Difference between revisions of "Xmonad"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Other Resources: style fixes per Help:Style)
(Starting xmonad)
Line 26: Line 26:
===Starting xmonad===
===Starting xmonad===
To start xmonad automatically, simply add the command {{Ic|xmonad}} to your startup script (e.g. {{ic|~/.xinitrc}}). GDM and KDM users can create a new session file and then select xmonad from the appropriate Session menu.
To start xmonad automatically, simply add the command {{Ic|xmonad}} to your startup script (e.g. {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} if you use startx, {{ic|~/.xsession} if you use xdm login manager). GDM and KDM users can create a new session file and then select xmonad from the appropriate Session menu.
{{Note|Recently, users in #xmonad have stated that {{Ic|exec}} is not required before {{Ic|xmonad}}; simply adding {{Ic|xmonad}} as the last line in your startup script is the proper way to start this WM. Please use whichever method works for you. If using {{Ic|ck-launch-session}}, the {{Ic|exec}} is probably still required.}}
{{Note|Recently, users in #xmonad have stated that {{Ic|exec}} is not required before {{Ic|xmonad}}; simply adding {{Ic|xmonad}} as the last line in your startup script is the proper way to start this WM. Please use whichever method works for you. If using {{Ic|ck-launch-session}}, the {{Ic|exec}} is probably still required.}}

Revision as of 16:53, 24 January 2012

This template has only maintenance purposes. For linking to local translations please use interlanguage links, see Help:i18n#Interlanguage links.

Local languages: Català – Dansk – English – Español – Esperanto – Hrvatski – Indonesia – Italiano – Lietuviškai – Magyar – Nederlands – Norsk Bokmål – Polski – Português – Slovenský – Česky – Ελληνικά – Български – Русский – Српски – Українська – עברית – العربية – ไทย – 日本語 – 正體中文 – 简体中文 – 한국어

External languages (all articles in these languages should be moved to the external wiki): Deutsch – Français – Română – Suomi – Svenska – Tiếng Việt – Türkçe – فارسی

xmonad is a tiling window manager for X. Windows are arranged automatically to tile the screen without gaps or overlap, maximizing screen use. Window manager features are accessible from the keyboard: a mouse is optional.

xmonad is written, configured and extensible in Haskell. Custom layout algorithms, key bindings and other extensions may be written by the user in config files.

Layouts are applied dynamically, and different layouts may be used on each workspace. Xinerama is fully supported, allowing windows to be tiled on several physical screens.

For more information, please visit the xmonad website: http://xmonad.org/


xmonad and xmonad-contrib are currently available in the official repositories. A build for the current development snapshot (darcs) is in the AUR. The following instructions are for xmonad-darcsAUR, the development snapshot.

Development version (xmonad-darcs)

The xmonad-darcs development version can be installed from the AUR, with some additional dependencies in the official repositories. Install them in the following order:


Starting xmonad

To start xmonad automatically, simply add the command xmonad to your startup script (e.g. ~/.xinitrc if you use startx,
Template error: are you trying to use the = sign? Visit Help:Template#Escape template-breaking characters for workarounds.

Option 2: More Configurable

As of xmonad(-contrib) 0.9, there is a new statusBar function in XMonad.Hooks.DynamicLog. It allows you to use your own configuration for:

  • The command used to execute the bar
  • The PP that determines what is being written to the bar
  • The key binding to toggle the gap for the bar

The following is an example of how to use it:

-- Imports.
import XMonad
import XMonad.Hooks.DynamicLog

-- The main function.
main = xmonad =<< statusBar myBar myPP toggleStrutsKey myConfig

-- Command to launch the bar.
myBar = "xmobar"

-- Custom PP, configure it as you like. It determines what is being written to the bar.
myPP = xmobarPP { ppCurrent = xmobarColor "#429942" "" . wrap "<" ">" }

-- Key binding to toggle the gap for the bar.
toggleStrutsKey XConfig {XMonad.modMask = modMask} = (modMask, xK_b)

-- Main configuration, override the defaults to your liking.
myConfig = defaultConfig { modMask = mod4Mask }

Verify XMobar Config

The template and default xmobarrc contains this.

At last, open up ~/.xmobarrc and make sure you have StdinReader in the template and run the plugin. E.g.

Config { ...
       , commands = [ Run StdinReader .... ]
       , template = " %StdinReader% ... "

Now, all you should have to do is either to start, or restart, xmonad.

Controlling xmonad with external scripts

There are at least two ways to do this.

Firstly, you can use the following xmonad extension, XMonad.Hooks.ServerMode.

Secondly, you can simulate keypress events using xdotool or similar programs. See this Ubuntu forums thread. The following command would simulate the keypress Template:Keypress:

xdotool key Super+n

Launching another window manager within xmonad

If you are using xmonad-darcsAUR, as of January of 2011, you can restart to another window manager from within xmonad. You just need to write a small script, and add stuff to your ~/.xmonad/xmonad.hs. Here is the script.


And here are the modifications you need to add to your ~/.xmonad/xmonad.hs:

import XMonad
--You need to add this import
import XMonad.Util.Replace

main do
    -- And this "replace"
    xmonad $ defaultConfig
    --Add the usual here

You also need to add the following key binding:

--Add a keybinding as follows:
((modm .|. shiftMask, xK_o     ), restart "/home/abijr/bin/obtoxmd" True)

Just remember to add a comma before or after and change the path to your actual script path. Now just Template:Keypress (restart xmonad to refresh the config), and then hit Template:Keypress and you should have Openbox running with the same windows open as in xmonad. To return to xmonad you should just exit Openbox. Here is a link to adamvo's ~/.xmonad/xmonad.hs which uses this setup Adamvo's xmonad.hs

Example configurations

Below are some example configurations from fellow xmonad users. Feel free to add links to your own.

  • brisbin33 :: complex and simpler branches, importable dzen and scratchpad modules, very readable :: config screenshot
  • jelly :: Configuration with prompt, different layouts, twinview with xmobar :: xmonad.hs
  • MrElendig :: Simple configuration, with xmobar :: xmonad.hs, .xmobarrc, screenshot.
  • thayer :: A minimal mouse-friendly config ideal for netbooks :: configs screenshot
  • vicfryzel :: Beautiful and usable xmonad configuration, along with xmobar configuration, xinitrc, dmenu, and other scripts that make xmonad more usable. :: git repository, screenshot.
  • vogt :: Check out adamvo's config and many others in the official Xmonad/Config archive


GNOME 3 and xmonad

With the release of GNOME 3, some additional steps are necessary to make GNOME play nicely with xmonad.

First, add an xmonad session file for use by gnome-session (/usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/xmonad.session):

[GNOME Session]
Name=Xmonad session

Now create a desktop file for GDM (/usr/share/xsessions/xmonad-gnome-session.desktop):

[Desktop Entry]
Name=Xmonad GNOME
Comment=Tiling window manager
Exec=gnome-session --session=xmonad

Add / edit this file (/usr/share/applications/xmonad.desktop):

[Desktop Entry]

Then install xmonad-contrib and create or edit ~/.xmonad/xmonad.hs to have the following

import XMonad
import XMonad.Config.Gnome

main = xmonad gnomeConfig

Xmonad should now appear in the list of GDM sessions and also play nicely with gnome-session itself.

GDM 2.x/KDM cannot find xmonad

You can force GDM to launch xmonad by creating the file xmonad.desktop in the /usr/share/xsessions directory and add the contents:

[Desktop Entry]
Comment=This session starts xmonad

Now xmonad will show in your GDM session menu. Thanks to Santanu Chatterjee for the hint.

For KDM, you will need to create the file here as /usr/share/apps/kdm/sessions/xmonad.desktop

Official documentation can be found here: Haskell Documentation Page

Missing xmonad-i386-linux or xmonad-x86_64-linux

Xmonad should automatically create the xmonad-i386-linux file (in ~/.xmonad/). If this it not the case you can grab a cool looking config file from the xmonad wiki or create your own. Put the .hs and all others files in ~/.xmonad/ and run this command from the folder:

xmonad --recompile

Now you should see the file.

Note: A reason you may get an error message saying that xmonad-x86_64-linux is missing is that xmonad-contrib is not installed.

Problems with Java applications

The standard Java GUI toolkit has a hard-coded list of "non-reparenting" window managers. Since xmonad is not in that list, there can be some problems with running some Java applications. One of the most common problems is "gray blobs", when the Java application renders as a plain gray box instead of rendering the GUI.

There are several things that may help:

  • If you are using openjdk6, you can export _JAVA_AWT_WM_NONREPARENTING=1 in /etc/profile.d/openjdk6.sh.
  • If you are using jre7-openjdk, you can export _JAVA_AWT_WM_NONREPARENTING=1 in /etc/profile.d/jre.sh.
  • If you are using Oracle's JRE/JDK, the best solution is usually to use SetWMName. However, its effect may be nullified if one also uses XMonad.Hooks.EwmhDesktops, in which case
 >> setWMName "LG3D"

added to the LogHook may help.

For more details about the problem, refer to the xmonad FAQ.

Empty space at the bottom of gvim or terminals

See Vim#Empty space at the bottom of gvim windows for a solution which makes the area match the background color.

For rxvt-unicode, you can use rxvt-unicode-patchedAUR.

You can also configure xmonad to respect size hints, but this will leave a gap instead. See the documentation on Xmonad.Layout.LayoutHints.

Chromium/Chrome will not go fullscreen

If Chrome fails to go fullscreen when Template:Keypress is pressed, you can use the XMonad.Hooks.EwmhDesktops extension found in the xmonad-contrib package. Simply add the import statement to your ~/.xmonad/xmonad.hs:

import XMonad.Hooks.EwmhDesktops

and then add handleEventHook = fullscreenEventHook to the appropriate place; for example:

        xmonad $ defaultConfig
            { modMask            = mod4Mask
            , handleEventHook    = fullscreenEventHook

After a recompile/restart of xmonad, Chromium should now respond to Template:Keypress (fullscreen) as expected.

Multitouch / touchegg

Touchégg polls the window manager for the _NET_CLIENT_LIST (in order to fetch a list of windows it should listen for mouse events on.) By default, xmonad does not supply this property. To enable this, use the XMonad.Hooks.EwmhDesktops extension found in the xmonad-contrib package.

Other Resources