GDM (简体中文)

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附注: 文章大部分内容未被翻译。(在 Talk:GDM (简体中文)# 中讨论)
翻译状态:本文是 GDM翻译。上次翻译日期:2018-08-08。如果英文版本有所更改,则您可以帮助同步翻译。

来自GDM - GNOME显示管理器:“GNOME显示管理器(GDM)是一个管理图形显示服务和处理图形用户登录的程序。

显示管理器s provide X Window System and Wayland users with a graphical login prompt.



如果你更希望使用在GNOME 2中使用的旧的GDM和它的实用配置程序,安装gdm-oldAUR软件包。请注意,除非另有说明,否则本条目的其余部分均为讨论当前的GDM,而非旧的GDM。


  • gdm3setup — 一个用来配置GDM3的接口,有自动登陆选项并且能更改Shell的主题 || gdm3setup-utilsAUR




One might want to autostart certain commands, such as xrandr for instance, on login. This can be achieved by adding a command or script to a location that is sourced by the display manager. See Display manager#Autostarting for a list of supported locations.

注意: /etc/gdm/Init目录不再是受支持的位置,参见[1].



Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: Configuration is not persistent and will be gone after gdm update. Needs to be rewritten to enable user-themes gnome-shell extension for gdm user and use custom theme and set gsetting to use that theme (Discuss in Talk:GDM (简体中文))
  • 自GNOME 3.16开始,GNOME Shell主题被存储为二进制文件。 (gresource)
  • This change will be overwritten on subsequent updates of gnome-shell.

Firstly, you need to extract the existing GNOME Shell theme to a folder in your home directory. You can do this using the following script:

for r in `gresource list $gst`; do
	if [ ! -d $workdir/${r%/*} ]; then
	  mkdir -p $workdir/${r%/*}

for r in `gresource list $gst`; do
        gresource extract $gst $r >$workdir/${r#\/org\/gnome\/shell/}

Navigate to the created directory. You should find that the theme files have been extracted to it. Now copy your preferred background image to this directory.

Next, you need to create a file in the directory with the following content:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
  <gresource prefix="/org/gnome/shell/theme">

Replace filename with the filename of your background image.

Now, open the gnome-shell.css file in the directory and change the #lockDialogGroup definition as follows:

#lockDialogGroup {
  background: #2e3436 url(filename);
  background-size: [WIDTH]px [HEIGHT]px;
  background-repeat: no-repeat;

Set background-size to the resolution that GDM uses, this might not necessarily be the resolution of the image. For a list of display resolutions see Display resolution. Again, set filename to be the name of the background image.

Finally, compile the theme using the following command:

$ glib-compile-resources gnome-shell-theme.gresource.xml

Then copy the resulting gnome-shell-theme.gresource file to the /usr/share/gnome-shell directory.

Then restart gdm.service (note that simply logging out is not enough) and you should find that it is using your preferred background image.

For more information, please see the following forum thread.

DConf configuration

Some GDM settings are stored in a DConf database. They can be configured either by adding keyfiles to the /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d directory and then recompiling the GDM database by running dconf update as root or by logging into the GDM user on the system and changing the setting directly using the gsettings command line tool. Note that for the former approach, a GDM profile file is required - this must be created manually as it is no longer shipped upstream, see below:


For the latter approach, you can log into the GDM user with the command below:

# machinectl shell gdm@

Either create the following keyfile


and then recompile the GDM database or alternatively log in to the GDM user and execute the following:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.login-screen logo '/path/to/logo.png'


GDM disregards GNOME cursor theme settings and it also ignores the cursor theme set according to the XDG specification. To change the cursor theme used in GDM, either create the following keyfile


and then recompile the GDM database or alternatively log in to the GDM user and execute the following:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface cursor-theme 'theme-name'


Click on the accessibility icon at the top right of the screen (a white circle with the silhouette of a person in the centre) and check the Large Text option.

To set a specific scaling factor, you can create the following keyfile:


and then recompile the GDM database or alternatively log in to the GDM user and execute the following:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface text-scaling-factor '1.25'


This tweak disables the audible feedback heard when the system volume is adjusted (via keyboard) on the login screen.

Either create the following keyfile:


and then recompile the GDM database or alternatively log in to the GDM user and execute the following:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.sound event-sounds 'false'


  • The logind settings for the power button are overriden by GNOME Settings Daemon. [2]
  • As of GDM 3.18, the power button cannot be set to interactive. [3]
  • In some cases, this setting will be ignored and hardcoded defaults will be used. [4]
警告: Please note that the acpid daemon also handles the "power button" and "hibernate button" events. Running both systems at the same time may lead to unexpected behaviour.

Either create the following keyfile:


and then recompile the GDM database or alternatively log in to the GDM user and execute the following:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power power-button-action 'action'

where action can be one of nothing, suspend or hibernate.



注意: 如果你想要在X下这么做,you have to first set up correct X server access permissions - see #Configure X server access permission.


# sudo -u gdm gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.peripherals.touchpad tap-to-click true


# sudo -u gdm dconf-editor


$ sudo -u gdm gsettings get org.gnome.desktop.peripherals.touchpad tap-to-click

如果你得到一个错误:dconf-WARNING **: failed to commit changes to dconf: Error spawning command line,请确认dbus正在运行:

$ sudo -u gdm dbus-launch gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.peripherals.touchpad tap-to-click true



# machinectl shell gdm@
# gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface toolkit-accessibility false
# exit



系统键盘布局会被应用到GDM。参见Keyboard configuration in Xorg#Using X configuration files

提示: See Wikipedia:ISO 3166-1 for a list of keymaps.

If a system has multiple users, it is possible to specify a keyboard layout for GDM to use which is different from the system keyboard layout. Firstly, ensure the package gnome-control-center is installed. Then start gnome-control-center and navigate to Region & Language -> Input Sources. In the header bar, hit the Login Screen toggle button and then choose a keyboard layout from the list. Note that the Login Screen button will not be visible in the header bar unless multiple users are present on the system [5].

GDM 2.x(legacy GDM)的用户需要将~/.dmrc更改为以下内容:

Language=de_DE.UTF-8   # change to your default lang
Layout=de   nodeadkeys # change to your keyboard layout


The system language will be applied to GDM. If a system has multiple users, it is possible to set a language for GDM different to the system language. In this case, firstly ensure that gnome-control-center is installed. Then, start gnome-control-center and choose Region & Language. In the header bar, check the Login Screen toggle button. Finally, click on Language and choose your language from the list. You will be prompted for your root password. Note that the Login Screen button will not be visible in the header bar unless multiple users are present on the system [6].

提示: By adding 2 different input languages, logging out then selecting your default language GDM will remember your choice once the second option is removed.




# Enable automatic login for user
提示: If GDM fails after adding these lines, comment them out from a TTY.

or for an automatic login with a delay:



You can set the session used for automatic login (replace gnome-xorg with desired session):



If you want to bypass the password prompt in GDM then simply add the following line on the first line of /etc/pam.d/gdm-password:

auth sufficient user ingroup nopasswdlogin

Then, add the group nopasswdlogin to your system. See User group for group descriptions and group management commands.

Now, add your user to the nopasswdlogin group and you will only have to click on your username to login.

  • 不要root账户这么做。
  • You will not be able to change your session type at login with GDM anymore. If you want to change your default session type, you will first need to remove your user from the nopasswdlogin group.

Passwordless shutdown for multiple sessions

GDM uses polkit and logind to gain permissions for shutdown. You can shutdown the system when multiple users are logged in by setting:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE policyconfig PUBLIC
 "-//freedesktop//DTD PolicyKit Policy Configuration 1.0//EN"


  <action id="org.freedesktop.login1.power-off-multiple-sessions">
    <description>Shutdown the system when multiple users are logged in</description>
    <message>System policy prevents shutting down the system when other users are logged in</message>


You can find all available logind options (e.g. reboot-multiple-sessions) here.


It is not advised to login as root, but if necessary you can edit /etc/pam.d/gdm-password and add the following line before the line auth required


auth            sufficient uid eq 0 quiet

The file should look something like this:


auth            sufficient uid eq 0 quiet
auth            sufficient uid >= 1000 quiet
auth            required

You should be able to login as root after restarting GDM.


The users for the gdm user list are gathered by AccountsService. It will automatically hide system users (UID < 1000). To hide ordinary users from the login list create or edit a file named after the user to hide in /var/lib/AccountsService/users/ to contain at least:



一些 Desktop environment (简体中文) 保存显示设置于 ~/.config/monitors.xmlxrandr 命令基于该文件内容生成信息。在GDM中类似内容保存在/var/lib/gdm/.config/monitors.xml


# cp ~/.config/monitors.xml /var/lib/gdm/.config/
# chown gdm:gdm /var/lib/gdm/.config/monitors.xml


<monitors version="2">


注意: 如果你在Wayland下使用GDM,你必须使用在Wayland下创建的monitors.xml。参看GDM bug 224 获取更多信息。你也可以强制让GDM #使用Xorg作为后端,并使用在Xorg下创建的monitors.xml

Configure X server access permission

You can use the xhost command to configure X server access permissions.

For instance, to grant GDM the right to access the X server, use the following command:

# xhost +SI:localuser:gdm



GDM uses the Wayland backend by default which conflicts with NVIDIA driver. Turning off the Wayland backend could enable proprietary NVIDIA driver.


If GDM starts up properly on boot, but fails after repeated attempts on logout, try adding this line to the daemon section of /etc/gdm/custom.conf:


Rootless Xorg

参见Xorg#Rootless Xorg


The Wayland backend is used by default and the Xorg backend is used only if the Wayland backend cannot be started. As the Wayland backend has been reported to cause problems for some users, use of the Xorg backend may be necessary. To use the Xorg backend by default, edit the /etc/gdm/custom.conf file and uncomment the following line:


Incomplete removal of gdm

After removing gdm, systemd may report the following:

user 'gdm': directory '/var/lib/gdm' does not exist

To remove this warning, login as root and delete the primary user "gdm" and then delete the group "gdm":

# userdel gdm
# groupdel gdm

Verify that gdm is successfully removed via pwck and grpck. To round it off, you may want to double-check no unowned files for gdm remain.

GDM自动挂起(GNOME 3.28)

GDM uses a separate dconf database to control power management. You can make GDM behave the same way as user sessions by copying the user settings to GDM's dconf database.

$ IFS=$'\n'; for x in $(sudo -u YOUR_USER gsettings list-recursively org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power); do eval "sudo -u gdm dbus-launch gsettings set $x"; done; unset IFS

Or to simply disable auto-suspend (also run the command with ac replaced with battery to also disable it while running on battery):

$ sudo -u gdm dbus-launch gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-ac-type 'nothing'