mpv (简体中文)

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翻译状态:本文是 Mpv翻译。上次翻译日期:2016-04-13。如果英文版本有所更改,则您可以帮助同步翻译。

mpv 是一个基于 MPlayer 和 MPlayer2 的多媒体播放器。 它支持多种视频文件格式、音频和视频编解码器和字幕类型。 在这里可以找到mpv播放器与上述播放器之间的区别的综合列表(可能不是完全统计)。

安装

安装 official repositories里的软件包mpv or Arch User Repository 里的 mpv-gitAUR

前端

mpv 提供了一个叫做OSC的优雅的用户界面(在移动鼠标时出现),为了降低普通用户的使用难度,还有其他的图形界面:

  • Baka MPlayer — 免费、开源、跨平台, 基于libmpv的多媒体播放器。(Qt 5)
https://github.com/u8sand/Baka-MPlayer/ || baka-mplayer, baka-mplayer-gitAUR
  • bomi — 强大易用的多媒体播放器 (Qt 5)。
https://bomi-player.github.io/ || bomiAUR[断开的链接:package not found]bomi-gitAUR
  • GNOME MPV — 一个简单的 mpv 前端 (GTK+ 3).
https://github.com/gnome-mpv/gnome-mpv/ || gnome-mpv-gitAUR[断开的链接:package not found]gnome-mpv[断开的链接:replaced by celluloid]
  • SMPlayer — Qt 写的拥有额外特性的多媒体播放器 (CSS 主题, YouTube 整合等等) (Qt 5).
http://smplayer.sourceforge.net/ || smplayer
  • xt7-player-mpv — Qt/Gambas 写的 mpv 图形界面,提供了一套丰富的配置选项,包括过滤器和驱动,ladspa 插件支持以及资源库/播放列表管理, 还有YouTube, 在线电台, podcasts, DVB-T 和更多。
https://github.com/kokoko3k/xt7-player-mpv || xt7-player-mpv-gitAUR
Note: CMPlayer/bomi 安装包已在内部集成 mpv

配置

mpv 默认配置在性能较弱的电脑上应当也能正常工作。 然而,如果你有性能更好的显卡,通过配置 mpv 可以得到更好的使用体验 (经过配置,mpv潜力无穷!)。 如果需要配置,只需要新建几个配置文件即可 (这些配置文件默认不存在).

Note: 配置文件/etc/mpv从系统范围内读取,配置文件~/.config/mpv从用户范围内读取。 (除非你设定了 environment variable XDG_CONFIG_HOME环境变量), 用户配置文件的优先级要高于系统配置文件。而直接在命令行使用参数的优先级又高于用户配置文件。建议使用用户配置文件,因为在配置过程中可能需要不断尝试和试错。

不懂如何开始? mpv 提供了范例配置文件。 把它们当做你的第一步吧:

$ cp -r /usr/share/doc/mpv/ ~/.config/

mpv.confmpv'的主要配置文件, input.conf 是按键绑定的配置文件。通读它们两个,以了解它们的工作原理以及可用的选项。

一般设定

把以下的设定加入 ~/.config/mpv/mpv.conf.

高质量视频配置

一般使用 vo=gpu 视频输出参数作为高质量视频的选项。大部分用户这么用没有问题,但是为了避免少部分用不了这个选项的用户在使用时出现问题,它并不是默认启用的:

profile=gpu-hq

gpu-hq 默认采用spline36 缩放过滤器并可以提供中等的速度和质量。 为了使视频输出质量达到最优,如果你的硬件允许的话,你应该选择 ewa_lanczossharp

profile=gpu-hq
scale=ewa_lanczossharp
cscale=ewa_lanczossharp

这最后三个选项可能有点复杂。首先是使让音频和视频不同步,而不是丢失视频帧,重新采样音频。 mpv维基上有一篇专门介绍这个的文章: Display Synchronization. 剩下的两个就是通过更改帧的显示方式从而让运动在显示器上看起来更为平滑,从而使源帧速率与显示器的刷新率匹配。mpv维基上有一篇专门介绍这个的文章:Interpolation 它的一个别称是 平滑运动.

profile=gpu-hq
scale=ewa_lanczossharp
cscale=ewa_lanczossharp
video-sync=display-resample
interpolation
tscale=oversample
Note: 如果你在用 NVIDIA Optimus , video-sync=display-resample这一行可能导致视频加速.

除此之外你还能做很多事情。但是你会发现情况更加复杂,可能需要高性能的显卡。比如,可以加载执行特殊缩放和锐化技术的特殊着色器。想要了解更多,请参阅mpv wiki, 特别是 有关用户着色器的部分.

你可能会发现还有很多其它选择。因此 mpv(1) 值得一看。 推荐在终端中运行 mpv ,因为这样可以得知错误信息。

自定义

In mpv.conf it is possible to create profiles which are essentially just "groups of options" with which you can:

  • Quickly switch between different configurations without having to rewrite the file.
  • Create special profiles for special content.
  • nest profiles so that you can make more complicated profiles out of simpler ones.

Creating a profile is easy. The area at the top of mpv.conf is called the top level, any options you write there will kick into effect once mpv is started. However, once you define a profile by writing its name in brackets then every option you write below it (until you define a new profile) is considered part of that profile. Here is an example mpv.conf:

profile=myprofile2        #Top level area, load myprofile2
ontop=yes                 #Always on top

[myprofile1]              #A simple profile, top level area ends here
profile-desc="a profile"  #Optional description for profile
fs=yes                    #Start in full screen

[myprofile2]              #Another simple profile
profile=gpu-hq            #A built in profile that comes with mpv
log-file=~~/log           #Sets a location for writing a log file, ~~/ translates to ~/.config/mpv

There are only two lines within the top level area and there are two separate profiles defined below it. When mpv starts it sees the first line, loads the options in myprofile2 (which means it loads the options in gpu-hq and log-file=~~/log) finally it loads ontop=yes and finishes starting up. Note, myprofile1 is never loaded because it is never called in the top level area.

Alternatively one could call mpv from the command line with:

$ mpv --profile=myprofile1 video.mkv

and it would ignore all options except the ones for myprofile1.

按键绑定

Key bindings are fairly straightforward given the examples in /usr/share/doc/mpv/input.conf and the relevant section in the manual.

Add the following examples to ~/.config/mpv/input.conf:

shift+s         screenshot each-frame
Shift+UP        seek  600
Shift+DOWN      seek -600
=               cycle video-unscaled
-               cycle-values window-scale 2 3 1 .5
WHEEL_UP        add volume 5
WHEEL_DOWN      add volume -5
WHEEL_LEFT      ignore
WHEEL_RIGHT     ignore
Alt+RIGHT       add video-rotate 90
Alt+LEFT        add video-rotate -90
Alt+-           add video-zoom -0.25
Alt+=           add video-zoom 0.25
Alt+j           add video-pan-x -0.05
Alt+l           add video-pan-x 0.05
Alt+i           add video-pan-y 0.05
Alt+k           add video-pan-y -0.05
Alt+BS          set video-zoom 0; set video-pan-x 0; set video-pan-y 0

For an attempt to reproduce MPC-HC key bindings in mpv, see [1].

Additional configuration files

In addition there are a few more configuration files and directories that can be created, among which:

  • ~/.config/mpv/script-opts/osc.conf manages the On Screen Controller.
  • ~/.config/mpv/scripts/script-name.lua for Lua scripts. See [2] for an example.

See https://mpv.io/manual/master/#files for more.

脚本

mpv 有一个相当丰富的脚本生态,拓宽了其功能. To this end, it has internal bindings for both Lua and JavaScript (added recently).

Scripts are typically installed by putting them in the ~/.config/mpv/scripts/ directory (you may have to create it first). After that they will be automatically loaded when mpv starts (this behavior can be altered with other mpv options). Some scripts come with their own installation and configuration instructions, so make sure to have a look. In addition some scripts are old, broken, and unmaintained.

JavaScript

JavaScript (ES5 via MuJS) has been supported as an mpv scripting language since 2014. Currently only a few scripts are available, but documentation exists for anyone interested in making their own.

To get started, drop a script with a .js extension in the mpv scripts directory, e.g.:

~/.config/mpv/scripts/fullscreen-off-on-pause.js

function onPauseChange (prop, enabled) {
    if (enabled) {
        mp.set_property('fullscreen', 'no')
    }
}

mp.observe_property('pause', 'bool', onPauseChange)

For more details, e.g. on using require to load CommonJS modules, see the documentation.

JavaScript support is available in the mpv package, as well as some AUR packages, e.g. mpv-fullAUR and mpv-full-gitAUR.

Lua

There are a lot of interesting Lua scripts for mpv. If you would like to make your own, the relevant documentation may be found here.

mpv-stats

mpv-stats (or simply stats) is a Lua script that outputs a lot of live statistics showing how well mpv is currently doing. It is very useful for making sure that your hardware can keep up with your configuration and for comparing different configurations. Since version v0.28.0, the script is built into mpv and can be toggled on or off with the i or I keys (by default).

mpv-webm

mpv-webm (or simply webm) is a very easy to use Lua script that allows one to create WebM files while watching videos. It includes several features and does not have any extra dependencies (relies entirely on mpv).

C

mpv-mpris

The C plugin mpv-mpris allows other applications to integrate with mpv via the MPRIS protocol. For example, with mpv-mpris installed, kdeconnect can automatically pause video playback in mpv when a phone call arrives. Another example is buttons (play\pause etc) on bluetooth audio-devices.

Install mpv-mprisAUR and follow the post-installation instructions displayed by Pacman.

Vapoursynth

Vapoursynth is an alternative to AviSynth that can be used on Linux and allows for Video manipulation via python scripts. Vapoursynths python scripts can be used as video filters for mpv.

To use vapoursynth filters you have to install the vapoursynth package (or vapoursynth-gitAUR) and compile mpv with the --enable-vapoursynth build flag.

This is easier to do by first installing Vapoursynth and then installing (or re-installing if it is already installed) mpv-gitAUR. The configure script for mpv-gitAUR will auto-detect Vapoursynth (as long as it has already been installed) and it will automatically compile mpv with support for Vapoursynth without having to manually change any configure options or anything (this makes it very easy to update mpv as well).

SVP 4 Linux (SmoothVideoProject)

SmoothVideoProject SVP is a program that is primarily known for converting video to 60fps. It is free [as in beer] and full featured for 64bit Linux (costs money for Windows and OS X and is incompatible with 32bit Linux).

It has three main features and each one can be disabled/enabled as one chooses (you are not forced to use motion interpolation).

  1. Motion interpolation (youtube video) - An algorithm that converts video to 60fps. This creates the somewhat controversial "soap opera effect" that some people love and others hate. Unfortunately the algorithm is not perfect and it also introduces more than its share of weird artifacts. The algorithm can be tuned (via a slider) for either performance or quality. It also has some artifact reduction settings that interpolate actual frames with the generated frames reducing the noticeability of the artifacts. The framerate detection can be set to automatic or manual (manual seems to resolve performance issues for some users).
  2. Black bar lighting (youtube video) - If the image has an aspect ratio that produces black bars on your display then SVP will illuminate the black bars with "lights" generated by the content on the screen. It has some amount of customization but the defaults are pretty close to optimal.
  3. LED ambient lighting control (youtube video) - Has the ability to control LED ambient lighting attached to your television.

Once you have mpv compiled with Vapoursynth support it is fairly easy to get SVP working with mpv. Simply install svpAUR, open the SVP program to let it assess your system performance (you may want to close other programs first so that it gets an accurate reading), and finally add the following mpv profile to your mpv.conf[3]:

mpv.conf
[svp]
input-ipc-server=/tmp/mpvsocket     # Receives input from SVP
hr-seek-framedrop=no                # Fixes audio desync
resume-playback=no                  # Not compatible with SVP

# Can fix stuttering in some cases, in other cases probably causes it. Try it if you experience stuttering.
#opengl-early-flush=yes

Then, in order to use SVP you must have the SVP program running in the background before opening the file using mpv with that profile. Either do:

$ mpv --profile=svp video.mkv

or set profile=svp in the top-level portion of the mpv configuration[断开的链接:无效的部分].

If you want to use hardware decoding then you must use a copy-back decoder since normal decoders are not compatible with Vapoursynth (choose a hwdec option that ends in -copy). For instance:

hwdec=auto-copy
hwdec-codecs=all

Either way, hardware decoding is discouraged by mpv developers and is not likely to make a significant difference in performance.

提示和技巧

Hardware video acceleration

See Hardware video acceleration.

Hardware accelerated video decoding is available via --hwdec=API option. For list of all supported APIs and other required options see relevant manual section.

For Wayland use --gpu-context=wayland option. For list of other available GPU APIs see manual.

Save position on quit

By default you can save the position and quit by pressing Shift+q. The shortcut can be changed by setting quit_watch_later in the key bindings configuration file.

To automatically save the current playback position on quit, start mpv with --save-position-on-quit, or add save-position-on-quit to the configuration file.

声音太小

Set volume-max=value in your configuration file to a reasonable amount, such as volume-max=150, which then allows you to increase your volume up to 150%, which is more than twice as loud. Increasing your volume too high will result in clipping artefacts. Additionally (or alternatively), you can utilize dynamic range compression with af=acompressor.

声音正常化

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Add little more details about the available filters, see [4] for a comparison of loudnorm and dynaudnorm. (Discuss in Talk:Mpv (简体中文)#)

Different sources may have different or inconsistent loudness, so mpv users may need to configure automatic volume normalization. For example:

~/.config/mpv/input.conf
n cycle_values af loudnorm=I=-30 loudnorm=I=-15 anull

This binds the key n to cycle the audio filter settings (af) through the specified values:

  • loudnorm=I=-30: loudnorm setting with I=-30, soft volume, might be suitable for background music
  • loudnorm=I=-15: louder volume, might be good for the video currently in view
  • anull: reset audio filter to null, i.e., disable the audio filter
Note: Binding a key does not change the default audio filter. To change the default, add e.g. af=loudnorm=I=-30 to the main configuration file.

Audio filtering in mpv is provided by the FFmpeg backend. See Wikipedia:EBU R 128 and ffmpeg loudnorm filter for details.

See also upstream issues [5] and [6] which mention different options.

Play a DVD

mpv does not support DVD menus. To start the main stream with the longest title of a video DVD, use the command:

$ mpv dvd://

An optional title specifier is a number (starting at 0) which selects between separate video streams on the DVD:

$ mpv dvd://[title] 

DVDs which have been copied on to a local file system (by e.g. the dvdbackup tool) are accommodated by specifying the path to the local copy: --dvd-device=PATH.

See the following desktop file example for playing DVDs from a local file system:

[Desktop Entry]
Type=Application
Name=mpv Media Player DVD 
GenericName=Multimedia player
Comment=Play movies and songs
Icon=mpv
Exec=mpv dvd:// --player-operation-mode=pseudo-gui --force-window --idle --dvd-device=%f
Terminal=false
Categories=AudioVideo;Audio;Video;Player;TV;
# (MimeType and X-KDE-Protocols omitted, see orginianl mpv.desktop file)

By replacing the Exec line with

Exec=mpv dvd://0 dvd://1 dvd://2 dvd://3 dvd://4 dvd://5 dvd://6 dvd://7 dvd://8 dvd://9  --player-operation-mode=pseudo-gui --force-window --idle --dvd-device=%f

the mpv player will queue DVD title 0 to 9 in the playlist, which allows the user to play the titles consecutively or jump forward and backward in the DVD titles with the mpv GUI.

Install libdvdcss, to fix the error:

[dvdnav] Error getting next block from DVD 1 (Error reading from DVD.)

Quickly cycle between aspect ratios

You can cycle between aspect ratios using Shift+a.

Ignoring aspect ratio

You can ignore aspect ratio using --keepaspect=no. To make option permanent, add line keepaspect=no to configuration file.

Draw to the root window

Run mpv with --wid=0. mpv will draw to the window with a window ID of 0.

Always show application window

To show application window even for audio files when launching mpv from command line use --force-window option. To make option permament, add line force-window=yes to the configuration file.

Disable video output

To disable video output when launching from command line use --vid=no option, or its alias, --no-video.

Restoring old OSC

Since version 0.21.0, mpv has replaced the on-screen controls by a bottombar. In case you want on-screen controls back, you can edit the mpv configuration as described here.

Use as a browser plugin

With the help of mozpluggerAUR, mpv can be used in a supported browser to play video. See Browser plugins#MozPlugger for configuration details. This coupled with a user script such as ViewTube, allows you to use mpv in place of a site's integrated video player.

It may be needed to specify a valid user agent for HTTP streaming, e.g. user-agent="Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:49.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/49.0".

Browser plugins#Multimedia playback page shows other easy ways to watch videos.

Improving mpv as a music player with Lua scripts

The development of mpv's Lua scripts are documented in DOCS/man/lua.rst and examples are shown in TOOLS/lua of the mpv repository. This blog post introduces the music.lua script, which shows how Lua scripts can be used to improve mpv as a music player.

Twitch.tv streaming over mpv

If youtube-dl is installed, mpv can directly open a Twitch livestream.

Alternatively, see Streamlink#Twitch.

Another alternative based on Livestreamer is this Lua script: https://gist.github.com/ChrisK2/8701184fe3ea7701c9cc

youtube-dl and choosing formats

The default --ytdl-format is bestvideo+bestaudio/best. For youtube videos that have 4K resolutions available, this may mean that your device will struggle to decode 4K VP9 encoded video in software even if the attached monitor is much lower resolution.

Setting the right youtube-dl format selectors can fix this easily though. In the following configuration example, only videos with a vertical resolution of 1080 pixels or less will be considered.

ytdl-format="bestvideo[height<=?1080]+bestaudio/best"

If you wish to avoid a certain codec altogether because you cannot hardware-decode it, you can add this to the format selector. For example, we can additionally choose to ignore VP9 as follows:

ytdl-format="bestvideo[height<=?1080][vcodec!=vp9]+bestaudio/best"

If you prefer best quality open codecs (VP9 and Opus), use:

ytdl-format="((bestvideo[vcodec^=vp9]/bestvideo)+(bestaudio[acodec=opus]/bestaudio[acodec=vorbis]/bestaudio[acodec=aac]/bestaudio))/best"

youtube-dl audio with search

To find and stream audio from your terminal emulator with yta search terms put the following function in your .bashrc:

function yta() {
    mpv --ytdl-format=bestaudio ytdl://ytsearch:"$*"
}

Creating a single screenshot

An example of creating a single screenshot, by using a start time (HH:MM:SS):

$ mpv --no-audio --start=00:01:30 --frames=1 /path/to/video/file --o=/path/to/screenshot.png

Screenshots will be saved in /path/to/screenshot.png.

疑难解答

一般调试方法

If you are having trouble with mpv's playback (or if it is flat out failing to run) then the first three things you should do are:

  1. Run mpv from the command line (the -v flag increases verbosity). If you are lucky there will be an error message there telling you what is wrong.
    $ mpv -v video.mkv
  2. Have mpv output a log file. The log file might be difficult to sift through but if something is broken you might see it there.
    $ mpv -v --log-file=./log video.mkv
  3. Run mpv without a configuration. If this runs well then the problem is somewhere in your configuration (perhaps your hardware cannot keep up with your settings).
    $ mpv --no-config video.mkv

If mpv runs but it just does not run well then a fourth thing that might be worth taking a look at is installing the mpv-stats script and using it to see exactly how it is performing.

Fix jerky playback and tearing

mpv defaults to using the OpenGL video output device setting on hardware that supports it. In cases such as trying to play video back on a 4K display using a Intel HD4XXX series card or similar, you will find video playback unreliable, jerky to the point of stopping entirely at times and with major tearing when using any OpenGL output setting. If you experience any of these issues, using the XV (Xorg only) video output device may help:

~/.config/mpv/mpv.conf
vo=xv
Note: This is the most compatible VO on X, but may be low-quality, and has issues with OSD and subtitle display.

It is possible to increase playback performance even more (especially on lower hardware), but this decreases the video quality dramatically in most cases.

The following options[断开的链接:无效的部分] may be considered to increase the video playback performance:

~/.config/mpv/mpv.conf
vd-lavc-fast
vd-lavc-skiploopfilter=<skipvalue>
vd-lavc-skipframe=<skipvalue>
vd-lavc-framedrop=<skipvalue>
vd-lavc-threads=<threads>

Problems with window compositors

Window compositors such as KWin or Mutter can cause trouble for playback smoothness. In such cases, it may help to set x11-bypass-compositor=yes to make mpv also disable window compositing when playing in windowed mode (if supported by the compositor).

With KWin compositing and hardware decoding, you may also want to set x11-bypass-compositor=no to keep compositing enabled in fullscreen, since reanabling compositing after leaving fullscreen may introduce stutter for a period of time.

No volume bar, cannot change volume

Spin the mouse wheel over the volume icon.

GNOME Blank screen (Wayland)

mpv may not suspend GNOME's Power Saving Settings if using Wayland resulting in screen saver turning off the monitor during video playback. A workaround is to add gnome-session-inhibit to the beginning of the Exec= line in mpv.desktop.

Use mpv with a compositor

If you are using a compositor (e.g. in KDE Plasma 5) and find that composition is disabled (e.g. in Plasma this would make you unable to present windows or see window thumbnails in the default app switcher) when mpv is playing a video, try x11-bypass-compositor=no

Cursor theme not respected under GNOME Wayland

On Wayland, clients can display different cursor themes because there is not a unique configuration file for it. For the cursor theme, Qt apps usually accept the value that is set for the environment variable XCURSOR_THEME. However, in the specific case of mpv, the cursor theme that is displayed needs to be the one set in ~/.icons/default/index.theme. Since GNOME does not update this file when changing the cursor theme with GNOME Tweaks, you will have to do it manually. See Cursor themes#XDG specification for more information.