GTK (简体中文)

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摘自 GTK 官方网站

GTK,或称 GIMP Toolkit,是一个跨平台的图形界面开发库。该库提供一套完整的窗口部件,从一次性工具到大型应用都可使用。

GTK,即 GIMP Toolkit,最初由 GNU 项目GIMP 开发,但现在它已经是一个非常流行的工具包,绑定了很多语言。本文将探讨 GTK 主题、风格、图标、字体和字号的配置工具,也会详细介绍手动配置。

安装

目前在官方软件仓库中有三个版本的 GTK。它们可以通过以下软件包来安装

  • GTK 4.x 可以通过 gtk4 包获得。
  • GTK 3.x 可以通过 gtk3 包获得。
  • GTK 2.x 可以通过 gtk2 包获得。
  • GTK 1.x 可以通过 gtkAUR 包获得。

主题

GTK 3 的默认主题是 Adwaita,但也包含了 HighContrast 和 HighContrastInverse 主题。 GTK 2 的默认主题是 Raleigh,但 Arch Linux 位于 /usr/share/gtk-2.0/gtkrc 的自定义配置文件将默认主题设为了 Adwaita。

若要强制指定主题,设定以下环境变量

  • 对于 GTK 3,使用 GTK_THEME。 例如将 GNOME 计算器的主题设为 Adwaita 的暗色变体:
$ GTK_THEME=Adwaita:dark gnome-calculator
注意:
  • 对于 GTK 2,使用 GTK2_RC_FILES。例如将 GIMP 的主题设为 Raleigh:
$ GTK2_RC_FILES=/usr/share/themes/Raleigh/gtk-2.0/gtkrc gimp
提示: gtkrc can also be a custom file in your home directory created by any of the #配置工具. See #示例.

在官方软件仓库或AUR可以安装更多主题。可以在 ~/.themes/~/.local/share/themes/ 目录中手动提取主题。

GTK 2 与 GTK 3 的主题支持:

  • Adapta — An adaptive GTK theme based on Material Design Guidelines. Includes: Adapta, Adapta-Eta, Adapta-Nokto, Adapta-Nokto-Eta
https://github.com/tista500/Adapta || adapta-gtk-theme
  • Arc — A flat theme with a modern look and transparent elements. Includes: Arc, Arc-Dark, Arc-Darker
https://github.com/jnsh/arc-theme || with transparency: arc-gtk-theme, without transparency: arc-solid-gtk-theme
  • Bluebird — Blue Desktop Suite for Xfce.
https://github.com/shimmerproject/Bluebird || xfce-theme-bluebirdAUR
  • Breeze — GTK version of KDE's default widget theme. Includes: Breeze, Breeze-Dark
https://invent.kde.org/plasma/breeze-gtk || breeze-gtk
  • Deepin — Default theme for the Deepin desktop. Includes: deepin, deepin-dark
https://github.com/linuxdeepin/deepin-gtk-theme || deepin-gtk-theme
  • GNOME Extra Themes — Extra themes for the GNOME desktop. Includes: Adwaita, Adwaita-dark, HighContrast
https://gitlab.gnome.org/GNOME/gnome-themes-extra || gnome-themes-extra
  • Greybird — A grey and blue Xfce theme, used by default in Xubuntu 12.04.
https://github.com/shimmerproject/Greybird || xfce-theme-greybirdAUR
  • Materia — A Material Design-like flat theme for GTK3, GTK2, and GNOME-Shell.
https://github.com/nana-4/materia-theme || materia-gtk-theme
  • MATE Themes — Default themes for the MATE desktop. Includes: BlackMATE, Blue-Submarine, BlueMenta, ContrastHighInverse, Green-Submarine, GreenLaguna, Menta, TraditionalGreen, TraditionalOk
https://github.com/mate-desktop/mate-themes || mate-themes
  • Numix — A flat and light theme with a modern look (GNOME, Openbox, Unity, Xfce). Includes: Numix
https://github.com/numixproject/numix-gtk-theme || numix-gtk-theme-gitAUR
  • Vertex — Theme for GTK 3, GTK 2, Gnome-Shell and Cinnamon.
https://github.com/horst3180/vertex-theme || vertex-themesAUR
  • Zuki — Themes for GTK, gnome-shell and more.
https://github.com/lassekongo83/zuki-themes || zuki-themesAUR

AUR 中还有很多 GTK 主题,例如:搜索 gtk-theme

GTK 与 QT

同时在系统上安装 GTK 和 QT(通常是 KDE 组件)程序的人都知道,两者的外观并不怎么协调。关于两者外观统一的问题,参见:协调QT和GTK程序的外观

配置工具

大部分主流桌面环境都提供配置 GTK 主题、图标、字体和字体尺寸的工具,并使用 XSettings 管理这些设置:

  • 如果使用 Cinnamon,use Themes tool (cinnamon-settings themes): go to System Settings > Themes.
  • 如果使用 Enlightenment:go to Settings > All > Look > Application Theme.
  • 如果使用 GNOME,use GNOME Tweaks (gnome-tweaks): install gnome-tweaks.
  • 如果使用 MATE,use the Appearance Preferences tool (mate-appearance-properties): go to System > Settings > Appearance.
  • 如果使用 Xfce,use the Appearance tool: go to Settings > Appearance.

其他 GUI 工具通常会覆写配置文件

同时支持 GTK 2 与 GTK 3 的:

  • KDE GTK Configurator — Application that allows you to change style and font of GTK 2 and GTK 3 applications.
https://invent.kde.org/plasma/kde-gtk-config || kde-gtk-config
After installation, kde-gtk-config can be found in System Settings > Appearance > Application Style > Configure GNOME/GTK Application Style.
  • LXAppearance — Desktop independent GTK 2 and GTK 3 style configuration tool from the LXDE project (it does not require other parts of the LXDE desktop).
https://wiki.lxde.org/en/LXAppearance[失效链接 2022-09-18 ⓘ] || lxappearance-gtk3
  • Oo-mox — Graphical application for generating different color variations of Numix and Flat-Plat themes (GTK 2 and 3), Archdroid and Gnome-Colors icon themes. Also allows generating pre-scaled GTK 2 themes for HiDPI displays.
https://github.com/actionless/oomox || themix-full-gitAUR

只支持 GTK 2 的:

  • GTK Change Theme — Little program that lets you change your GTK 2.0 theme (considered a better alternative to switch2).
http://plasmasturm.org/code/gtk-chtheme/ || gtk-chtheme
  • GTK Preference Tool — GTK theme selector and font switcher.
https://gtk-win.sourceforge.io/home/index.php/Main/GTKPreferenceTool || gtk2_prefsAUR
  • GTK Theme Switch — Simple GTK theme switcher.
http://muhri.net/nav.php3?node=gts || gtk-theme-switch2AUR

配置

GTK settings can be specified manually in configuration files, but desktop environments and applications can override these settings. Depending on GTK version, these files are located at:

  • GTK 2 user specific: ~/.gtkrc-2.0
  • GTK 2 system wide: /etc/gtk-2.0/gtkrc
  • GTK 3 user specific: $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/gtk-3.0/settings.ini, or $HOME/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini if $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is not set
  • GTK 3 system wide: /etc/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
注意:
  • See the GTK4 and GTK3 GtkSettings properties (and GTK 2 properties) in the GTK programming reference manual for the full list of currently supported GTK configuration options.
  • Some of the settings described below (such as gtk-icon-sizes) are deprecated and ignored since GTK 3.10.
  • If you edit your GTK configuration files, only newly started applications will display the changes.

基本主题配置

To manually change the GTK theme, icons, font and font size, add the following to the configuration files, for example:

  • GTK 2:
~/.gtkrc-2.0
gtk-icon-theme-name = "Adwaita"
gtk-theme-name = "Adwaita"
gtk-font-name = "DejaVu Sans 11"
  • GTK 3:
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
[Settings]
gtk-icon-theme-name = Adwaita
gtk-theme-name = Adwaita
gtk-font-name = DejaVu Sans 11

If the theme is not applied for GTK 3, use gsettings in addition:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface gtk-theme Pop
注意: The icon theme name is the name of its directory, not the name property in its index.theme.

深色版主题

有些 GTK 3 的主题包含深色版本, 但只有应用程序明确要求时才会使用. 要在所有 GTK 3 程序中应用深色模式, 请使用以下配置:

gtk-application-prefer-dark-theme = true

For GTK 4, use:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface color-scheme prefer-dark

键盘快捷键

把鼠标放在某个菜单项,然后按下某个按键组合,即可修改该项目的快捷键。不过,该功能默认是关闭的。启用方法是使用以下配置:

gtk-can-change-accels = 1

Emacs 按键绑定

To have Emacs-like key bindings in GTK applications add the following:

~/.gtkrc-2.0
gtk-key-theme-name = "Emacs"
~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
[Settings]
gtk-key-theme-name = Emacs

For GTK3 also run:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface gtk-key-theme "Emacs"

XFCE has a similar setting:

$ xfconf-query -c xsettings -p /Gtk/KeyThemeName -s Emacs

The configuration files in /usr/share/themes/Emacs/ determine what the Emacs bindings are, and can be changed. Copying sections to the users ~/.gtkrc-2.0 file allows for changes on a per user basis.

GNOME 菜单延迟

鼠标指向菜单与菜单显示之间有一定延迟,通过以下设置调整延迟时间(以毫秒为单位):

gtk-menu-popup-delay = 0

缩小窗口部件

如果屏幕很小,不喜欢过大的图标和窗口部件,可以调整其尺寸。

若要让工具栏仅显示图标而不显示文字(valid values):

gtk-toolbar-style = GTK_TOOLBAR_ICONS

若要显示小图标:

gtk-icon-sizes = "panel-menu=16,16:panel=16,16:gtk-menu=16,16:gtk-large-toolbar=16,16\
:gtk-small-toolbar=16,16:gtk-button=16,16"

若要移除按钮上的图标:

gtk-button-images = 0

若要移除菜单上的图标:

gtk-menu-images = 0

另见 [1][2].

隐藏 CSD 按钮

To remove the client-side decorations (CSD)[3] minimize and maximize buttons from gtk3 windows:

gtk-decoration-layout=menu:close

See GTK docs.

禁用鼠标中键粘贴

To turn off pasting on middle mouse button click (aka PRIMARY):

gtk-enable-primary-paste=false

文件选择器启动时的初始位置

Open the file-chooser within the current working directory and not the recent location. Normally the current working directory is the Home directory.

GTK 3

Change setting with the following command:

$ gsettings set org.gtk.Settings.FileChooser startup-mode cwd

GTK 2

Add the following to ~/.config/gtk-2.0/gtkfilechooser.ini:

StartupMode=cwd

Legacy scrolling behavior

注意: This setting is not obeyed by all GTK applications.
提示: Legacy scrolling behaviour can be achieved reliably simply by using right click instead of left click.

Prior to GTK 3.6, clicking on either side of the slider in the scrollbar would move the scrollbar in the direction of the click by approximately one page. Since GTK 3.6, the slider will move directly to the position of the click. This behaviour can be reverted in some applications by creating the file with the content below:

~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
[Settings]
gtk-primary-button-warps-slider = false

Disable overlay scrollbars

Since GTK 3.15, overlay scrollbars are enabled by default, meaning that scrollbars will be shown only on mouseover in GTK 3 applications. This behavior can be reverted by setting the following environment variable: GTK_OVERLAY_SCROLLING=0. See Environment variables#Graphical environment.

Alternatively, overlay scrollbars can be disabled in the GTK 3 settings since GTK 3.24.9. To do so, the value of gtk-overlay-scrolling has to be set to false in the [Settings] section of the settings file:

~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
[Settings]
gtk-overlay-scrolling = false

GTK 4 will no longer support GTK_OVERLAY_SCROLLING. It has already been dropped from master. As of GTK 4, the overlay nature of the scrollbars is part of the toolkit. The blanket toggle has been removed to prevent developers from breaking applications that have not been tested with both combinations. To allow application developers to decide what their applications should look like, the toolkit instead provides a mechanism to opt-out or add a setting for users. The function gtk_scrolled_window_set_overlay_scrolling() can be used to enable/disable overlay scrolling on a per-application basis. Application developers can optionally use GSettings to have a user setting bound to the property.

Remove overlay scroll indicators

The positions of the overlay scrollbars are indicated by thin dashed lines in the application window. These dashed lines will be present even when overlay scrolling is disabled using the environment variable discussed in the section above. To remove the indicator lines, create the following file:

~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css
/* Remove dotted lines from GTK 3 applications */
undershoot.top, undershoot.right, undershoot.bottom, undershoot.left { background-image: none; }

示例

GTK example configurations:

注意: May be ignored by some desktop environments (e.g. GNOME).
~/.gtkrc-2.0
gtk-theme-name="Arc-Dark"
gtk-icon-theme-name="breeze-dark"
gtk-font-name="Sans 11"
gtk-cursor-theme-name="Breeze_Amber"
gtk-cursor-theme-size=0
gtk-toolbar-style=GTK_TOOLBAR_BOTH_HORIZ
gtk-toolbar-icon-size=GTK_ICON_SIZE_SMALL_TOOLBAR
gtk-button-images=0
gtk-menu-images=0
gtk-enable-event-sounds=0
gtk-enable-input-feedback-sounds=0
gtk-xft-antialias=1
gtk-xft-hinting=1
gtk-xft-hintstyle="hintslight"
gtk-xft-rgba="rgb"
~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
[Settings]
gtk-theme-name=Arc-Dark
gtk-icon-theme-name=breeze-dark
gtk-font-name=Sans 11
gtk-cursor-theme-name=Breeze_Amber
gtk-cursor-theme-size=0
gtk-toolbar-style=GTK_TOOLBAR_BOTH_HORIZ
gtk-toolbar-icon-size=GTK_ICON_SIZE_SMALL_TOOLBAR
gtk-button-images=0
gtk-menu-images=0
gtk-enable-event-sounds=0
gtk-enable-input-feedback-sounds=0
gtk-xft-antialias=1
gtk-xft-hinting=1
gtk-xft-hintstyle=hintslight
gtk-xft-rgba=rgb
# gtk-decoration-layout=menu:close
# gtk-application-prefer-dark-theme=1

GDK 后端

GDK(GTK 的底层抽象层)支持多个后端显示 GTK 应用。

Wayland 后端

GDK Wayland 后端仅由 gtk3 支持,并且是使用 Wayland 显示服务器时的默认后端。

使用 gtk3 之前的 GTK 版本的应用程序不支持 Wayland,并且需要通过 Xwayland 才能使用 X11 后端在 Wayland 会话上运行。

使用 Wayland 后端时,一些变量不会从 settings.ini 读取。 Any key that is present in the GSettings schema org.gnome.desktop.interface are read from there instead of settings.ini.

An example of such variables are gtk-color-scheme and icon-theme, which must have their keys set with GSettings in order to theme GTK Applications under Wayland. 或者,如果只需要自定义主题,可以设置环境变量 GTK_THEME

Xorg 后端

如果正在使用 Xorg 显示服务器,则后端自动默认为 x11

通过设置环境变量 GDK_BACKEND=x11,可以强制 Wayland 会话的 GTK3 应用程序通过 Xwayland 使用 X11 后端。

Broadway 后端

The GDK Broadway backend provides support for displaying GTK applications in a web browser, using HTML5 and web sockets. [4]

When using broadwayd, specify the display number to use, prefixed with a colon, similar to X. The default display number is 0 (zero).

$ display_number=:5

Start it.

$ broadwayd $display_number 

Port used by default

port = 8080 + $display_number

Point your browser to http://127.0.0.1:port

To Start applications

$ GDK_BACKEND=broadway BROADWAY_DISPLAY=$display_number <<application>>

Alternatively can set address and port

$ broadwayd --port $port_number --address $address $display_number

疑难解答

Different themes between GTK 2 and GTK 3 applications

In general, if a selected theme has support for both GTK 2 and GTK 3, the theme will be applied to all GTK 2 and GTK 3 applications. If a selected theme has support for only GTK 2, it will be used for GTK 2 applications and the default GTK theme will be used for GTK 3 applications. If the selected theme has support for only GTK 3, it will be used for GTK 3 applications and the default GTK theme will be used for GTK 2 applications. Thus for application theme consistency, it is best to use a theme which has support for both GTK 2 and GTK 3.

You could find what themes installed on your system have both an GTK 2 and GTK 3 version by using this command (does not work with names containing spaces):

find $(find ~/.themes /usr/share/themes/ -wholename "*/gtk-3.0" | sed -e "s/^\(.*\)\/gtk-3.0$/\1/") -wholename "*/gtk-2.0" | sed -e "s/.*\/\(.*\)\/gtk-2.0/\1"/

Theme not applied to root applications

As user theme files ($XDG_CONFIG_HOME/gtk-3.0/settings.ini, ~/.gtkrc-2.0) are not read by other accounts, the selected theme will not apply to X applications run as root. Possible solutions include:

  • Create symlinks, e.g
# ln -s /home/[username]/.gtkrc-2.0 /etc/gtk-2.0/gtkrc
# ln -s /home/[username]/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini /etc/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
  • Configure system-wide theme files: /etc/gtk-3.0/settings.ini (GTK 3) or /etc/gtk-2.0/gtkrc (GTK 2)
  • Adjust the theme as root
# lxappearance
  • Use a settings daemon (this is what most desktop environments do). A desktop-agnostic variant using XSettings is available in the AUR under xsettingsd-gitAUR.

Client-side decorations

GTK 3.12 introduced client-side decorations, which move the title-bar away from the window manager. This may present issues such as double title-bars, no title-bar at all, double shadows with compositing enabled, or being unable to move a frozen application.

To remove the shadow and gap around windows (for example in combination with a tiling window manager), create the following file:

~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css
.window-frame, .window-frame:backdrop {
 box-shadow: 0 0 0 black;
 border-style: none;
 margin: 0;
 border-radius: 0;
}

.titlebar {
 border-radius: 0;
}

.window-frame.csd.popup {
  box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2), 0 0 0 1px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.13);
}

.header-bar {
  background-image: none;
  background-color: #ededed;
  box-shadow: none;
}
/* You may want to use this if you don't like the double title.
GtkLabel.title {
    opacity: 0;
}*/

Note that if visual problems persist, you may want to use the GTK Inspector to find the offending elements as explained here [5].

To adjust the buttons in the header bar, use the gtk-decoration-layout setting. [6] The below examples removes all buttons:

~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
gtk-decoration-layout=menu:

To remove client-side decorations altogether, it's possible to use a patched library like gtk3-classicAUR or gtk3-nocsd-gitAUR.

cedilla ç/Ç instead of ć/Ć

See [7], and [8] for a workaround using Xcompose (US international layout).

Suppress warning about accessibility bus

If you do not use any Gnome Accessibility features, you may receive warnings like:

WARNING **: Couldn't connect to accessibility bus:

To suppress these warnings, execute programs with NO_AT_BRIDGE=1 or set that as a global environment variable.

Titlebar background color mismatch

If you are using a window manager which uses a window decoration theme that mimics the GTK theme background color, you may find that the titlebar color no longer completely matches the application color in some GTK 3 applications. As a workaround, create the following file:

~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css
/* Always use background color */
GtkWindow {
    background-color: @theme_bg_color;
}

/* Fix tooltip background override */
.tooltip {
    background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.8);
}

.tooltip * {
    background-color: transparent;
}

/* Fix Nautilus desktop window background override */
NautilusWindow {
     background-color: transparent; 
}

Wrong focus events with tiling window managers

注意: This disables smooth scrolling and touchscreen support for GTK3 applications. [9]

Define GDK_CORE_DEVICE_EVENTS=1 to use GTK2 style input, instead of xinput2. [10]

Thumbnail support for GTK file dialog

Install gtk2-patched-filechooser-icon-viewAUR and gtk3-patched-filechooser-icon-viewAUR to have the option to view files as thumbnails instead of list in the GTK file chooser.

Button and menu icons

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: Explain what the issue is. GNOME ignores settings.ini if GDM is used. (Discuss in Talk:GTK (简体中文))

For some applications in GNOME's Wayland session. Your ~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini file is misconfigured. This can happen if you try other GTK based desktop environments. These are the offending values:

~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
[Settings]
gtk-button-images=1
gtk-menu-images=1

Simply set them to 0 or remove the whole file to use GNOME defaults.

GTK 3 without polkit

GTK3 depends on polkit through colord, which is required for printing. However printing works fine without polkit installed; at least with a monochrome printer and package versions gtk3-print-backends=3.22.19-2 and colord=1.4.1-1.

Some GTK 2 themes only change the UI color palette

Depending on the theme of choice's support for GTK 2, UI controls may still have the default Raleigh appearance, possibly with a different color palette. This is due to these themes requiring the GTK 2 Murrine engine, which is missing (GTK 2 programs should complain about it on their standard error output). Install the gtk-engine-murrine package.

Patching GTK file chooser to use regular type ahead

GTK file chooser uses the same type-ahead-find feature as GNOME/Files. This can be very jarring and does not fit in very well with other desktop enviroments.

Some applications support XDG-desktop-portal which allows application to use the native file chooser. If that does not work you can restore type-ahead functionality by using a patched GTK, for example gtk3-classicAUR.

Text in GTK 4 applications is blurry or renders incorrectly

GTK 4 switched to grayscale antialiasing without hinting when rendering fonts. A setting is available that will restore some of the GTK 3 behavior [11]. Subpixel antialiasing is not available.

~/.config/gtk-4.0/settings.ini
[Settings]
gtk-hint-font-metrics=1

参见