keysym''. A keysym is like a function, started by typing a key. You can edit these keycode-keysym relations with ''xmodmap''.
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== Introduction ==
 +
The Linux kernel generates a code each time a key is pressed on a keyboard. That code is compared to a {{ic|table of keycodes}} defining a figure that is then displayed.
  
== Structure ==
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This process is complicated by [[Xorg]], which starts its own table of keycodes. Each keycode can belong to a {{ic|keysym}}. A keysym is like a function, started by typing a key. Xmodmap allows you to edit these keycode-keysym relations.
  
keycode n = keysym1 keysym2 keysym3 keysym4 keysym5 keysym6
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== Keymap table ==
n is representing a number. The keysymX stands for:
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Print the current keymap table formatted into expressions:
1  only the key
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{{hc|$ xmodmap -pke|2=keycode 57 = n N}}
shift + key
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3  mode_switch + key
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4  mode_switch + shift + key
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5  AltGr + key
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6  AltGr + shift + key
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Not all keysyms have to be set. But if you want e.g. keysym5, you have to set keysym1 till keysym5. Therefore, you can use ''NoSymbol'' which is doing nothing.
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Comments start with a ''!''
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Each keymap is followed by the {{Ic|keysyms}} it is mapped to. The above example indicates that the keycode {{ic|57}} is mapped to the lowercase ''n'', while the uppercase ''N'' is mapped to keycode {{Ic|57}} and {{Ic|Shift}}.
  
== Editing ==
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Each keysym column in the table corresponds to a particular key combination:
 +
# {{Keypress|Key}}
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# {{Keypress|Shift+Key}}
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# {{Keypress|mode_switch+Key}}
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# {{Keypress|mode_switch+Shift+Key}}
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# {{Keypress|AltGr+Key}}
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# {{Keypress|AltGr+Shift+Key}}
  
Extract your actual table of keycodes in a file (here: .xmod)
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Not all keysyms have to be set, but if you want to assign a latter keysym without assigning earlier ones set them to {{ic|NoSymbol}}.
xmodmap -pke > ~/.xmod
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Now you can edit .xmod. The new .xmod get loaded by
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xmodmap ~/.xmod
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'''This has be done after each start of X!''' So put it in your autostart...
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You can get the keycode (and more information) of a key with xev (or xkeycaps). If you start xev within a shell, a window will be opened and if you type a key, there will be some informations about it in the shell. Among others you get the keycode.
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You can check which keymap corresponds to a key on your keyboard with [[Extra Keyboard Keys#Using xev|xev]].
  
=== Example ===
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{{tip|There are predefined descriptive keycodes that make mapping additional keys easier (e.g. {{ic|XF86AudioMute}}, {{ic|XF86Mail}}). Those keycodes can be found in: {{ic|/usr/include/X11/XF86keysym.h}}}}
  
If I'ld to get an 'e' if I type 'l' and an 'E' if I type 'L', I'ld have to change
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== Custom table ==
keycode  46 = l L l L lstroke Lstroke lstroke
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You can create your own map and store it in your home directory (i.e. {{ic|~/.Xmodmap}}). Print the current keymap table into a configuration file:
to
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xmodmap -pke > ~/.Xmodmap
keycode  46 = e E l L lstroke Lstroke lstroke
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(Maybe my standard keycode differs from yours. This will be an result of using different keyboard layouts)
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=== Keysym ===
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Make the desired changes to {{ic|~/.Xmodmap}} and then test the new configuration with:
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xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
  
It is also possible, to change the keysym. I.e:  
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To activate your custom table when starting Xorg add the following:
keysym a = e E
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{{hc|~/.xinitrc|
* a -> e
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if [ -f $HOME/.Xmodmap ]; then
* shift+a -> E
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    /usr/bin/xmodmap $HOME/.Xmodmap
It has the same effect as editting the corresponding keycode.
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fi}}
  
=== xmodmap within a shell ===
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Alternatively, edit the global startup script {{ic|/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc}}.
  
Within a shell, you can type make changes for this session. It's useful for testing. Examples:
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=== Test changes ===
 +
You can also make temporary changes for the current session. For example:
 
  xmodmap -e "keycode  46 = l L l L lstroke Lstroke lstroke"
 
  xmodmap -e "keycode  46 = l L l L lstroke Lstroke lstroke"
 
  xmodmap -e "keysym a = e E"
 
  xmodmap -e "keysym a = e E"
Line 57: Line 62:
 
== Special keys/signals ==
 
== Special keys/signals ==
  
You can also also edit the keys: shift, ctrl alt and super (there always exists a left and a right one (Alt_R=AltGr))
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You can also also edit the keys: {{Keypress|Shift}}, {{Keypress|Ctrl}}, {{Keypress|Alt}} and {{Keypress|Super}} (there always exists a left and a right one (Alt_R=AltGr)).
  
At first you have to delete/clear the signals that should be edited. Write at the beginning of your Xmodmap file (here: ~/.xmod) :
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For example this can be useful if your right Control key is not working like your left one but you would like it to.
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At first you have to delete/clear the signals that should be edited. In the beginning of your {{ic|~/.Xmodmap}}:
 
  !clear Shift
 
  !clear Shift
 
  !clear Lock
 
  !clear Lock
Line 70: Line 77:
 
  keycode  8 =
 
  keycode  8 =
 
  ...
 
  ...
Remember: ! is a comment. So only Control and Mod4 (Standard: Super_L Super_R) get cleared.
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Remember, {{ic|!}} is a comment so only {{Keypress|Control}} and {{Keypress|Mod4}} (Standard: Super_L Super_R) get cleared.
  
Write the new signals at the end of ~/.xmod:
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Write the new signals at the end of {{ic|~/.Xmodmap}}
 
  keycode 255 =
 
  keycode 255 =
 
  !add Shift  = Shift_L Shift_R
 
  !add Shift  = Shift_L Shift_R
Line 82: Line 89:
 
  add Mod4    = Control_L Control_R
 
  add Mod4    = Control_L Control_R
 
  !add Mod5    =
 
  !add Mod5    =
Here: We exchanged the Super-keys with the ctrl-keys. My lil' finger likes that really ;).
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The {{Keypress|Super}} keys have now been exchanged with the {{Keypress|Ctrl}} keys.
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If you get the following error message {{ic|X Error of failed request:  BadValue (integer parameter out of range for operation)}} it means the key you are trying to add is already in another modifier, so remove it using "remove MODIFIERNAME = KEYSYMNAME". Running {{ic|xmodmap}} gives you a list of modifiers and keys that are assigned to them.
  
== LINKS ==
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== Reverse Scrolling ==
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The natural scrolling feature available in OS X Lion can be mimicked with xmodmap. Since the synaptics driver uses the buttons 4/5/6/7 for up/down/left/right scrolling, you simply need to swap the order of how the buttons are declared in {{ic|~/.Xmodmap}}.
  
[http://cweiske.de/howto/xmodmap/allinone.html HOWTO]
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Open {{ic|~/.Xmodmap}} and append the following line to the file:
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pointer = 1 2 3 5 4 7 6 8 9 10 11 12
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Note how the 4 and 5 have been reversed.
  
[http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/X xmodmap and mouse]
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Then update xmodmap:
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xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
  
[http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Extra_Keyboard_Keys_in_Xorg extra keys]
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To return to regular scrolling simply reverse the order of the 4 and 5 or delete the line altogether. For more information check Peter Hutterer's post, [http://who-t.blogspot.com/2011/09/natural-scrolling-in-synaptics-driver.html Natural scrolling in the synaptics driver], or the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=126258 Reverse scrolling direction ala Mac OS X Lion?] forum thread.
  
[http://dev-loki.blogspot.com/2006/04/mapping-unsupported-keys-with-xmodmap.html an example]
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== Additional resources ==
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*[http://www.x.org/archive/current/doc/man/man1/xmodmap.1.xhtml Current man page] at X.Org Foundation
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*[http://cweiske.de/howto/xmodmap/allinone.html Multimediakeys with .Xmodmap HOWTO] by Christian Weiske
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*[http://dev-loki.blogspot.com/2006/04/mapping-unsupported-keys-with-xmodmap.html Mapping unsupported keys with xmodmap] by Pascal Bleser
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*[http://en.gentoo-wiki.com/wiki/Multimedia_Keys Multimedia Keys article] on the [http://en.gentoo-wiki.com/ Gentoo Wiki]
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*[http://keytouch.sourceforge.net/howto_keyboard/node4.html How to retrieve scancodes] by Marvin Raaijmakers
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*[http://wiki.linuxquestions.org/wiki/List_of_Keysyms_Recognised_by_Xmodmap List of Keysyms Recognised by Xmodmap] on [http://linuxquestions.org LinuxQuestions]

Revision as of 21:03, 29 January 2013

Summary help replacing me
A general overview of modifying keymaps and pointer mappings with xmodmap.
Related
Xorg
Extra Keyboard Keys
Extra Keyboard Keys in Xorg
Extra Keyboard Keys in Console

Xmodmap is a utility for modifying keymaps and pointer button mappings in Xorg.

Introduction

The Linux kernel generates a code each time a key is pressed on a keyboard. That code is compared to a table of keycodes defining a figure that is then displayed.

This process is complicated by Xorg, which starts its own table of keycodes. Each keycode can belong to a keysym. A keysym is like a function, started by typing a key. Xmodmap allows you to edit these keycode-keysym relations.

Keymap table

Print the current keymap table formatted into expressions:

$ xmodmap -pke
keycode  57 = n N

Each keymap is followed by the keysyms it is mapped to. The above example indicates that the keycode 57 is mapped to the lowercase n, while the uppercase N is mapped to keycode 57 and Shift.

Each keysym column in the table corresponds to a particular key combination:

  1. Template:Keypress
  2. Template:Keypress
  3. Template:Keypress
  4. Template:Keypress
  5. Template:Keypress
  6. Template:Keypress

Not all keysyms have to be set, but if you want to assign a latter keysym without assigning earlier ones set them to NoSymbol.

You can check which keymap corresponds to a key on your keyboard with xev.

Tip: There are predefined descriptive keycodes that make mapping additional keys easier (e.g. XF86AudioMute, XF86Mail). Those keycodes can be found in: /usr/include/X11/XF86keysym.h

Custom table

You can create your own map and store it in your home directory (i.e. ~/.Xmodmap). Print the current keymap table into a configuration file:

xmodmap -pke > ~/.Xmodmap

Make the desired changes to ~/.Xmodmap and then test the new configuration with:

xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap

To activate your custom table when starting Xorg add the following:

~/.xinitrc
if [ -f $HOME/.Xmodmap ]; then
    /usr/bin/xmodmap $HOME/.Xmodmap
fi

Alternatively, edit the global startup script /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc.

Test changes

You can also make temporary changes for the current session. For example:

xmodmap -e "keycode  46 = l L l L lstroke Lstroke lstroke"
xmodmap -e "keysym a = e E"

Special keys/signals

You can also also edit the keys: Template:Keypress, Template:Keypress, Template:Keypress and Template:Keypress (there always exists a left and a right one (Alt_R=AltGr)).

For example this can be useful if your right Control key is not working like your left one but you would like it to.

At first you have to delete/clear the signals that should be edited. In the beginning of your ~/.Xmodmap:

!clear Shift
!clear Lock
clear Control
!clear Mod1
!clear Mod2
!clear Mod3
clear Mod4
!clear Mod5
keycode   8 =
...

Remember, ! is a comment so only Template:Keypress and Template:Keypress (Standard: Super_L Super_R) get cleared.

Write the new signals at the end of ~/.Xmodmap

keycode 255 =
!add Shift   = Shift_L Shift_R
!add Lock    = Caps_Lock
add Control = Super_L Super_R
!add Mod1    = Alt_L Alt_R
!add Mod2    = Mode_switch
!add Mod3    =
add Mod4    = Control_L Control_R
!add Mod5    =

The Template:Keypress keys have now been exchanged with the Template:Keypress keys.

If you get the following error message X Error of failed request: BadValue (integer parameter out of range for operation) it means the key you are trying to add is already in another modifier, so remove it using "remove MODIFIERNAME = KEYSYMNAME". Running xmodmap gives you a list of modifiers and keys that are assigned to them.

Reverse Scrolling

The natural scrolling feature available in OS X Lion can be mimicked with xmodmap. Since the synaptics driver uses the buttons 4/5/6/7 for up/down/left/right scrolling, you simply need to swap the order of how the buttons are declared in ~/.Xmodmap.

Open ~/.Xmodmap and append the following line to the file:

pointer = 1 2 3 5 4 7 6 8 9 10 11 12

Note how the 4 and 5 have been reversed.

Then update xmodmap:

xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap

To return to regular scrolling simply reverse the order of the 4 and 5 or delete the line altogether. For more information check Peter Hutterer's post, Natural scrolling in the synaptics driver, or the Reverse scrolling direction ala Mac OS X Lion? forum thread.

Additional resources