GNOME (简体中文)/Files (简体中文)

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文件GNOME的默认文件管理器。文件的目的是提供一种管理文件和应用的简化方法。

Note: 在3.6版本之前,文件叫做Nautilus,后来则对每种语言做了新的描述性名称。Nautilus这个名字仍然用在许多地方,如可执行文件名、软件包名、桌面条目和GSettings Schema等。


安装

安装nautilus软件包,此软件包是gnome组的一部分。见File manager functionality (简体中文)#附加功能[损坏的链接:无效的章节]

Note: 文件不依赖gnome-shell,只需要gnome-desktop

扩展

一些程序可以为文件增加额外的功能,例如下面这些来自官方软件仓库和AUR的软件包。

Note: 用Python编写的扩展需要Nautilus扩展API的Python绑定(python-nautilus包)。
  • File Manager Actions — Configures programs to be launched when files are selected in Nautilus (written in C)
https://gitlab.gnome.org/GNOME/filemanager-actions || filemanager-actions
  • Folder Color — A file browser extension for choosing the color of a folder (written in Python)
https://foldercolor.tuxfamily.org/ || folder-color-nautilusAUR
Tip: This extension works only with these icon-themes which contain additional colored icons, eg:
numix-icon-theme-gitAUR, vibrancy-colorsAUR, humanity-icon-themeAUR, mint-x-iconsAUR
  • Nautilus Admin — Add to menu: "Open as administrator" or "Edit as administrator" (written in Python)
https://github.com/brunonova/nautilus-admin || nautilus-adminAUR
  • Nautilus Annotations — Annotate files and directories (written in C)
https://gitlab.gnome.org/madmurphy/nautilus-annotations/ || nautilus-annotationsAUR
  • Nautilus Bluetooth — Add to menu: "Send via Bluetooth" (written in C)
https://gitlab.gnome.org/madmurphy/nautilus-bluetooth/ || nautilus-bluetoothAUR
  • Nautilus Git — Nautilus/Nemo extension to add important information about the current git directory (written in Python)
https://github.com/bilelmoussaoui/nautilus-git || nautilus-ext-gitAUR
  • Nautilus Hide — Add to menu: "Hide"/"Unhide" (written in C)
https://gitlab.gnome.org/madmurphy/nautilus-hide/ || nautilus-hideAUR
  • Nautilus Launch — Nautilus extension to run executables and launchers via right-click menu (written in C)
https://gitlab.gnome.org/madmurphy/nautilus-launch || nautilus-launchAUR
  • Nautilus Metadata Editor — Nautilus extension with simple Metadata Editor for the following mime types: audio/x-mp3, audio/x-flac, audio/x-vorbis+ogg, audio/x-speex+ogg, audio/x-musepack, audio/x-wavpack, audio/x-tta, audio/x-aiff, audio/m4a, video/mp4, video/x-ms-asf (written in C and Vala)
https://gitlab.com/nvlgit/nautilus-metadata-editor-extension || nautilus-metadata-editorAUR
  • Nautilus SendTo — Files context menu for sending files (written in C)
https://gitlab.gnome.org/Archive/nautilus-sendto || nautilus-sendto
  • Nautilus Share — Nautilus extension to share folder using Samba (written in C)
https://gitlab.gnome.org/Archive/nautilus-share || nautilus-share
  • Nautilus Terminal — Terminal embedded in Files. It is always open in the current folder, and follows the navigation (written in Python)
https://projects.flogisoft.com/nautilus-terminal/ || nautilus-terminal
  • Nautilus Wipe — Nautilus extension to provide wiping integration (written in C)
https://wipetools.tuxfamily.org/nautilus-wipe.html || nautilus-wipeAUR
  • Seahorse Nautilus — PGP encryption and signing for Files (written in C)
https://gitlab.gnome.org/GNOME/seahorse-nautilus || seahorse-nautilus
提示: 若要编写新的扩展,辅助脚本nextgenAUR可以让您轻松地设置GNOME文件的新扩展项目(默认使用C语言)。

安装自己Nautilus扩展的应用程序

以下应用默认安装自己的扩展,从而将其功能集成于Nautilus。

  • EasyTAG — EasyTAG is a simple application for viewing and editing tags in audio files; it supports MP3, MP2, MP4/AAC, FLAC, Ogg Opus, Ogg Speex, Ogg Vorbis, MusePack, Monkey's Audio, and WavPack files and works under Linux or Windows — The application includes a "Nautilus EasyTAG" extension (written in C)
https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/EasyTAG || easytag
  • Brasero — CD/DVD mastering tool — The application includes a "Nautilus Brasero" extension (written in C)
https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Brasero || brasero
  • Eiciel — GNOME file ACL editor — The application includes an "Eiciel Nautilus" extension that add graphical ACL editor into the file properties window (written in C++)
https://rofi.roger-ferrer.org/eiciel/ || eicielAUR
  • Evince — Document viewer (PDF, PostScript, XPS, djvu, dvi, tiff, cbr, cbz, cb7, cbt) — The application includes an "Evince Properties Page" extension for Nautilus (written in C)
https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Evince || evince
  • File Roller — An application for browsing archives — The application includes a "Nautilus FileRoller" extension (written in C)
https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/FileRoller || file-roller
  • GNOME Terminal — The GNOME Terminal Emulator — The application includes a "Terminal Nautilus" extension (written in C)
https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Terminal || gnome-terminal
  • Tilix — A tiling terminal emulator for GNU/Linux using GTK+ 3 — The application includes an extension for Nautilus which adds an "Open in Tilix" option to the context menu (written in Python)
https://github.com/gnunn1/tilix || tilix
Note: "Open in Tilix"扩展将python-nautilus软件包标记为可选依赖,但必须安装才能使用。


依赖非自由软件的扩展

一些GNOME 文件的扩展虽然免费/自由,但可能依赖于非自由软件,例如:

  • Code Nautilus — 用来在Visual Studio Code中打开文件和目录的Nautilus扩展(用Python编写)
https://github.com/cra0zy/code-nautilus || code-nautilus-gitAUR
  • JetBrains Nautilus — Nautilus extension to open files and directories in JetBrains Toolbox installed products (written in Python)
https://github.com/encounter/jetbrains-nautilus || jetbrains-nautilus-gitAUR

配置

文件很容易进行图形化配置,但并非所有选项都能在首选项中找到。更多选项可以使用dconf-editororg.gnome.nautilus中找到。

Note: 如果在GNOME桌面环境之外使用文件,则必须确保/usr/lib/gsd-xsettings正在运行,否则dconf设置不会在文件中应用。

桌面图标

GNOME#Icons on the desktop[损坏的链接:无效的章节]

改变默认项目视图

设置default-folder-viewer变量可以改变项目的默认视图,如设为列表视图:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.nautilus.preferences default-folder-viewer 'list-view'

按类型排序

若要默认用类型排序所有文件夹中的文件:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.nautilus.preferences default-sort-order 'type'

从侧边栏移除文件夹

~/.config/user-dirs.dirs中指定了侧边栏显示的文件夹,可以用文本编辑器修改。执行xdg-user-dirs-update会改变文件,因此最好将文件权限设为只读。

始终显示文本文件路径

文件工具栏默认显示用于路径导航的按钮栏界面。若要用键盘输入路径,则需按Ctrl+l显示文本路径栏。

若要始终以文本路径栏显示,可以使用以下gsettings命令:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.nautilus.preferences always-use-location-entry true
Note: 改变此设置后将无法再显示按钮栏,只有把值设为false时才能同时使用两种路径栏。

提示与技巧

缩略图

File manager functionality (简体中文)#缩略图预览[损坏的链接:无效的章节]

Note:linux-hardened中,缩略图会生成失败(所有缩略图都在~/.cache/thumbnails/fail/目录中),这是由于非特权用户的命名空间因为安全原因在该内核上默认禁用。Nautilus使用bwrap (由bubblewrap提供)对缩略图进行沙盒处理。可以用bubblewrap-suid替换bubblewrap。详见Security#Sandboxing applications

有时会无法显示视频缩略图。若要解决此问题(正如No video thumbnails on nautilus),必须安装ffmpegthumbnailergst-libavgst-plugins-ugly并移除~/.cache/thumbnails/fail/里的内容。

用右键菜单创建新文档

若要使用此选项,请在您的主文件夹中创建一个~/Templates/(模板)文件夹,并通过终端touch ~/Templates/new或任何文件管理器在该文件夹中放置一个空文件,然后重新启动文件。

在非英语系统中,模板目录的名称可能不同。可以用xdg-user-dir TEMPLATES找到实际目录。

可以在~/.config/user-dirs.dirs文件中配置模板目录。

XDG_TEMPLATES_DIR="$HOME/some/path"

隐藏文件

GNOME文件和大部分文件管理器一样,默认隐藏名称以“.”开头的文件。

GNOME Files additionally hides files when their names are listed in a .hidden file in the same directory (one filename per line). See nautilus-hideAUR for an extension that facilitates adding/removing entries from such .hidden files.

在Tilix中打开当前路径

If you are using tilix terminal you can easily add "Open in Tilix" option to the context menu of GNOME Files by installing its optional dependency python-nautilus.

将文件夹加入书签

若要将文件夹添加到你的书签中,只需在Nautilus中打开该文件夹,并按Ctrl+d。请注意,书签列表与其它基于GNOME的图形化文件管理器(如Nemo)共享,因此在其中增减的文件夹也会影响到其它文件管理器中的书签。

自定义脚本

位于~/.local/share/nautilus/scripts的脚本可以运行于文件的右键关联菜单。

The context menu can also be organized into subfolders, e.g. ~/.local/share/nautilus/scripts/images and ~/.local/share/nautilus/scripts/music.

Scripts have access to the following environment variables:

NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_FILE_PATHS
NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS
NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_CURRENT_URI
NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_WINDOW_GEOMETRY

一些脚本示例:

~/.local/share/nautilus/scripts/open-terminal-here
#!/bin/sh
gnome-terminal
~/.local/share/nautilus/scripts/remove-extension
#!/bin/sh
echo "$NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_FILE_PATHS" | while read -r filename; do
    mv -n "$filename" "${filename%.*}"
done
Note: Make sure the scripts are marked as executable. You may have to restart nautilus with nautilus -q for them to show up.

Keybinds

Keybinds to execute scripts can be assigned in the ~/.config/nautilus/scripts-accels file:

; Example Keybinds
; Modifiers: <Control> <Alt> <Shift>
F4 open-terminal-here
<Alt>x remove-extension
Note: You cannot overwrite any pre-existing nautilus keybinds.

疑难解答

文件已不再是默认文件管理器

这可能是因为重置了路径的文件关联,安装anjutaAUR往往会造成这种情况。

若要解决此问题,打开文件,右键点击一个文件夹,然后选择使用其它程序打开 > 文件 > 选择,就会把路径的关联设回文件。

若没有解决此问题,见File manager functionality (简体中文)#目录未在文件管理器中打开[损坏的链接:无效的章节]

每次复制操作后都会卡几秒

如果系统中安装了kdeconnect,问题可能来自其文件共享模块,停用文件共享即可。

打不开Google Drive

可能是因为没有全部安装以下软件包:

全部安装即可。