Difference between revisions of "Xterm"
(→PRIMARY or CLIPBOARD: fully qualify name)
(→PRIMARY and CLIPBOARD: link to key binding section, DRY out)
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====PRIMARY and CLIPBOARD====
====PRIMARY and CLIPBOARD====
With the above setting you can select if you want to use PRIMARY or CLIPBOARD, but to
With the above setting you can select if you want to use PRIMARY or CLIPBOARD, but to both. :
<Btn1Up>: select-end(PRIMARY, CLIPBOARD, CUT_BUFFER0)
You can to terminals(gnome terminal):
Ctrl Shift <Key>: -selection(CLIPBOARD) \n
Ctrl Shift <Key>: -selection(CLIPBOARD)
Revision as of 18:46, 28 April 2017
- 1 Configuration
- 1.1 Resource file settings
- 1.2 Scrolling
- 1.3 Menus
- 1.4 Copy and paste
- 2 Colors
- 3 Fonts
- 4 Tips and tricks
- 5 Troubleshooting
- 6 See also
Resource file settings
There are several options you can set in your X resources files that may make this terminal emulator much nicer to use. See for a complete list.
TERM Environmental Variable
Allow xterm to report the TERM variable correctly. Do not set the TERM variable from your ~/.bashrc or ~/.bash_profile or similar file. The terminal itself should report the correct TERM to the system so that the proper terminfo file will be used. Two usable terminfo names are xterm and xterm-256color. To set the name, use the resource
You can check the result within xterm using either of these commands:
$ echo $TERM $ tset -q
Ensure that your locale is set up for UTF-8. If you do not use UTF-8, you may need to force xterm to more strictly follow your locale by setting
Make 'Alt' key behave as on other terminal emulators
Alt key behavior in xterm is a modifier to send eight bit input characters e.g. to insert
æ by pressing
Alt+f. To make
Alt instead send a
^[ (escape) key (as in gnome-terminal and konsole), set
Fix the backspace key
On Arch Linux, xterm sends
^H key when backspace is pressed. This breaks the
Ctrl+H key combination on Emacs.
The workaround is to send
^? when backspace is pressed by setting the resources
XTerm.vt100.backarrowKey: false XTerm.ttyModes: erase ^?
xterm defines a whole suite of "actions" for manipulating the terminal e.g.
scroll-back(), etc. These actions can be mapped to mouse/key combinations using the
translations resource. E.g.
XTerm.vt100.translations: #override \n\ Ctrl <Key>M: maximize() \n\ Ctrl <Key>R: restore()
#override indicates that these bindings should override any existing ones. Each binding must be separated by the escape sequence
\n. If you want to insert a literal newline, it also needs to be escaped (hence
\n\). See the KEY BINDINGS section of for the full list of actions and many examples.
keymap()action in the man page.
As new lines are written to the bottom of the xterm window, older lines disappear from the top. To scroll up and down through the off-screen lines one can use the mouse wheel, the key combinations
Shift+PageDown, or the scrollbar.
By default, 1024 lines are saved. You can change the number of saved lines with the
Other X resources that affect scrolling are
fastScroll (all under
XTerm.vt100, see ). To scroll inside an #alternate screen, set
The scrollbar is not shown by default. It can be enabled and its appearance tweaked through resource settings (note the differing capitalization of "scrollbar"!)
XTerm.vt100.scrollBar: true XTerm.vt100.scrollbar.width: 8
Seefor other scrollbar resources.
The scrollbar operates differently from what you may be accustomed to using.
- To scroll down:
- – Click on the scrollbar with the left mouse button, or
- – Click on the scrollbar below the thumb with the middle mouse button.
- To scroll up:
- – Click on the scrollbar with the right mouse button, or
- – Click on the scrollbar above the thumb with the middle mouse button.
- To position text, moving in either direction:
- – Grab the thumb and use "click-and-drag" with the middle mouse button.
is compiled with the toolbar, or menubar, disabled. The menus are still available as popups when you press
Ctrl+MouseButton within the xterm window. The actions invoked by the menu items can often be accomplished using command line options or by setting resource values.
XTerm*geometry: 80x32, in your resources file. This does start xterm in an 80 column by 32 row main window, but it also forces the menu windows to be 80 pixels by 32 pixels! This is why you should fully specify the resource:
Some of the menu options are discussed below.
Ctrl + LeftMouse
Secure Keyboardattempts to ensure only the xterm window, and no other application, receives your keystrokes. The display changes to reverse video when it is invoked. If the display is not in reverse video, the Secure Keyboard mode is not in effect. Please read the "SECURITY" section of the xterm man page for this option's limitations.
Allow SendEventsallows other processes to send keypress and mouse events to the xterm window. Because of the security risk, do not enable this unless you are very sure you know what you are doing.
Log to File– The log file will be named
Xterm.log.hostname.yyyy.mm.dd.hh.mm.ss.XXXXXX. This file will contain all the printed output and all cursor movements. Logging may be a security risk.
- The six
Send *** Signalmenu items are not often useful, except when your keyboard fails.
KILLwill close the xterm window.
KILLshould be avoided, as it does not allow any cleanup code to run.
Quitmenu item will also close the xterm window – it is the same as sending a
HUPsignal. Most users will use the keyboard combination
Ctrl+dor will type
exitto close an xterm instance.
Ctrl + MiddleMouse
Select to Clipboard– Normally, selected text is stored in PRIMARY, to be pasted with
Shift+Insertor by using the middle mouse button. By toggling this option to on, selected text will use CLIPBOARD, allowing you to paste the text selected in an xterm window into a GUI application using
Ctrl+v. The corresponding resource is
Show Alternate Screen– When you use an a terminal application such as vim, or less, the alternate screen is opened. The main VT window, now hidden, remains in memory. You can view this main window, but not issue any commands in it, by toggling this menu option. You are able to select and copy text from this main window.
Show Alternate Screen. With a bash shell, pressing
Ctrl+zsuspends the process; issuing the command
fgthen resumes it.
Show Tek Windowand
Switch to Tek Mode– The Tektronix 4014 was a graphics terminal from the 1970s used for CAD and plotting applications. The command line program
graph, from , and the application can be made to use xterm's Tek emulation; most people will prefer more modern display options for charting data. See the #Tek 4014 demonstration, below.
Ctrl + RightMouse
- When using XLFD fonts, the first seven menu items will change the font face and the font size used in the current xterm window. If you are using an Xft font, only the font size will change, the font face will not change with the different selections, .
Tinyare useful if you wish to keep an eye on a process but do not want to devote a large amount of screen space to the terminal window. An example use might be a lengthy compilation process when you only want to see that the operation completes.
Selection, when using XLFD font names, allows you to switch to the font name stored in the PRIMARY selection (or CLIPBOARD).
From the Tek Window, Ctrl + MiddleMouse
The first section's options allow you to change the Tek window font size. The second set of options are used to move the focus between the Tek emulation window and the main, or VT, window and to close or hide the Tek window.
Copy and paste
First, highlighting text using the mouse in an xterm (or alternatively another application) will select the text to copy, then clicking the mouse middle-button will paste that highlighted text. Also the key combination
Shift+Insert will paste highlighted text, but only within an xterm.
PRIMARY or CLIPBOARD
By default, xterm, and many other applications running under X, copy highlighted text into a buffer called the PRIMARY selection. The PRIMARY selection is short-lived; the text is immediately replaced by a new PRIMARY selection as soon as another piece of text is highlighted. Some applications will allow you to paste PRIMARY selections by using the middle-mouse, but not
Shift+Insert, and some other applications may not allow pasting from PRIMARY entirely.
There is another buffer used for copied text called the CLIPBOARD selection. The text in the CLIPBOARD is long-lived, remaining available until a user actively overwrites it. Applications that use
Ctrl+x for text copying and cutting operations, and
Ctrl+v for pasting, are using the CLIPBOARD.
The fleeting nature of the PRIMARY selection, where copied text is lost as soon as another selection is highlighted, annoys some users. xterm allows the user to switch between the use of PRIMARY and CLIPBOARD using
Select to Clipboard on the #VT Options menu or with the
PRIMARY and CLIPBOARD
With the above setting you can select if you want to use PRIMARY or CLIPBOARD, but you can also hack it to add the selection to both. Just override the #Key binding for releasing the left mouse button:
<Btn1Up>: select-end(PRIMARY, CLIPBOARD, CUT_BUFFER0)
You can add #Key bindings similar to other terminals' copy/paste behavior (such as gnome terminal):
Ctrl Shift <Key>C: copy-selection(CLIPBOARD) \n\ Ctrl Shift <Key>V: insert-selection(CLIPBOARD)
The new user usually discovers that text may be selected using a "click-and-drag" with the left mouse button. Double-clicking will select a word, where a word is defined as consecutive alphabetic characters plus the underscore, or the Basic Regular Expression (BRE)
[A-Za-z_]. Triple-clicking selects a line, with a "tab" character usually copied as multiple "space" characters.
Another way of selecting text, especially useful when copying more than one full screen, is:
- Left-click at the start of the intended selection.
- Scroll to where the end of the selection is visible.
- Right-click at the end of the selection.
You do not have to be precise immediately with the right-click – any highlighted selection may be extended or shortened by using a right-click.
You can clear any selected text by left-clicking once, anywhere within the xterm window.
When a character-based application runs inside xterm, it is allowed to receive mouse events. This may be a problem if the program can not communicate with the X11 clipboard. In order to pass these events to the underlying xterm, they must be accompanied by the
Shift key. For example, in links(1) (not
xlinks -g), one can mouse-click on URLs and menu items, but not select or paste with a middle button. To do copy-paste, press the
Shift key and then perform mouse clicks (the key needs to be pressed only during the click, so there is no need to hold it when dragging mouse to select, for instance, a text block).
xterm defaults to black text, the foreground color, on a white background. The foreground and background colors can be reversed by setting the resource
Alternatively, you can directly change the foreground and background colors (as well as the first sixteen terminal colors) using resources:
XTerm.vt100.foreground: white XTerm.vt100.background: black XTerm.vt100.color0: rgb:28/28/28 ! ... XTerm.vt100.color15: rgb:e4/e4/e4
Some colors can be specified by assigned names. If
/usr/share/vim/*/rgb.txt to view the list of color names with their decimal RGB values. Colors may also be specified using hexadecimal RGB values with the format
rgb:RR/GG/BB, or the older and not encouraged syntax
PapayaWhip is the same as
rgb:ff/ef/d5, which is the same as
Many suggestions for color schemes can be viewed in the forum thread, Terminal Colour Scheme Screenshots.
*foreground: rgb:b2/b2/b2 *background: rgb:08/08/08The above example sets the foreground and background color values for all Xlib applications (xclock, xfontsel, and others) that use these resources. This is a nice, easy way to achieve a unified color scheme.
xterm's default font is the bitmap font named by the X Logical Font Description alias
fixed, often resolving to
This font, also aliased to the name
6x13, has remakably wide coverage for unicode glyphs. The default "TrueType" font is the 14‑point font matched by the name
mono. The FreeType font that will be used can be found with this command:
$ fc-match mono
Fonts can be specified in your resources, depending on whether the font is TrueType or not:
XTerm.vt100.faceName: Liberation Mono:size=10:antialias=false XTerm.vt100.font: 7x13
To test, you can also set the font on the command line:
font. If you set both kinds of fonts, you can alternate between the two by toggling
TrueType Fonts from the #VT Fonts menu. You can also choose the default with the following resource
! start with TrueType fonts disabled XTerm.vt100.renderFont: false
Bold and underlined fonts
Italic fonts are shown as underlined characters when using XLFD names in xterm. TrueType fonts should use an oblique typeface.
If you do not specify a bold font at the command line,
-fb, or through the
XTerm.vt100.boldFont resource, xterm will attempt to find a bold font matching the normal font. If a matching font is not found, the bold font will be created by "overstriking" the normal font.
Many fonts do not contain glyphs for the double width Chinese, Japanese and Korean languages. Other terminal emulators such as urxvt may be better suited if you frequently work with these languages.
Using bitmapped XLFD fonts with CJK has many pitfalls in xterm. It is much easier to use TrueType fonts for CJK display, using the
faceNameDoublesize resource. This example uses DejaVu Sans Mono as the normal font and WenQuanYi Bitmap Song as the double width font:
XTerm.vt100.faceName: DejaVu Sans Mono:style=Book:antialias=false XTerm.vt100.faceNameDoublesize: WenQuanYi Bitmap Song XTerm.vt100.faceSize: 8
Tips and tricks
[ -n "$XTERM_VERSION" ] && transset-df --id "$WINDOWID" >/dev/null
Now, each time you launch a shell in an xterm and a composite manager is running, the xterm window will be transparent.
The test in front of
transset-df keeps transet from executing if
XTERM_VERSION is not defined. Note that your terminal will not be transparent if you launch a program other than a shell this way. It is probably possible to work around this if you want the functionality.
Also see Per-application transparency.
Enable bell urgency
To make the bell character notify the window manager of urgency, set:
Use color in place of bold and italics
When using small font sizes, bold or italic characters may be difficult to read. One solution is to turn off bolding and underlining or italics and use color instead. This example does just that:
! disable bold font faces, instead make text light blue. XTerm.vt100.colorBDMode: true XTerm.vt100.colorBD: rgb:82/a4/d3 ! disable underlined text, instead make it white. XTerm.vt100.colorULMode: true XTerm.vt100.colorUL: rgb:e4/e4/e4 ! similarly use colorIT for italics
See #Colors for formatting information.
Adjust line spacing
Lines of text can sometimes be too close together, or they may appear to be too widely spaced. For one example, using DejaVu Sans Mono, the low underscore glyph may butt against CJK glyphs or the cursor block in the line below. Line spacing, called leading by typographers, can be adjusted with the following resource, for example to widen the spacing:
Valid values for range from
1.0 being the default.
Remove black border
Xterm has a black border in some cases, you can disable this by adding the following line to your
Tek 4014 demonstration
If you have #VT Options menu menu item
Switch to Tek Mode or start a new xterm instance using this command:
$ xterm -t -tn tek4014
Your PS1 prompt will not render correctly, if it appears at all. In the new window, enter the command,
A world map will appear in the Tek window. You can also view other
*.tek files from that same directory. To close the Tek window, one can use the xterm menus.
Protect against X11 input snooping
Ctrl Alt <Key>S: secure()
Flickering on scroll
Rebuild xterm using ABS and include the
./configure --prefix=/usr \ ... --with-utempter \ --enable-double-buffer
See Xterm modifications for details.