This article describes how to use persistent names for your block devices. This has been made possible by the introduction of udev and has some advantages over bus-based naming. If your machine has more than one SATA, SCSI or IDE disk controller, the order in which their corresponding device nodes are added is arbitrary. This may result in device names like
/dev/sdb switching around on each boot, culminating in an unbootable system, kernel panic, or a block device disappearing. Persistent naming solves these issues.
- Persistent naming has limits that are out-of-scope in this article. For example, while mkinitcpio may support a method, systemd may impose its own limits (e.g. FS#42884) on naming it can process during boot.
- This article is not relevant for LVM logical volumes as the
/dev/VolumeGroupName/LogicalVolumeNamedevice paths are persistent.
Persistent naming methods
There are four different schemes for persistent naming: by-label, by-uuid, by-id and by-path. For those using disks with GUID Partition Table (GPT), two additional schemes can be used by-partlabel and by-partuuid. You can also use static device names by using Udev.
The directories in
/dev/disk/ are created and destroyed dynamically, depending on whether there are devices in them.
The following sections describe what the different persistent naming methods are and how they are used.
The lsblk command can be used for viewing graphically the first persistent schemes:
$ lsblk -f
NAME FSTYPE LABEL UUID MOUNTPOINT sda ├─sda1 vfat CBB6-24F2 /boot ├─sda2 ext4 Arch Linux 0a3407de-014b-458b-b5c1-848e92a327a3 / ├─sda3 ext4 Data b411dc99-f0a0-4c87-9e05-184977be8539 /home └─sda4 swap f9fe0b69-a280-415d-a03a-a32752370dee [SWAP] mmcblk0 └─mmcblk0p1 vfat F4CA-5D75
For those using GPT, use the
blkid command instead. The latter is more convenient for scripts, but more difficult to read.
/dev/sda1: UUID="CBB6-24F2" TYPE="vfat" PARTLABEL="EFI system partition" PARTUUID="d0d0d110-0a71-4ed6-936a-304969ea36af" /dev/sda2: LABEL="Arch Linux" UUID="0a3407de-014b-458b-b5c1-848e92a327a3" TYPE="ext4" PARTLABEL="GNU/Linux" PARTUUID="98a81274-10f7-40db-872a-03df048df366" /dev/sda3: LABEL="Data" UUID="b411dc99-f0a0-4c87-9e05-184977be8539" TYPE="ext4" PARTLABEL="Home" PARTUUID="7280201c-fc5d-40f2-a9b2-466611d3d49e" /dev/sda4: UUID="f9fe0b69-a280-415d-a03a-a32752370dee" TYPE="swap" PARTLABEL="Swap" PARTUUID="039b6c1c-7553-4455-9537-1befbc9fbc5b" /dev/mmcblk0: PTUUID="0003e1e5" PTTYPE="dos" /dev/mmcblk0p1: UUID="F4CA-5D75" TYPE="vfat" PARTUUID="0003e1e5-01"
Almost every file system type can have a label. All your volumes that have one are listed in the
$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-label
total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 Data -> ../../sda3 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 Arch\x20Linux -> ../../sda2
Most file systems support setting the label upon file system creation, see the man page of the relevant
mkfs.* utility. For some file systems it is also possible to change the labels. Following are some methods for changing labels on common file systems:
swaplabel -L "new label" /dev/XXXusing
e2label /dev/XXX "new label"using
btrfs filesystem label /dev/XXX "new label"using
reiserfstune -l "new label" /dev/XXXusing
jfs_tune -L "new label" /dev/XXXusing
xfs_admin -L "new label" /dev/XXXusing
fatlabel /dev/XXX "new label"using
mlabel -i /dev/XXX ::"new label"using
tune.exfat -L "new label" /dev/XXXusing
exfatlabel /dev/XXX "new label"using or
ntfslabel /dev/XXX "new label"using
udflabel /dev/XXX "new label"using
- crypto_LUKS (LUKS2 only)
cryptsetup config --label="new label" /dev/XXXusing
The label of a device can be obtained with lsblk:
$ lsblk -dno LABEL /dev/sda2
Or with blkid:
# blkid -s LABEL -o value /dev/sda2
- The file system must not be mounted to change its label. For the root file system this can be accomplished by booting from another volume.
- Labels have to be unambiguous to prevent any possible conflicts.
- Labels can be up to 16 characters long.
- Since the label is a property of the filesystem, it is not suitable for addressing a single RAID device persistently.
- When using encrypted containers with dm-crypt, the labels of filesystems inside of containers are not available while the container is locked/encrypted.
UUID is a mechanism to give each filesystem a unique identifier. These identifiers are generated by filesystem utilities (e.g.
mkfs.*) when the device gets formatted and are designed so that collisions are unlikely. All GNU/Linux filesystems (including swap and LUKS headers of raw encrypted devices) support UUID. FAT, exFAT and NTFS filesystems do not support UUID, but are still listed in
/dev/disk/by-uuid/ with a shorter UID (unique identifier):
$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/
total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 0a3407de-014b-458b-b5c1-848e92a327a3 -> ../../sda2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 b411dc99-f0a0-4c87-9e05-184977be8539 -> ../../sda3 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 CBB6-24F2 -> ../../sda1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 f9fe0b69-a280-415d-a03a-a32752370dee -> ../../sda4 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 F4CA-5D75 -> ../../mmcblk0p1
The UUID of a device can be obtained with lsblk:
$ lsblk -dno UUID /dev/sda1
Or with blkid:
# blkid -s UUID -o value /dev/sda1
The advantage of using the UUID method is that it is much less likely that name collisions occur than with labels. Further, it is generated automatically on creation of the filesystem. It will, for example, stay unique even if the device is plugged into another system (which may perhaps have a device with the same label).
The disadvantage is that UUIDs make long code lines hard to read and break formatting in many configuration files (e.g. fstab or crypttab). Also every time a volume is reformatted a new UUID is generated and configuration files have to get manually adjusted.
by-id and by-path
by-id creates a unique name depending on the hardware serial number,
by-path depending on the shortest physical path (according to sysfs). Both contain strings to indicate which subsystem they belong to (i.e.
by-id), so they are linked to the hardware controlling the device. This implies different levels of persistence: the
by-path will already change when the device is plugged into a different port of the controller, the
by-id will change when the device is plugged into a port of a hardware controller subject to another subsystem.  Thus, both are not suitable to achieve persistent naming tolerant to hardware changes.
However, both provide important information to find a particular device in a large hardware infrastructure. For example, if you do not manually assign persistent labels (
by-partlabel) and keep a directory with hardware port usage,
by-path can be used to find a particular device. 
by-id also creates World Wide Name links of storage devices that support it. Unlike other
by-id links, WWNs are fully persistent and will not change depending on the used subsystem.
by-pathlinks can only be considered persistent for disks, not partitions. Partitions will be referenced by their number in the partition table and that can change if the partitions are reordered.
$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-id/
total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 ata-WDC_WD2500BEVT-22ZCT0_WD-WXE908VF0470 -> ../../sda lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 ata-WDC_WD2500BEVT-22ZCT0_WD-WXE908VF0470-part1 -> ../../sda1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 ata-WDC_WD2500BEVT-22ZCT0_WD-WXE908VF0470-part2 -> ../../sda2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 ata-WDC_WD2500BEVT-22ZCT0_WD-WXE908VF0470-part3 -> ../../sda3 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 ata-WDC_WD2500BEVT-22ZCT0_WD-WXE908VF0470-part4 -> ../../sda4 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 mmc-SD32G_0x0040006d -> ../../mmcblk0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 mmc-SD32G_0x0040006d-part1 -> ../../mmcblk0p1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 wwn-0x60015ee0000b237f -> ../../sda lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 wwn-0x60015ee0000b237f-part1 -> ../../sda1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 wwn-0x60015ee0000b237f-part2 -> ../../sda2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 wwn-0x60015ee0000b237f-part3 -> ../../sda3 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 wwn-0x60015ee0000b237f-part4 -> ../../sda4
$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-path/
total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 pci-0000:00:1f.2-ata-1 -> ../../sda lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 pci-0000:00:1f.2-ata-1-part1 -> ../../sda1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 pci-0000:00:1f.2-ata-1-part2 -> ../../sda2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 pci-0000:00:1f.2-ata-1-part3 -> ../../sda3 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 pci-0000:00:1f.2-ata-1-part4 -> ../../sda4 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 pci-0000:07:00.0-platform-rtsx_pci_sdmmc.0 -> ../../mmcblk0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 pci-0000:07:00.0-platform-rtsx_pci_sdmmc.0-part1 -> ../../mmcblk0p1
GPT partition labels can be defined in the header of the partition entry on GPT disks.
This method is very similar to the filesystem labels, except the partition labels do not get affected if the file system on the partition is changed.
All partitions that have partition labels are listed in the
$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-partlabel/
total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 EFI\x20system\x20partition -> ../../sda1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 GNU\x2fLinux -> ../../sda2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 Home -> ../../sda3 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 Swap -> ../../sda4
The partition label of a device can be obtained with lsblk:
$ lsblk -dno PARTLABEL /dev/sda1
EFI system partition
Or with blkid:
# blkid -s PARTLABEL -o value /dev/sda1
EFI system partition
- GPT partition labels also have to be different to avoid conflicts. To change your partition label, you can use gdisk or the ncurses-based version cgdisk. Both are available from the package. See Partitioning#Partitioning tools.
- According to the specification, GPT partition labels can be up to 72 characters long.
MBR does not support partition UUIDs, but Linux and software using libblkid (e.g. udev) are capable of generating pseudo PARTUUIDs for MBR partitions. The format is
SSSSSSSS is a zero-filled 32-bit MBR disk signature, and
PP is a zero-filled partition number in hexadecimal form. Unlike a regular PARTUUID of a GPT partition, MBR's pseudo PARTUUID can change if the partition number changes.
The dynamic directory is similar to other methods and, like filesystem UUIDs, using UUIDs is preferred over labels.
$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-partuuid/
total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 0003e1e5-01 -> ../../mmcblk0p1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 039b6c1c-7553-4455-9537-1befbc9fbc5b -> ../../sda4 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 7280201c-fc5d-40f2-a9b2-466611d3d49e -> ../../sda3 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 98a81274-10f7-40db-872a-03df048df366 -> ../../sda2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 d0d0d110-0a71-4ed6-936a-304969ea36af -> ../../sda1
The partition UUID of a device can be obtained with lsblk:
$ lsblk -dno PARTUUID /dev/sda1
Or with blkid:
# blkid -s PARTUUID -o value /dev/sda1
Static device names with udev
Using persistent naming
There are various applications that can be configured using persistent naming. Following are some examples of how to configure them.
See the main article: fstab#Identifying file systems.
- You are using an initramfs image that has udev in it.
- For mkinitcpio, enable either the
The location of the root filesystem is given by the parameter
root on the kernel command line. The kernel command line is configured from the boot loader, see Kernel parameters#Configuration. To change to persistent device naming, only change the parameters which specify block devices, e.g.
resume, while leaving other parameters as is. Various naming schemes are supported:
Persistent device naming using label and the
LABEL= format, in this example
Arch Linux is the LABEL of the root file system.
Persistent device naming using UUID and the
UUID= format, in this example
0a3407de-014b-458b-b5c1-848e92a327a3 is the UUID of the root file system.
Persistent device naming using disk id and the
/dev path format, in this example
wwn-0x60015ee0000b237f-part2 is the id of the root partition.
Persistent device naming using GPT partition UUID and the
PARTUUID= format, in this example
98a81274-10f7-40db-872a-03df048df366 is the PARTUUID of the root partition.
Persistent device naming using GPT partition label and the
PARTLABEL= format, in this example
GNU/Linux is the PARTLABEL of the root partition.