Difference between revisions of "Zsh"

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(Enable Unicode)
(Rearranging a little & adding /etc/zprofile info)
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Although zsh is usable out of the box, it is almost certainly not set up the way you would like to use it, but due to the sheer amount of customisation available in zsh, creating a zsh config can be a daunting and time-consuming experience.
 
Although zsh is usable out of the box, it is almost certainly not set up the way you would like to use it, but due to the sheer amount of customisation available in zsh, creating a zsh config can be a daunting and time-consuming experience.
  
For this reason I have included below a sample configuration file, it provides a decent set of default options as well as giving examples of many ways that zsh can be customised. In order to use this configuration save it as a file named <code>.zshrc</code>. You can then apply the changes without needing to logout and then back in by running
+
Included below is a sample configuration file, it provides a decent set of default options as well as giving examples of many ways that zsh can be customised. In order to use this configuration save it as a file named <code>.zshrc</code>. You can then apply the changes without needing to logout and then back in by running
 
  source ~/.zshrc
 
  source ~/.zshrc
  
 +
=== Simple <code>.zshrc</code> ===
 +
Here is a simple <code>.zshrc</code>, that should be sufficient to get you started:
 +
autoload -U compinit promptinit
 +
compinit
 +
promptinit
 +
 +
# This will set the default prompt to the walters theme
 +
prompt walters
 +
 +
 +
=== /etc/zprofile ===
 +
Much like the /etc/profile used for bash, this file is for global zsh settings & is a good place from which to run scripts from /etc/profile.d/ and set up environment variables such as $PATH.
 +
When setting up $PATH etc. in .zshrc and using a login-manager such as kdm, you may find those settings not being taken up by the window-manager, whereas they are when using /etc/zprofile.
 +
 +
Generally speaking, you can copy /etc/profile to /etc zprofile, but here's an example /etc/zprofile :
 +
 +
###############
 +
# Zsh profile #
 +
###############
 +
 +
export PATH="/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/X11R6/bin:/opt/bin"
 +
 +
export MANPATH="/usr/man:/usr/X11R6/man"
 +
export LESSCHARSET="latin1"
 +
export INPUTRC="/etc/inputrc"
 +
export LESS="-R"
 +
 +
# load profiles from /etc/profile.d
 +
#  (to disable a profile, just remove execute permission on it)
 +
if [ `ls -A1 /etc/profile.d/ | wc -l` -gt 0 ]; then
 +
  for profile in /etc/profile.d/*.sh; do
 +
    if [ -x $profile ]; then
 +
      . $profile
 +
    fi
 +
  done
 +
  unset profile
 +
fi
 +
 +
 +
# Locale settings (find your locale with 'locale -a')
 +
export LANG="en_GB.utf8"
 +
export LC_COLLATE="C"
 +
umask 022
 +
 +
 +
 +
=== Command Completion ===
 +
Perhaps the most compelling feature of zsh is its advanced autocompletion abilities. At the very least, you will want to enable autocompletion in your <code>.zshrc</code>. To enable autocompletion, add the following to your <code>.zshrc</code>
 +
autoload -U compinit
 +
compinit
 +
 +
 
=== Key Bindings ===
 
=== Key Bindings ===
 
Zsh doesn't read /etc/inputrc, which tells the shell what commands sent by the terminal emulator mean. To have some standard key bindings working on zsh, add something like this to <code>.zshrc</code>:
 
Zsh doesn't read /etc/inputrc, which tells the shell what commands sent by the terminal emulator mean. To have some standard key bindings working on zsh, add something like this to <code>.zshrc</code>:
Line 61: Line 113:
 
  # completion in the middle of a line
 
  # completion in the middle of a line
 
  bindkey '^i' expand-or-complete-prefix
 
  bindkey '^i' expand-or-complete-prefix
 +
 
=== Prompts ===
 
=== Prompts ===
 
There is a quick and easy way to set up a colored prompt in zsh. Make sure that <code>prompt</code> is set to autload in your <code>.zshrc</code>. This can be done by adding the lines:
 
There is a quick and easy way to set up a colored prompt in zsh. Make sure that <code>prompt</code> is set to autload in your <code>.zshrc</code>. This can be done by adding the lines:
Line 70: Line 123:
 
  prompt walters
 
  prompt walters
  
=== Command Completion ===
 
Perhaps the most compelling feature of zsh is its advanced autocompletion abilities. At the very least, you will want to enable autocompletion in your <code>.zshrc</code>. To enable autocompletion, add the following to your <code>.zshrc</code>
 
autoload -U compinit
 
compinit
 
 
=== Simple <code>.zshrc</code> ===
 
Here is a simple <code>.zshrc</code>, that should be sufficient to get you started:
 
autoload -U compinit promptinit
 
compinit
 
promptinit
 
 
# This will set the default prompt to the walters theme
 
prompt walters
 
  
 
=== Advanced <code>.zshrc</code> ===
 
=== Advanced <code>.zshrc</code> ===
 
This is an example of a more advanced <code>.zshrc</code>
 
This is an example of a more advanced <code>.zshrc</code>
  
  ###########################################################      
+
  ###########################################################      
# Important stuff.
 
 
# Export some vars
 
export PATH="$PATH:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/jdk/jdk1.5.0_04/bin:/opt/kde/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin:/usr/games"
 
export MINICOM="-c on"
 
export MANPATH=/usr/local/man:/usr/man:/usr/X11R6/man
 
export HOSTNAME="`cat /etc/HOSTNAME`"
 
export LESSOPEN="|lesspipe.sh %s"
 
export LESS="-M"
 
export CLASSPATH=".:/usr/local/jdk/jdk1.5.0_04/jre/lib/rt.jar"
 
export NNTPSERVER="news.server.com"
 
 
for file in /etc/profile.d/*.sh ; do
 
  if [ -x $file ]; then
 
    . $file
 
fi
 
done
 
 
# For root users, ensure that /usr/local/sbin, /usr/sbin, and /sbin are in
 
# the $PATH.
 
if [ "`id -u`" = "0" ]; then
 
  echo $PATH | grep /usr/local/sbin 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null
 
  if [ ! $? = 0 ]; then
 
    export PATH="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:$PATH"
 
  fi
 
fi
 
 
# For non-root users, add the current directory to the search path:
 
if [ ! "`id -u`" = "0" ]; then
 
  PATH="$PATH:."
 
fi
 
 
# Umask of 022
 
umask 022
 
 
 
  # Options for zsh
 
  # Options for zsh
 +
 
  export HISTFILE=~/.zsh_history
 
  export HISTFILE=~/.zsh_history
 
  export HISTSIZE=50000
 
  export HISTSIZE=50000

Revision as of 13:27, 10 December 2007


Introduction

Zsh is a powerful shell that operates as both as an interactive shell and as a scripting language interpreter. While being compatible with BASH, it offers many advantages such as:

  • Faster
  • Improved tab completion
  • Improved globbing
  • Improved array handling
  • Fully customisable

The zsh FAQ offers more reasons to use zsh as your shell.

Installation instructions

To install the package for zsh using pacman run

pacman -S zsh

Before proceeding with the next step to make zsh your default shell, you should ensure that it has been installed correctly by running zsh in an xterm. If the installation has gone smoothly you should now find yourself staring at a rather unfamiliar prompt, for now just type exit.

To change a user's shell without root access, the chsh command is used. The commmand chsh can only be used to change a user's shell without root access if the shell is listed in /etc/shells. If you installed zsh using pacman, zsh should already have an entry in /etc/shells. To proceed you need to know the full path to the zsh executable, so run

which zsh

Shown here as an example is the command I used to change my shell; substitue my values for your own.

chsh -s /bin/zsh paul

An alternative way to change a user's loging shell is with the command usermod. The disadvantage of this method is that you must have root access to run usermod. The syntax for this command is

usermod -s /bin/zsh paul

You will now need to logout and log back in, and you should find yourself in zsh instead of bash.

If you do not have root access, and zsh is not listed in /etc/shells but you would still like to use zsh as your default shell, see this entry in the zsh FAQ.

Configuration

Although zsh is usable out of the box, it is almost certainly not set up the way you would like to use it, but due to the sheer amount of customisation available in zsh, creating a zsh config can be a daunting and time-consuming experience.

Included below is a sample configuration file, it provides a decent set of default options as well as giving examples of many ways that zsh can be customised. In order to use this configuration save it as a file named .zshrc. You can then apply the changes without needing to logout and then back in by running

source ~/.zshrc

Simple .zshrc

Here is a simple .zshrc, that should be sufficient to get you started:

autoload -U compinit promptinit
compinit
promptinit

# This will set the default prompt to the walters theme
prompt walters


/etc/zprofile

Much like the /etc/profile used for bash, this file is for global zsh settings & is a good place from which to run scripts from /etc/profile.d/ and set up environment variables such as $PATH. When setting up $PATH etc. in .zshrc and using a login-manager such as kdm, you may find those settings not being taken up by the window-manager, whereas they are when using /etc/zprofile.

Generally speaking, you can copy /etc/profile to /etc zprofile, but here's an example /etc/zprofile :

###############
# Zsh profile #
###############

export PATH="/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/X11R6/bin:/opt/bin"

export MANPATH="/usr/man:/usr/X11R6/man"
export LESSCHARSET="latin1"
export INPUTRC="/etc/inputrc"
export LESS="-R"

# load profiles from /etc/profile.d
#  (to disable a profile, just remove execute permission on it)
if [ `ls -A1 /etc/profile.d/ | wc -l` -gt 0 ]; then
  for profile in /etc/profile.d/*.sh; do
    if [ -x $profile ]; then
     . $profile
    fi
  done
  unset profile
fi


# Locale settings (find your locale with 'locale -a')
export LANG="en_GB.utf8"
export LC_COLLATE="C"
umask 022


Command Completion

Perhaps the most compelling feature of zsh is its advanced autocompletion abilities. At the very least, you will want to enable autocompletion in your .zshrc. To enable autocompletion, add the following to your .zshrc

autoload -U compinit
compinit


Key Bindings

Zsh doesn't read /etc/inputrc, which tells the shell what commands sent by the terminal emulator mean. To have some standard key bindings working on zsh, add something like this to .zshrc:

# key bindings
bindkey "\e[1~" beginning-of-line
bindkey "\e[4~" end-of-line
bindkey "\e[5~" beginning-of-history
bindkey "\e[6~" end-of-history
bindkey "\e[3~" delete-char
bindkey "\e[2~" quoted-insert
bindkey "\e[5C" forward-word
bindkey "\eOc" emacs-forward-word
bindkey "\e[5D" backward-word
bindkey "\eOd" emacs-backward-word
bindkey "\e\e[C" forward-word
bindkey "\e\e[D" backward-word
bindkey "^H" backward-delete-word
# for rxvt
bindkey "\e[8~" end-of-line
bindkey "\e[7~" beginning-of-line
# for non RH/Debian xterm, can't hurt for RH/DEbian xterm
bindkey "\eOH" beginning-of-line
bindkey "\eOF" end-of-line
# for freebsd console
bindkey "\e[H" beginning-of-line
bindkey "\e[F" end-of-line
# completion in the middle of a line
bindkey '^i' expand-or-complete-prefix

Prompts

There is a quick and easy way to set up a colored prompt in zsh. Make sure that prompt is set to autload in your .zshrc. This can be done by adding the lines:

autoload -U promptinit
promptinit

to your .zshrc. You can now see available prompts by running the command

prompt -l

To try one of the commands that is listed, use the command prompt followed by the name of the prompt you like. For example, to use the "walters" prompt, you would enter

prompt walters


Advanced .zshrc

This is an example of a more advanced .zshrc

###########################################################        
# Options for zsh
export HISTFILE=~/.zsh_history
export HISTSIZE=50000
export SAVEHIST=50000
eval `dircolors -z`

autoload -U compinit compinit
setopt autopushd pushdminus pushdsilent pushdtohome
setopt autocd
setopt cdablevars
setopt ignoreeof
setopt interactivecomments
setopt nobanghist
setopt noclobber
setopt HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
setopt HIST_IGNORE_SPACE
setopt SH_WORD_SPLIT
setopt nohup

# PS1 and PS2
export PS1="$(print '%{\e[1;34m%}%n%{\e[0m%}'):$(print '%{\e[0;34m%}%~%{\e[0m%}')$ "
export PS2="$(print '%{\e[0;34m%}>%{\e[0m%}')"

# Vars used later on by zsh
export EDITOR="gvim -geom 82x35"
export BROWSER=links
export XTERM="aterm +sb -geometry 80x29 -fg black -bg lightgoldenrodyellow -fn -xos4-terminus-medium-*-normal-*-14-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15"

##################################################################
# Stuff to make my life easier

# allow approximate
zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete _match _approximate
zstyle ':completion:*:match:*' original only
zstyle ':completion:*:approximate:*' max-errors 1 numeric

# tab completion for PID :D
zstyle ':completion:*:*:kill:*' menu yes select
zstyle ':completion:*:kill:*' force-list always

# cd not select parent dir. 
zstyle ':completion:*:cd:*' ignore-parents parent pwd

##################################################################
# Key bindings
# http://mundy.yazzy.org/unix/zsh.php
# http://www.zsh.org/mla/users/2000/msg00727.html

typeset -g -A key
bindkey '^?' backward-delete-char
bindkey '^[[1~' beginning-of-line
bindkey '^[[5~' up-line-or-history
bindkey '^[[3~' delete-char
bindkey '^[[4~' end-of-line
bindkey '^[[6~' down-line-or-history
bindkey '^[[A' up-line-or-search
bindkey '^[[D' backward-char
bindkey '^[[B' down-line-or-search
bindkey '^[[C' forward-char 

##################################################################
# My aliases

# Set up auto extension stuff
alias -s html=$BROWSER
alias -s org=$BROWSER
alias -s php=$BROWSER
alias -s com=$BROWSER
alias -s net=$BROWSER
alias -s png=feh
alias -s jpg=feh
alias -s gif=feg
alias -s sxw=soffice
alias -s doc=soffice
alias -s gz=tar -xzvf
alias -s bz2=tar -xjvf
alias -s java=$EDITOR
alias -s txt=$EDITOR
alias -s PKGBUILD=$EDITOR

# Normal aliases
alias ls='ls --color=auto -F'
alias lsd='ls -ld *(-/DN)'
alias lsa='ls -ld .*'
alias f='find |grep'
alias c="clear"
alias dir='ls -1'
alias gvim='gvim -geom 82x35'
alias ..='cd ..'
alias nicotine='/home/paul/downloads/nicotine-1.0.8rc1/nicotine'
alias ppp-on='sudo /usr/sbin/ppp-on'
alias ppp-off='sudo /usr/sbin/ppp-off'
alias firestarter='sudo su -c firestarter'
alias mpg123='mpg123 -o oss'
alias mpg321='mpg123 -o oss'
alias vba='/home/paul/downloads/VisualBoyAdvance -f 4'
alias hist="grep '$1' /home/paul/.zsh_history"
alias irssi="irssi -c irc.freenode.net -n yyz"
alias mem="free -m"
alias msn="tmsnc -l hutchy@subdimension.com"

# command L equivalent to command |less
alias -g L='|less' 

# command S equivalent to command &> /dev/null &
alias -g S='&> /dev/null &'

# type a directory's name to cd to it.
compctl -/ cd

There are many more ways that you can customise zsh, obviously far too many to list here, see the zsh manual for more information.

Enable Unicode

The latest versions of zsh support unicode characters. To enable it, just rebuild the package with abs. First you have to update the abs tree.

$ su root
$ abs

Then go to /var/abs/extra/system/zsh and add the option --enable-multibyte to the PKGBUILD:

...
build() {
 cd $startdir/src/$pkgname-$pkgver
 ./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin \
   --enable-etcdir=/etc/zsh \
   --enable-zshenv=/etc/zsh/zshenv \
   --enable-zlogin=/etc/zsh/zlogin \
   --enable-zlogout=/etc/zsh/zlogout \
   --enable-zprofile=/etc/profile \
   --enable-zshrc=/etc/zsh/zshrc \
   --enable-maildir-support \
   --with-curses-terminfo \
   --enable-zsh-secure-free \
   --enable-multibyte
...

Now you can rebuild the package and update it.

$ makepkg
$ pacman -U 'new zsh package'

Uninstallation

If you decide that zsh is not the shell for you and you want to return to BASH you must first change your default shell before removing the package. Failure to do so will result in all kinds of problems.

First you need to find out the path to sh, do this by running

which sh

Then, as with the install, use the usermod program to modify your default shell

usermod -s /bin/sh paul

You are then free to remove the zsh package using pacman

pacman -R zsh

External Resources


  • IRC channel: #zsh at irc.freenode.org